An image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical object—and thus provides a depiction of it. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram, they may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, lenses, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word'image' is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, a painting or a banner. In this wider sense, images can be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one; this may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube.
A fixed image called a hard copy, is one, recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one imagines; the subject of an image need not be real. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs; the development of synthetic acoustic technologies and the creation of sound art have led to a consideration of the possibilities of a sound-image made up of irreducible phonic substance beyond linguistic or musicological analysis. There are Two Types of Images a. Still Image b. Moving Image A still image is a single static image; this phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies, or in precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard. A moving image is a movie or video, including digital video, it could be an animated display such as a zoetrope. A still frame is a still image derived from one frame of a moving one.
In contrast, a film still is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production, used for promotional purposes. In literature, imagery is a "mental picture", it can both be literal. Aniconism Avatar Cinematography Computer animation Computer-generated imagery Digital image Digital imaging Fine art photography Graphics Imago camera Image editing Pattern recognition Photograph Media related to Images at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Image at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of image at Wiktionary The B-Z Reaction: The Moving or the Still Image? Library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
A dildo is a sex toy explicitly phallic in appearance, intended for sexual penetration or other sexual activity during masturbation or with sex partners. A dildo is a device designed for penetration of the vagina, mouth, or anus, is solid and phallic in shape; some expand this definition to include vibrators. Others exclude penis prosthetic aids, which are known as "extensions"; some include penis-shaped items designed for vaginal penetration if they are not true approximations of a penis. Some people include devices designed for anal penetration. People of all genders and sexual orientations use these devices for masturbation or for other sexual activity. Rubber dildos incorporating a steel spring for stiffness, became available in the 1940s; this arrangement was unsatisfactory because of the potential for injury from cuts by the spring if the rubber cracked and came apart. PVC dildos with a softer PVC filler became popular. Most of the inexpensive dildos sold in the 2000s are made this way. PVC and jelly-rubber toys are problematic because they contain unsafe phthalates, softeners added to many plastics that are found in some jewelry, food containers, other soft rubber toys.
Phthalates are linked to health problems such as prenatal defects. Products made of PVC or jelly rubber cannot be sterilized. Manufacturers recommend using condoms with these toys. High-end, chrome plated steel dildos are popular in the BDSM scene; some users prefer them because of their hardness, durability, electrical conductance, low friction when used with lubricant. Because they are heavy, they can be used to exercise vaginal PC muscles. A steel dildo may be cooled in water to elicit a range of temperature sensations, it may retain the user's body heat. Its polished nonporous surface allows sterilization in an autoclave. Glass and steel dildos have similar features. In most cases, glass toys are solid, made of Pyrex or other types borosilicate glass, although their construction can vary depending on the manufacturer. Like steel, glass toys may be used to apply firmer pressure than silicone can to a female's G-spot or a male's prostate gland. Unlike other types of toys, glass sex toys can be personalized with inscriptions.
Cyberskin is a synthetic material. It can not be sterilized, it becomes sticky after washing and is more delicate and more prone to rips and tears than silicone dildos. "Packing dildos", which are not designed for penetration, are made of this material. Phallus-shaped vegetables and fruits, such as bananas or zucchini or other food items, such as hot dogs or other types of sausages, have been used as dildos. Any object of sufficient firmness and shape could be used as a dildo. Conventionally, many dildos are shaped like a human penis with varying degrees of detail. Not all, are fashioned to reproduce the male anatomy meticulously, dildos come in a wide variety of shapes, they may resemble figures, or be practical creations which stimulate more than conventional designs. In Japan, many dildos are created to resemble animals or cartoon characters, such as Hello Kitty, so that they may be sold as conventional toys, thus avoiding obscenity laws; some dildos have textured surfaces to enhance sexual pleasure, others have macrophallic dimensions including over a dozen inches long.
