Kazan Cathedral, Moscow
Kazan Cathedral Russian: Казанский собор, formally known as the "Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan", is a Russian Orthodox church located on the northeast corner of Red Square in Moscow, Russia. The current building is a reconstruction of the original church, destroyed at the direction of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, in 1936. Upon recovering Moscow from the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1612 at the close of the Time of Troubles, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky attributed his success to the divine help of the icon Theotokos of Kazan, to whom he had prayed on several occasions. From his private funds, he financed construction of a wooden church to the Virgin of Kazan on Red Square in Moscow, first mentioned in historical records in 1625. After the diminutive shrine was destroyed by a fire in 1632, Tsar Michael I, ordered it replaced with a brick church; the one-domed edifice, featuring several tiers of kokoshniki, a wide gallery, a tented belfry, was consecrated in October 1636.
Kazan Cathedral was considered one of the most important churches in Moscow. Annually on the anniversary of the liberation of Moscow from Poland-Lithuania, a solemn parade led by the Patriarch and the Tsar carried a processional cross from the Kremlin. By the end of the 17th century, the church building was expanded and received a bell tower and a redesigned entrance. Numerous other renovations of the cathedral were undertaken during the imperial period, notably during 1801, 1805, 1865, much of the original design was lost behind additions; the history of the cathedral was tempestuous, as evidenced by the fact that its archpriest Avvakum led the party of religious dissenters, or Old Believers. The distinguished Russian restorer Peter Baranovsky supervised a complete reconstruction of the church's exterior to its original design in 1929–1932; some specialists, criticised the accuracy of this reconstruction. In 1936, when Red Square was being prepared for holding the military parades of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin ordered the square cleared of churches.
Although efforts were made by Baranovsky to save it, he could not prevent the Kazan Cathedral from being demolished. In its place a temporary building housing offices for the Communist International was erected, it was used as a summer café. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Kazan Cathedral was the first church to be rebuilt after having been destroyed by the Communists; the cathedral's restoration was sponsored by the Moscow city branch of the All-Russian Society for Historic Preservation and Cultural Organization, was based on the detailed measurements and photographs of the original church. However, the icon of the Kazan Virgin in the restored cathedral is a copy. Kazan Cathedral, Moscow
Cathedral Square, Moscow
Cathedral Square or Sobornaya Square is the central square of the Moscow Kremlin where all of its streets used to converge in the 15th century. The square owes its name to the three cathedrals facing it – Cathedral of the Dormition, Cathedral of the Archangel, Cathedral of the Annunciation. Apart from these, the Palace of Facets, the Church of the Deposition of the Robe and the Church of the Twelve Apostles are placed there; the tallest structure on the square is Ivan the Great Bell Tower, which separates Sobornaya Square from Ivanovskaya Square. Cathedral Square is famous as the site of solemn coronation and funeral processions of all the Russian tsars and Grand Dukes of Moscow. Today, the square is used in the inauguration ceremony of the President of Russia; the square is the scene of the daily changing of the Horse Guards
Ivanovskaya Square is the largest Kremlin square. Its name comes from the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. In the 16th and 17th centuries, many government bodies were situated in the Ivanovskaya Square, it was the site of the equivalent of today's Ministries. Yamskoi Prikaz, one of the offices, handled the delivery of private letters. Thus, it became the first postal address in Moscow. Court services and chanceries of various departments were situated here. At the end of the 1920s and early 1930s, the square was enlarged after the demolition of the Lesser Nicholas Palace and the Ascension Convent. Today, the square is cobbled like most of the territory of the Kremlin, it offers a view of one of the three corners of the Kremlin Senate and the facade of the Presidium, one of the Kremlin’s administrative blocks, erected in 1929, in place of the destroyed historic buildings. "About Ivanovskaya Square". Moscow. Info. Retrieved 2007-12-07. "About Ivanovskaya Square". Archived from the original on 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2007-12-07
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV Vasilyevich known as Ivan the Terrible, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and the first Tsar of Russia from 1547 to 1584. Ivan was the crown prince of Vasili III, the Rurikid ruler of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, was appointed Grand Prince at three years-old after his father's death. Ivan was proclaimed Tsar of All Rus' in 1547 at the age of seventeen, establishing the Tsardom of Russia with Moscow as the predominant state. Ivan's reign was characterized by Russia's transformation from a medieval state into an empire under the Tsar, though at immense cost to its people and its broader, long-term economy. Ivan conquered the Khanates of Kazan and Sibir, with Russia becoming a multiethnic and multicontinental state spanning 4,050,000 km2, developing a bureaucracy to administer the new territories. Ivan triggered the Livonian War, which ravaged Russia and resulted in the loss of Livonia and Ingria, but allowed him to exercise greater autocratic control over the Russia's nobility, which he violently purged in the Oprichnina.
