Lliçà d'Amunt, or Llissá de Munt, is a municipality in Vallès Oriental, Spain. Government data pages
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe
Vilassar de Mar
Vilassar de Mar is a municipality in the comarca of the Maresme in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the coast between Premià de Mar and Cabrera de Mar, to the north-east of Barcelona; the town is both a tourist centre and a dormitory town for Barcelona, is known for its horticulture. The main N-II road and a RENFE railway line run through the town, while a local road connects the municipality with the C-32 autopista at Vilassar de Dalt and Mataró and Barcelona; the famous canned food company DANI is based in Vilassar de Mar coming from a Vilassar family. Escola del Mar Escola els Alocs Escola Pérez Sala Escola Vaixell Burriac Franciscanes Vilassar de Mar Institut Pere Ribot Institut Vilatzara Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Official website Government data pages Historical heritage
Boadilla del Monte
Boadilla del Monte is a town and municipality in central Spain. It is located in the west of the Community of Madrid, it had a population of 41,807 in 2008. Official website Local magazine City Information website on city Local Press at Boadilla > Local Press
Vilanova del Camí
Vilanova del Camí is a municipality in the comarca of the Anoia in Catalonia, Spain. The name means "New Town of the Route", the route being the road from Igualada to Vilafranca del Penedès, it is situated in the centre of the Òdena Basin to the south-east of Igualada. The town is served by a station on the FGC railway line R6 from Martorell to Igualada. There are several sizable industrial parks. Calcinaia, Italy Amilly, France Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Official website Government data pages
Colmenar Viejo is a town and municipality of about 48,614 inhabitantes, located in the Community of Madrid, Spain, 30 kilometers north of Madrid on the M-607 motorway. It belongs to the comarca of Cuenca Alta del Manzanares; the most important tourist attractions places in Colmenar Viejo are: Basilica de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Ermita de Remedios, saint of the town Visigothic archaeological tombs Colmenar Viejo's municipality has a size of 182.6 square kilometres, the third largest in the province of Madrid, after Madrid and Aranjuez. Traditional granite mining has been changing Colmenar Viejo's landscape; as a result of livestock farming cow and horse cattle, grassland has been taking a main role. A large part of land under Colmenar Viejo's jurisdiction is inside of the Parque regional de la Cuenca Alta del Manzanares, causing that land to be under a high protection environmental level; the Navalvillar Grassland is protected by the municipality and, albeit it does not belong to the Park, it is quite rich in flora and fauna.
Estudios Tablada in Madrid used dehesa de Navalvillar as studio, where directors such as Stanley Kubrick, Sergio Leone, Raoul Walsh, Orson Welles, Robert Rossen, Richard Fleischer, Richard Quine, John Milius, Wim Wenders and Robert Siodmak have directed films like El Cid, Alexander the Great, Per qualche dollaro in più, La última aventura, Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo and Conan the Barbarian. Fiesta de la Vaquilla, February 2 Fiesta de la Maya, May 2 Festivities in honour of the Virgen of Remedios, last weekend of August Day of Colmenar Viejo, commemorating the villages endorsement by Ferdinand II of Aragon, November 22 Colleferro, Italy Suresnes, France Official website Colmenar Viejo in the 1785 map of New Castile Colmenar Viejo bird eye
San Lorenzo de El Escorial
San Lorenzo de El Escorial known as El Escorial de Arriba is a town and municipality in the Community of Madrid, located to the northwest of the region in the southeastern side of the Sierra de Guadarrama, at the foot of Mount Abantos and Las Machotas, 47 kilometres from Madrid. It is head of the same name judicial party; the settlement is popularly called El Escorial de Arriba, to differentiate it from the neighbouring village of El Escorial known as El Escorial de Abajo. The Monastery of El Escorial is the most prominent building in the town and is one of the main Spanish Renaissance monuments. Remarkable is the Royal Library, inside the Monastery; the monastery and its historic surroundings were declared a World Heritage Site UNESCO on November 2, 1984, under the name of "El Escorial and site". The site enjoys protection on Spain's heritage register. San Lorenzo de El Escorial is located on the southern slopes of the Mount Abantos; the average altitude of the municipality is 1,032 metres, most of the urban area is above 1,000 metres.
The hamlet sprang up around Monastery of El Escorial extending up the mountain. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the town underwent a strong urban expansion towards the southeastern side of Mount Abantos; the township's average altitude is 1,032 metres. Most of the town is situated at about 1,000 metres above sea level, including the Monastery of El Escorial, which lies 28 metres above the town; the highest part is the top of Mount Abantos, 1,753 metres above sea level. The town covers a total area of 56.4 square kilometres, most of, mountainous terrain. In the south of the municipality is the Circo de El Escorial, bordered by the southern slopes of Mount Abantos to the south and the Las Machotas hills to the north. North, along the slope of Cuelgamuros, lies the Valle de los Caídos, near the border with Guadarrama. Towards the Southwest, the municipality extends down to El Escorial by the parks and gardens of the Casita del Príncipe. San Lorenzo de El Escorial lies in the watershed of the Guadarrama river.
The Aulencia river, born in Las Machotas, is the main tributary of the Guadarrama, after crossing the neighbouring village of El Escorial. The streams include small reservoirs; the types of vegetation differ due to the municipality's fluctuation in altitude. In its lower altitudes, about 3,000 ft, there are pastures with narrow-leafed ash. In the higher altitudes appear maritime and stone pines, as well as holm oaks, prickly junipers and laudanum. Up to 4,000 feet grows Scots black pine. San Lorenzo de El Escorial has some allochthonous in its mountain areas, plant species as beech, larches, Lawson cypresses, sycamores. Students of a forestry school planted these trees during the early 20th century. There are trees of historical significance, including giant sequoias, planted in the 18th century in the parks and gardens of the Casita del Príncipe. Much of the municipality is contained within the "Abantos pine forest" and the Herrería zone, a protected nature area since 1961 and extends to an area that San Lorenzo de El Escorial shares with Santa María de la Alameda.
The center of environmental education Arboreto Luis Ceballos houses a collection of over 200 species of trees and bushes native to the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The history of San Lorenzo de El Escorial is inexorably linked to the construction of the monastery and the town named El Escorial; the first historical references of this building date year 1558 where Philip II of Spain appointed a commission to find a proper place for the site, architects and quarrymen, among other guilds. Hamlet El Escorial met physical conditions for carrying out such company, its abundance of forests and game reserves, the quality of its water and its place in the geographic center of Spain, at the foot of the mount Abantos, were determining factors for the final choice, which took place in 1561. Builders placed the first stone of the monastery on April 23, 1563. A year earlier, Philip II of Spain began efforts to acquire the land adjacent to the site of the future monastery, with the intention of creating a territory of realengo, real site de El Escorial, intended for agriculture, fishing and recreational uses.
Among them were the Dehesa of the ironworks of Fuentelámparas, located in the current term of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, La Granjilla de La Fresneda de El Escorial, farms in the neighbouring village of El Escorial. Construction lasted 21 years, which transformed the social environment of El Escorial; the hamlet became a villa in 1565. A Lord Mayor exercised rule over the villa; the Lord Mayor's authority did not extend to the game reserves that the Crown managed directly, nor to agricultural uses managed by the monastery's Prior. Through two Papal Bulls issued dated 1585 and 1586, the Roman Catholic Church removed the monastery from the control of the powerful Archbishop of Toledo and placed it under the monastery's Prior; this administrative structure remained well into the 18th century, when the monarch Carlos III i