Most dildos are intended for vaginal or anal penetration and stimulation, whether for masturbation or with a sexual partner. Dildos have fetishistic value as well, may be used in other ways, such as touching one's own or another's skin in various places during foreplay or as an act of dominance and submission. If of appropriate sizes, they can be used as gags, for oral penetration for a sort of artificial fellatio. Dildos specially designed ones, may be used to stimulate the G-spot area. A dildo designed for anal insertion and to remain in place is referred to as a butt plug. A dildo intended for repeated anal penetration is referred to as an anal dildo or "dildo". Anal dildos and butt plugs have a large base to avoid accidental complete insertion into the rectum, which may require medical removal; some women use double-ended dildos, with different-sized shafts pointing in the same direction, for simultaneous vaginal and anal penetration, or for two partners to share a single dildo. In the latter case, the dildo acts as a sort of "see-saw," where each partner takes an end and receives stimulation.
Some dildos are designed to be worn in a harness, sometimes called a strap-on harness or strap-on dildo, or to be worn inside, sometimes with externally-attached vibrating devices. Strap-on dildos may be double-ended, meant to be worn by users who want to experience vaginal or anal penetration while penetrating a partner, they may be used for anally penetrating men. If a female penetrates a male, the act is known as pegging. Other types of dildos include those designed to be fitted to the face of one party, inflatable dildos, dildos with suction cups attached to the base. Other types of harness mounts for dildos include thigh mount, face mount, or furniture mounting straps. Recent social acceptance and popularity has resulted in the emergence of adorned dildos, which are made of expensive materials and may be jewelled; the etymology of the word dildo is unclear. The Oxford English Dicti
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
Venom (Marvel Comics character)
Venom is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with Spider-Man. The character is a sentient alien Symbiote with an amorphous, liquid-like form, who survives by bonding with a host human; this dual-life form receives enhanced powers and refers to itself as "Venom". The Symbiote was introduced as a living alien costume in The Amazing Spider-Man #252, with a full first appearance as Venom in The Amazing Spider-Man #300; the Venom Symbiote's first human host was Spider-Man, who discovered its true nefarious nature and separated himself from the creature in The Amazing Spider-Man #258 — with a brief rejoining five months in Web of Spider-Man #1. The Symbiote went on to merge with other hosts, most notably Eddie Brock, its second and most infamous host, with whom it first became Venom and one of Spider-Man's archenemies. Comics journalist and historian Mike Conroy writes of the character: "What started out as a replacement costume for Spider-Man turned into one of the Marvel web-slinger's greatest nightmares."
Venom was ranked as the 22nd Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time in IGN's list of the top 100 comic villains. IGN ranked Mac Gargan's incarnation of Venom as #17 in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers", while the Flash Thompson incarnation was ranked as #27; the character was listed as #33 on Empire's 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters. The original idea of a new costume for Spider-Man that would become the character Venom was conceived by a Marvel Comics reader from Norridge, Illinois named Randy Schueller. In 1982, Jim Shooter, Marvel's editor-in-chief at the time, sent Schueller a letter acknowledging Marvel's interest in the idea, which they ended up purchasing from him for $220. Shooter came up with the idea of switching Spider-Man to a black-and-white costume influenced by the intended costume design for the new Spider-Woman. Writer/artist John Byrne says on his website that he conceived a costume of self-healing biological material when he was the artist on Iron Fist — to explain how that character's costume was being torn and apparently repaired by the next issue.
Byrne says explaining that he ended up not using the idea on that title, but that Roger Stern asked him if he could use the idea for Spider-Man's alien costume. Stern in turn plotted the issue in which the costume first appeared but left the title, it was writer Tom DeFalco and artist Ron Frenz who established that the costume was a sentient alien being, vulnerable to high sonic energy during their run on The Amazing Spider-Man that preceded Michelinie's. The Symbiote was first introduced as Spider-man's new black costume in The Amazing Spider-Man #252 as part of a story called "Homecoming!" The story takes place after Spider-Man's return from the events of the miniseries Secret Wars, where he first obtains the black costume. The full first appearance of Venom is in The Amazing Spider-Man #300, after the Symbiote bonds with Eddie Brock; the story of how Spider-Man gets his new black costume is recounted in Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #8, in which writer Jim Shooter and artist Mike Zeck depicted the heroes and villains of the Marvel Universe transported to another planet called Battleworld by a being called the Beyonder.