Ivan was an able diplomat, a patron of arts and trade, the founder of Russia's first publishing house, the Moscow Print Yard. Ivan was popular among Russia's commoners except for the people of Novgorod and surrounding areas who were subject to the Massacre of Novgorod. Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, but prone to paranoia and episodic outbreaks of mental instability that increased with age. Ivan is popularly believed to have killed his eldest son and heir Ivan Ivanovich and the latter's unborn son during his outbursts, which left the politically ineffectual Feodor Ivanovich to inherit the throne, whose rule directly led to the end of the Rurikid dynasty and the beginning of the Time of Troubles; the English word terrible is used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivan's nickname, but this is a somewhat archaic translation. The Russian word grozny reflects the older English usage of terrible as in "inspiring fear or terror.
It does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible, such as "defective" or "evil". Vladimir Dal defines grozny in archaic usage and as an epithet for tsars: "courageous, magnificent and keeping enemies in fear, but people in obedience". Other translations have been suggested by modern scholars. Ivan was the first son of Vasili III and his second wife, Elena Glinskaya, of half Serbian and half Lipka Tatar descent, the Glinski clan claiming descent from the Mongol ruler Mamai When Ivan was three years old, his father died from an abscess and inflammation on his leg that developed into blood poisoning. Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the request of his father, his mother Elena Glinskaya acted as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison, in 1538 when Ivan was only eight years old. The regency alternated between several feuding boyar families fighting for control. According to his own letters, along with his younger brother Yuri felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.
In a letter to Prince Kurbski Ivan remembers, "My brother Iurii, of blessed memory, me they brought up like vagrants and children of the poorest. What have I suffered for want of garments and food!! " It should be noted, that the historian Edward L Keenan has presented compelling reasons to doubt the authenticity of the source in which these quotes are found. On 16 January 1547, at age sixteen, Ivan was crowned with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition, he was the first to be crowned as "Tsar of All the Russias", hence claiming the ancestry of Kievan Rus'. Prior to that, rulers of Muscovy were crowned as Grand Princes, although Ivan III the Great, his grandfather, styled himself "tsar" in his correspondence. Two weeks after his coronation, Ivan married his first wife Anastasia Romanovna, a member of the Romanov family, who became the first Russian tsaritsa. By being crowned Tsar, Ivan was sending a message to the world and to Russia: he was now the only supreme ruler of the country, his will was not to be questioned.
"The new title symbolized an assumption of powers equivalent and parallel to those held by former Byzantine Emperor and the Tatar Khan, both known in Russian sources as Tsar. The political effect was to elevate Ivan's position." The new title not only secured the throne, but it granted Ivan a new dimension of power, one intimately tied to religion. He was now a "divine" leader appointed to enact God's will, as "church texts described Old Testament kings as'Tsars' and Christ as the Heavenly Tsar." The newly appointed title was passed on from generation to generation: "succeeding Muscovite rulers... benefited from the divine nature of the power of the Russian monarch... crystallized during Ivan's reign." Despite calamities triggered by the Great Fire of 1547, the early part of Ivan's reign was one of peaceful reforms and modernization. Ivan revised the law code, creating the Sudebnik of 1550, founded a standing army, established the Zemsky Sobor and the council of the nobles, confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters, which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the whole c
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The Troitskaya Tower is a tower with a through-passage in the center of the northwestern wall of the Moscow Kremlin, which overlooks the Alexander Garden. The Troitskaya Tower was built in 1495-1499 by an Italian architect Aloisio da Milano; the tower has borne several names, including Rizopolozhenskaya and Karetnaya. It received its current name in 1658 from the Troitskaya Coaching Inn in the Kremlin; the two-story basement of the tower housed a prison in the 16th-17th centuries. There is the Troitsky Bridge, protected by the Kutafia Tower and leads to the gates of the Troitskaya Tower. There was a clock on top of the tower between 1585 and 1812. In 1707, due to a threat of Swedish invasion, the gun slots of the Troitskaya Tower were enlarged to fit heavy cannons. In 1935, the Soviets installed a red star on top of the Troitskaya Tower. Prior to Soviet rule the tower had an icon of the Holy Trinity atop its outward face; because this tower was the formal entrance for huge Communist Party Congresses the icon was removed rather than just plastered over as were those on the Spasskaya and Nikolskaya Towers.
