The Tiriyó are a Amerindian ethnic group native to parts of northern Brazil and Suriname. In 2005, there were 2,000 Tiriyó in the two countries, they live in several major villages and a number of minor villages in the border zone between Brazil and Suriname. They speak the Tiriyó language, a member of the Cariban language family and refer to themselves as tarëno, etymologically'people from here' or'local people'. About 30 % are Christians. Western Paru RiverTawainen Kaikui Tëpu Santo AntônioMarapi RiverKuxaré YaawaEastern Paru RiverMataware Tapanahoni RiverPaloemeu TepoeSipaliwini RiverAlalapadu Kwamalasamutu
The Yaminawá are an indigenous people who live in Acre, Madre de Dios, Bolivia. Their homeland is Brazil; the Yaminawá translated to "people of the axe." They are called the Iaminaua, Yaminawá, Yaminahua, as well as Yuminahua, Yambinahua and other variants. The Yaminawá name was given to them by outsiders, they have several autonyms including Bashonawá, Marinawá, Xixinawá, or Yawanawá. The Yaminawá language belongs to the Panoan language family. Linguists estimate, its ISO 639-3 code is YAA. Few Yaminawá people speak Spanish or Portuguese, their literacy rate is low; the Yawanawa community is led by Tashka and Laura Yawanawa. Tashka Yawanawa had served as Chief of the Yananawa since 2001. In just a few years and his wife Laura have worked to increase Yawanawa territory, reinvigorate Yawanawa culture, establish economically and empowering relationships with the outside world; the Yawanawa community and their allies are developing a new model of sustainability that allows the Yawanawa to protect the rainforest and engage with the outside world on their own terms, without losing their cultural and spiritual identity.
Yaminawá in the Encyclopedia of Indigenous Peoples in Brazil Video of Yaminawa mourning songs
Baniwa are South American Indians, who speak the Baniwa language belonging to the Maipurean language family. They live in the Amazon Region, in the border area of Brazil and Venezuela and along the Rio Negro and its tributaries. There are an estimated 5,811 Baniwa in Brazil, 7,000 in Colombia and 2,408 in Venezuela's Amazonas State, according to Brazil's Instituto Socioambiental, but accurate figures are impossible to come by given the nature of the rainforest. Baniwa Indians rely on manioc cultivation and fishing for subsistence, they are known for the fine basketry they skilfully produce. Baniwa language, Curripako language Indigenous peoples in Brazil Indigenous peoples in Colombia Indigenous peoples in Venezuela Robin Wright 1998 - Cosmos and History in Baniwa Religion: For Those Unborn Theodor Koch-Grunberg 1909 - Zwei Jahre unter den Indianern: reisen in nordwest-brasilien 1903-1905
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
The Wai-wai are a Carib-speaking ethnic group of Guyana and northern Brazil. They are part of the Amerindian population that make up part of South America and are an indigenous group, their society consists of different lowland forest peoples who have maintained much of their cultural identity with the exception of Christianity, introduced to them in the late 1950s. The Amerindian population of Guyana is 31,000; the tribes consisting of nine major ethnic groups, including the Akawaios, Arekunas, Makushis, Wapishanas and the Wai-Wais are found in the hinterland or the interior region. The Wai-Wais are the smallest tribe in Guyana with a population of only about 170. There is only one Wai Wai community in Guyana, it is located in the most southern region of the country known as Konashen. The explorer, Sir Robert Schomburgk, may have been the first non- Indian to have contact with the Wai-Wai in December 1837, he found one village on a tributary of the Essiquebo river, along with two others on the Mapuera River in Brazil.
Schomburgk describes the Wai-Wai as: "Of medium height, their skin lighter than that of Tarumas, in their general appearance and language they resemble the Makuskis a good deal. The Woyawais celebrated for their dogs. In appearance they are dirty."During the early 20th century, some of the Wai Wai in Brazil moved further north. It is speculated that this is because of the influenza epidemic that nearly exterminated the Taruma tribe. From 1933 to 1938, the Wai Wai people moved deeper in Guyana's interior to avoid the outsiders working with the Boundary Commission; the Wai-wai in Guyana live in the far south of the country, near the headwaters of the Essequibo River. There are 1000 Wai-wai in Guyana and 2000 in Brazil. In Brazil, they reside in Terra Indígena Wai-wai, Terra Indígena Trombetas-Mapuera, Terra Indígena Nhamundá-Mapuera; these are located in the northern states of Roraima and Pará. Settlements include: Mapuera in Pará and Jatapu-zine, Cobra, Pequeno Paraíso in Roraima. Though the Wai Wai are great hunters, they are farmers.
However, the light, thin soil they have to work with and an annual rainfall of 4 meters can make it challenging to produce enough food. Their traditional, destructive method of farming was the ` burn' method; the Wai Wai are known for their weaving. They twist cotton into yarn for weaving. All the hammocks are weaved on square hammock frames, their other artistic skills include pottery, woven combs, bone flutes, other crafts. The Wai Wai are musical people and have an affinity for musical instruments such as guitars and hand drums; the Wai Wai people will craft their flutes and drums out of natural materials found in the surrounding Amazon rainforest. Women play a crucial role in the Wai-Wai culture. In terms of Wai-Wai constructs, the men's success in terms of wealth and power are dependent on female labor and reproduction; the size and stability of a village are dependent on cultural values. For the Wai-Wai, the relationship between a father and daughter lends a sense of control to the father over his daughter and son-in-law.
A village size is the indication of the level of political strength and riches, thus reliant on the women in the community. Mansiya is marriage. For women, marriage cannot take place until after women have reached their first menses at around age thirteen. Most women are married by the age of seventeen; the yaskomo of the Waiwai called a medicine man or shaman in literature, is believed to be able to perform a soul flight. The soul flight can serve several functions: healing flying to the sky to consult cosmological beings to get a name for a new-born baby flying to the cave of peccaries' mountains to ask the father of peccaries for abundance of game flying deep down in a river, to achieve the help of other beings. Thus, a yaskomo is believed to be able to reach sky, water, in short, every element. Western influence has changed their traditional culture and religion. Many have converted to Christianity. In 1949, many of the Wai-Wai people chose to migrate to Brazil following the heavy persecution, violent imprisonment and forceful extradition of Christian missionaries by the authoritarian government of Forbes Burnham.
Many of the missionaries were well liked among much of the tribe. When the missions had to leave Guyana because their residence permits were not renewed, 700 Wai-Wai people followed them to Brazil; some 150 Wai-Wai people left in Guyana fell under the influence of Christian Brethren Bible Outreach. There are several thousand speakers of the Wai Wai language, though the Carib-speaking Wai Wai Indians have close affinities to another Amazonian group known as the Arara; the Wai Wai have a history of intermarriage with other indigenous groups who speak similar languages. The Umana Yana in Georgetown, takes its name from the Wai-Wai for "meeting place"; the Wai-Wai people in the Konashen District of Guyana created the nation's first Community Owned Conservation Area. This area is protected under regulations passed by the Guyana parliament. 625,000-hectare is a protected area, developed with the technical and financial support of Conservation International. The Wai-Wai people were given the formal title to this land in 2004, has worked with Guyana's Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Amerindian Affairs to develop COCA.
The goal is that the area will bring economic benefit to the Wai Wai, protect a large part of the rainforest
The Mawé known as the Sateré or Sateré-Mawé, are an indigenous people of Brazil living in the state of Amazonas. They have an estimated population of about 13,350; the Sateré-Mawé were the first to a popular stimulant. The name "Sateré-Mawé" comes from Sateré, meaning "caterpillar of fire", Mawé, meaning "intelligent and curious parrot", they are called Maué, Mawé, Maragua, Sataré, Arapium. The Mawé speak the Sateré-Mawé language. A grammar book was developed for the language in 1986; the Sateré-Mawé people intentionally use bullet ant stings as part of their initiation rites to become a warrior. The ants are first rendered unconscious by submerging them in a natural sedative and hundreds of them are woven into a glove made out of leaves, stinger facing inward; when the ants regain consciousness, the boy slips the glove onto his hand. The goal of this initiation rite is to keep the glove on for a full five minutes; when finished, the boy's hand and part of his arm are temporarily paralyzed due to the ant venom, he may shake uncontrollably for days.
The only "protection" provided is a coating of charcoal on the hands to confuse the ants and inhibit their stinging. To complete the initiation, the boys must go through the ordeal a total of 20 times over the course of several months. Alvarez, Gabriel O. Pós-dradiviano: parentesco e ritual.: sistem de parentesco e rituais de afinabilidade os sateré-mawé. Série Antropologia, no.403. Brasília: Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de Brasília, 2006. Gordon, Hildy Rubin, Jessica Siegel. Gremlins Faces in the Forest. Nature video library. South Burlington, VT: WNET/Thirteen, 1998. Groes-Green, Christian. Courageous Caterpillars and Images of the Whiteman: Storytelling and Exchange as Indigenous Strategies in the Face of Discrimination in Manaus, Brazil. MA Thesis, Department of Anthropology. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 2002. Lattas, Andrew. "Anthropological Knowledge and Bolivip, Papua New Guinea: Exchanging Skin." Ethnos 74.3: 433-435. Lorenz, Sônia da Silva. Sateré-Mawé: os filhos do guaraná.
Coleção Projetos, 1. São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Centro de Trabalho Indigenista, 1992. Salzano F. M. T. A. Weimer, M. H. L. P. Franco, M. H. Hutz. "Demography and Genetics of the Sateré-Mawé and their Bearing on the Differentiation of the Tupi Tribes of South America." Journal of Human Evolution 14.7: 647-655. Vilaça, Robin Wright. Native Christians: Modes and Effects of Christianity Among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas. Vitality of indigenous religions. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008. Uggé, Henrique. Mitología sateré-maué. Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones ABYA-YALA, 1991. Sateré-Mawé artwork, National Museum of the American Indian
Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country. Neighboring states are Rondônia, Pará, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul; the nation of Bolivia is located to the southwest. A state with a flat landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas, Mato Grosso has three different ecosystems: Cerrado and the Amazon Rainforest; the vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state. The Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, with caves, grottoes and waterfalls, is one of its tourist attractions. In the north is the Amazonian forest, with a biodiversity covering half of the state. Much of this has been disrupted and cleared for logging, agricultural purposes, pastures; the Xingu National Park and the Araguaia River are in Mato Grosso. Further south, the Pantanal, the world's largest wetland, is the habitat for nearly one thousand species of animals, many aquatic birds. Located in the Mato Grosso is the Chapada dos Guimarães, a unique environment of sandstone mountains that have eroded into amazingly varied terrain.
The terrain of the Mato Grosso is varied and includes cliffs and waterfalls. The biologically rich Pantanal, one of the world's largest wetland/prairie ecosystems, is located within this state. Much environmental degradation has occurred to the Pantanal since the late 20th century because of development, efforts to contain or slow it have had limited success; the Pantanal has a habitat similar to that of the Everglades in Florida in the United States, although the Pantanal is on a much larger scale. See also: History of Mato GrossoIn 1977, the state was split into two halves, with Mato Grosso do Sul being organized as a new state; the Bororo Indians live in the Mato Grosso area. As late as 1880, soldiers patrolled lands on the outskirts of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso's capital and largest city, to protect settlers from Bororo raids. By the end of the 19th century, although reduced by disease and by warfare with explorers, slave traders, prospectors and other indigenous groups, as many as five to ten thousand Bororo continued to occupy central and eastern Mato Grosso, as well as western Goiás.
The southwestern part of this state was ceded by Brazil to Bolivia in exchange for Acre, according to the Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903. This remote area attracted expeditions of exploration in the early 20th century that sought to find lost civilizations. A notable example were efforts by British Captain Percy Fawcett. In addition, theorists of Hollow Earth speculated that this region had sites of access to the interior of the earth and its settlements. Mato Grosso had a high rate of population growth in the 20th century due to timber and agricultural development; the state as a whole still has one of the lowest population densities of any Brazilian state. According to the IBGE of 2018, 3,441,998 people resided in the state; the population density was 3.8 inh./km². Urbanization: 76.6%. Ethnically, the state includes a high proportion of caboclos, as do other areas of interior Brazil; the last PNAD census revealed the following numbers: 1,532,000 Brown people. Agriculture is the largest component of GDP at 40.8%, followed by the service sector at 40.2%.
The industrial sector represents 19% of GDP. Mato Grosso exports: soybeans 83%, wood 5.6%, meats 4.8%, cotton 3.3%. The state's share of the Brazilian economy is 1.8%. Vehicles: 1,614,797. Portuguese is the official national language, as well as the primary language taught in schools; however and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. More than 58 universities are located in state of Mato Grosso. Cuiabá is home to the following universities: Federal University of Mato Grosso; the local culture is rich, due to the influences of and encounters with various cultures, such as indigenous peoples, colonial Spanish and other European settlers, Africans enslaved and transported there in the Atlantic slave trade by the Portuguese, other Europeans. Two long periods of isolation contributed to its developing along different lines than coastal areas of Brazil. Recent immigration has brought many urban influences to the state. Cuiabá has a rich cuisine influenced by natives, they have maintained traditional dances and music.
Dance and music were traditionally connected to the worship of Catholic saints and their festivals, Saint Benedict, being one of the favorite. The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday, known as Carnival is well celebrated; as with every state in Brazil, Mato Grosso celebrates this holiday in a typical fashion - including parades and dance - with wide participation. Fishing in the Teles Pires, São Benedito and Azul rivers is productive all year long. Bird watching: with the more than 570 species of catalogued birds and new species being discovered every year, the region of Alta Floresta and Azul River Basin receives constant visits from famous ornithologists and bird watchers; the largest sandstone cavern in Brazil, Aroe Jari, extends nearly 1,550 meters and several pr