After Spider-Man's costume is ruined from battles with the villains, he is directed by Thor and the Hulk to a room at the heroes' base where they inform him a machine can read his thoughts and fabricate any type of clothing. Choosing a machine he believes to be the correct one, Spider-Man causes a black sphere to appear before him, which spreads over his body, dissolving the tattered old costume and covering his body to form a new black and white costume. To Spider-Man's surprise, the costume can mimic street clothes and provides a inexhaustible and stronger supply of webbing. During their run on The Amazing Spider-Man, writer Tom DeFalco and artist Ron Frenz established that the costume was a sentient alien Symbiote, vulnerable to both fire and high sonic energy, it was in that storyline that the costume would envelop Peter Parker while he slept, go out at night to fight crime, leaving Parker inexplicably exhausted in the morning. Parker had the costume examined by Reed Richards, who discovered that it was alive, when Parker realized it was trying to permanently bond to Parker's body, he rejected it, it was subsequently contained by the Fantastic Four.
The Symbiote escaped and bonded again to Parker, who used sound waves from a cathedral's church bell to repel it. But the symbiote had grown an emotional attachment to Peter so he willingly left Peter's unconscious body and moved him to safety before disappearing. In Go Down Swinging, when Norman Osborn got bonded to the Carnage symbiote, Spider-Man rebonds to the symbiote in an attempt to stop Osborn, now calling himself Red Goblin, while forgiving both Eddie and Venom for the past conflicts, he with the symbiote got a new costume design and they were overpowering Osborn, until Norman mortally injured Flash Thompson. This caused Spider-Man and the symbiote to get angry they losing control, until Flash calmed them down in his dying breath. In the final battle Spider-Man tells to the symbiote to leave him and that he himself is going to be all right while Norman detaches himself from Carnage. David Michelinie would write the backstory of Eddie Brock as the alien's new host that would become the villain Venom, using the events of Peter David's 1985 "Sin Eater" storyline in The Spectacular Spider-Man as a basis for Brock's origin.
Venom's existence was first indicated in Web of Spider-Man #18, when he shov
It is the title character of American author Stephen King's 1986 horror novel It. The character is an ancient cosmic evil which preys upon the children of Derry, Maine every 25 years, using a variety of powers that include the ability to shapeshift, go unnoticed by adults. During the course of the story, it appears in the form of Pennywise the Dancing Clown. King stated in a 2013 interview that he came up with the idea for Pennywise after asking himself what scared children "more than anything else in the world", he felt. King thought of a troll like the one in the children's tale "Three Billy Goats Gruff", who inhabited a sewer system; the character was portrayed in its Pennywise form by Tim Curry in the 1990 television adaptation, in the 1998 television adaptation by Lilliput, in the 2017 film adaptation by Bill Skarsgård, who will reprise the role in It: Chapter Two, scheduled to be released on September 6, 2019. In the novel, It is an eternal entity that can shape change forms. After arriving on Earth, It would sleep for 27 to 30 years at a time awaken to wreak chaos and feed, it prefers the taste of fear.
It is able to take many more forms than the film adaptations depict, including werewolves, bats and sharks. It could embody any of a child's worst fears, it originated in a void containing and surrounding the Universe—a place referred to in the novel as the "Macroverse". At several points in the novel, It claims its true name is "Bob Gray", is named "It" by the group of children who confront it. Throughout the book, It is referred to as male. In addition, upon seeing its true form Audra Denbrough thinks, "Oh dear Jesus, It is female." Despite this, the true form of It is never known. The final physical form It takes is that of an enormous spider, but this is the closest the human mind can comprehend. It's actual form is not what the children see. Instead, the natural form of It exists in an inter-dimensional realm referred to by It as the "deadlights". Bill Denbrough comes dangerously close to seeing the deadlights, but defeats It before this happens; the deadlights are never seen, their true form outside the physical realm is never revealed, only described as writhing, destroying orange lights.
Coming face to face with the deadlights drives any living being insane. The only known people to face the deadlights and survive are Bill's wife, Audra Phillips, Beverly Marsh, although they are rendered catatonic by the experience. It's natural enemy is the "Turtle" or "Maturin", another ancient dweller of King's "Macroverse" who, eons ago, created the known universe and others; the Turtle shows up again in King's series The Dark Tower. The book suggests that It, along with the Turtle, are themselves creations of a separate, omnipotent creator referred to as "the Other"; the Turtle and It are eternal enemies. It may, in fact, be either a "twinner" of, or the actual one of the six greater demon elementals mentioned by Mia in The Dark Tower VI: Song of Susannah, as the Spider is not one of the Beam Guardians, it arrived in our world during prehistoric times in a massive, cataclysmic event similar to an asteroid impact, in the place that would, in time, become Derry, Maine. Throughout the novel It, some events are described through It's point of view, through which It describes itself as the "superior" being, with the Turtle as someone "close to his superiority" and humans as mere "toys".
It explains it prefers to kill and devour children, not by nature, but rather because children's fears are easier to interpret in a physical form and thus children are easier to fill with terror. It says this is akin to "salting the meat." Both It's awakening and its return to hibernation mark the greatest instances of violence during its time awake. In one example, It caused the disappearance of over three hundred settlers from Derry Township in 1740-43. In 1957, It awoke during a great storm which flooded part of the city, whereupon It went on a feeding spree, starting by murdering Bill's brother, Georgie Denbrough. However, the children force It to return to an early hibernation when it is wounded by Bill in the first Ritual of Chüd, it is continually surprised by the children's victories over It, near the end, It begins to question if It is not as superior as It had once thought. However, It never feels that the individual children are strong enough to defeat It, only through "the Other" working through them as a group.
It is destroyed in the second Ritual of Chüd, an enormous storm damages the downtown part of Derry to symbolize It's death. In the novel Dreamcatcher, when Mr. Gray tries to put a worm in Derry's water by use of the standpipe, It is no longer there due to the 1985 flood. In its place is a memorial featuring a cast-bronze of two children and a plaque underneath, dedicated to the victims of the 1985 flood and of It; the plaque has been vandalized with graffiti reading, "PENNYWISE LIVES". In the 1990 miniseries, Pennywise is portrayed by English actor Tim Curry. Two original guises are made for the miniseries: Mrs. Kersh, Captain Hanscom. In the 1998 television series, Pennywise is portrayed by Indian actor Lilliput. Two original guises are made for the series: Old Lady, Child Siddharth. In the 2017 film adaptation and its upcoming 2019 sequel It: Chapter Two, Pennywise is p
Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure. An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse, which differs from the love of food. Most love refers to a feeling of strong attraction and emotional attachment. Love is considered to be a virtue representing human kindness and affection, as "the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another", it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts. Love has been postulated to be a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to facilitate the continuation of the species. Ancient Greek philosophers identified five forms of love: familial love, friendly love or platonic love, romantic love, guest love and divine love.
Modern authors have distinguished further varieties of love: unrequited love, infatuated love, self-love, courtly love. Asian cultures have distinguished Ren, Bhakti, Mettā, Ishq and other variants or symbioses of these states. Love has additional spiritual meaning; this diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to define, compared to other emotional states. The word "love" can have a variety of distinct meanings in different contexts. Many other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English are denoted as "love". Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what isn't love. Love as a general expression of positive sentiment is contrasted with hate; as a less-sexual and more-emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is contrasted with lust.
As an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is applied to close friendships or platonic love.. Abstractly discussed, love refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing, including oneself. In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have changed over time; some historians date modern conceptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior existence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry. The complex and abstract nature of love reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché. Several common proverbs regard love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All You Need Is Love". St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as "to will the good of another." Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value,".
Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is "to be delighted by the happiness of another." Meher Baba stated that in love there is a "feeling of unity" and an "active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love." Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as "unconditional selflessness". People can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are committed and value. For example, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love but impersonal love and strong spiritual or political convictions. People can "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is involved this feeling is called paraphilia. A common principle that people say they love is life itself. Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings, it is a much more potent sentiment than a simple liking for a person. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love.
Interpersonal love is most associated with interpersonal relationships. Such love might exist between family members and couples. There are a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as erotomania. Throughout history and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the 20th century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology and biology have added to the understanding the concept of love. Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like thirst. Helen Fisher, an anthropologist and human behavior researcher, divides the experience of love into three overlapping stages: lust and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire. Three distinct