The Troitskaya Tower is the tallest tower of the Moscow Kremlin. Its current height on the side of the Alexander Garden together with the star is 80 metres. Today, the gate of the tower is the main visitors' entrance into the Kremlin
Saint Basil's Cathedral
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia and is one of the most recognizable symbols of the country. The building, now a museum, is known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat or Pokrovsky Cathedral, it was built from 1555–1561 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan. It was the city's tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600; the Saint Basil's Cathedral is not to be confused with the Moscow Kremlin. The original building, known as Trinity Church and Trinity Cathedral, contained eight churches arranged around a ninth, central church of Intercession. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the church, perceived as the earthly symbol of the Heavenly City, was popularly known as the "Jerusalem" and served as an allegory of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade attended by the Patriarch of Moscow and the tsar.
The building is shaped like the flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, a design that has no parallel in Russian architecture. Dmitry Shvidkovsky, in his book Russian Architecture and the West, states that "it is like no other Russian building. Nothing similar can be found in the entire millennium of Byzantine tradition from the fifth to the fifteenth century... a strangeness that astonishes by its unexpectedness and dazzling interleaving of the manifold details of its design." The cathedral foreshadowed the climax of Russian national architecture in the 17th century. As part of the program of state atheism, the church was confiscated from the Russian Orthodox community as part of the Soviet Union's anti-theist campaigns and has operated as a division of the State Historical Museum since 1928, it was secularized in 1929 and remains a federal property of the Russian Federation. The church has been part of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990, it is not within the Kremlin, but served as a visual metonym for Russia in western media throughout the Cold War and to the modern day.
The site of the church had been a busy marketplace between the St. Frol's Gate of the Moscow Kremlin and the outlying posad; the centre of the marketplace was marked by the Trinity Church, built of the same white stone as the Kremlin of Dmitry Donskoy and its cathedrals. Tsar Ivan IV marked every victory of the Russo-Kazan War by erecting a wooden memorial church next to the walls of Trinity Church. According to the report in Nikon's Chronicle, in the autumn of 1554 Ivan ordered the construction of the wooden Church of Intercession on the same site, "on the moat". One year Ivan ordered the construction of a new stone cathedral on the site of Trinity Church to commemorate his campaigns. Dedication of a church to a military victory was "a major innovation" for Muscovy; the placement of the church outside the Kremlin walls was a political statement in favor of posad commoners and against hereditary boyars. Contemporary commentators identified the new building as Trinity Church, after its easternmost sanctuary.
In the same year, through the will of czar and lord and grand prince Ivan began making the pledged church, as he promised for the capture of Kazan: Trinity and Intercession and seven sanctuaries called "on the moat". And the builder was Barma with company; the identity of the architect is unknown. Tradition held that the church was built by two architects and Postnik: the official Russian cultural heritage register lists "Barma and Postnik Yakovlev". Researchers proposed that both names refer to the same person, Postnik Yakovlev or, Ivan Yakovlevich Barma. Legend held that Ivan blinded the architect so that he could not re-create the masterpiece elsewhere, Many historians are convinced that it is a myth, as the architect participated in the construction of the Cathedral of the Annunciation in Moscow as well as in building the walls and towers of the Kazan Kremlin. Postnik Yakovlev remained active at least throughout the 1560s. There is evidence that construction involved stonemasons from German lands.
Because the church has no analogue—in preceding, contemporary, or architecture of Muscovy and Byzantine cultural tradition in general—the sources that inspired Barma and Postnik are disputed. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc rejected European roots for the cathedral, opining that its corbel arches were Byzantine and Asian. A modern "Asian" hypothesis considers the cathedral a recreation of Qolşärif Mosque, destroyed by Russian troops after the siege of Kazan. Nineteenth-century Russian writers, starting with Ivan Zabelin, emphasized the influence of the vernacular wooden churches of the Russian North. David Watkin wrote of a blend of Russian and Byzantine roots, calling the cathedral "the climax" of Russian vernacular wooden architecture; the church combines the staggered layered design of the earliest part of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the central tent of the Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoy