Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Luther Seminary is a seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America in Saint Paul, Minnesota. It is the largest seminary of the ELCA, it accepts and educates students of 41 other denominations and traditions. It is accredited by the Association of Theological Schools, it has theological accreditation through the ELCA as well as the United Methodist Church. Luther Seminary is the result of a series of mergers that consolidated what at one time were six separate institutions into one seminary. In 1917 three Norwegian-American Lutheran churches united to create the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America; the NLCA changed its name to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1946. and became part of The American Lutheran Church in 1960, the first inter-Lutheran consolidation in North American to involve denominations of differing national origin.. Each of the three churches in the NLCA operated a seminary: the Norwegian Synod's Luther Seminary in Saint Paul, had been founded in 1876; the merged seminaries occupied the site of the United Church Seminary because it was the most developed and elaborate, retained the name of the oldest of the three schools, Luther Theological Seminary.
Presidents of Luther Theological Seminary Marcus Olaus Bøckmann 1892–1917 Marcus Olaus Bøckmann 1917–1930 T. F. Gullixson 1930–1954 Alvin Rogness 1954–1974 Lloyd Svendsbye 1974–1982 Augsburg Theological Seminary renamed Augsburg University, was founded in 1869 at Marshall, Wisconsin moved to Minneapolis, in 1897 became the seminary of the Lutheran Free Church, it remained a separate seminary until 1963 when the Lutheran Free Church merged with the American Lutheran Church three years after that body's formation. At that time, Augsburg Seminary was merged with Luther Theological Seminary; the merged institution took the Luther Theological Seminary name and the 1869 founding date of Augsburg Seminary. Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary traces its origin to the Chicago Lutheran Divinity School, begun in Chicago, Illinois, in 1920 following action taken by the English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of the Northwest, a synod of the United Lutheran Church in America. In 1921, the seminary was moved to Fargo, North Dakota, the following year to Minneapolis.
From 1921 to 1982, its name was Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary. Located in north Minneapolis from 1922 to 1940 and in south Minneapolis from 1940 to 1967, it moved near the campus of Luther Theological Seminary in Saint Paul in 1967. At the time of the formation of the Lutheran Church in America in 1962, Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary was placed under the jurisdiction of two supporting synods: the Minnesota Synod and the Red River Valley Synod. Presidents of Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary Joseph Stump 1920–1935 Paul Roth 1935–1950 Jonas Dressler 1950–1957 Clemens Zeidler 1957–1976 Lloyd Svendsbye 1976–1982 Desiring to make witness to a shared mission in theological education and Northwestern seminaries were functionally unified in 1976, beginning with a single administration. After a period of six years, the two seminaries formally merged on July 1, 1982, as Luther Northwestern Theological Seminary. On January 1, 1988, Luther Northwestern Theological Seminary became affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America formed by a merger of the LCA, the ALC, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches.
The seminary's name was simplified to Luther Seminary on July 1, 1994. In the 2018 -- 2019 academic year, Luther Seminary served 490 total students. Luther offers a Master of Divinity degree for students seeking ordination, as well as Master of Arts, Master of Theology, Doctor of Ministry, Doctor of Philosophy degrees for other students. In the fall of 2013, Luther Seminary suspended new admissions to the Ph. D program for at least three years as part of budget cuts; the seminary was planning to again offer the Ph. D program, with classing beginning in the fall semester of 2018; as in most seminaries, M. Div. Students complete three years of theological education, divided into a junior year, middler year and senior year. A full year of internship in a parish, is an integral part of pastoral training, a degree requirement for ELCA M. Div. Students. While individual situations may vary, internship begins after two-thirds of coursework has been completed. Thus, most students complete internship between their middler and senior year.
The internship requirement is unique to the ELCA among the other mainline denominations in the U. S. Luther Seminary teaches works by the novelist Frederick Buechner. In 2014, Luther Seminary created the Lutheran Buechner Prize for Preaching. Marcus Olaus Bøckmann Carl Braaten Gerhard Forde Richard A. Jensen John N. Kildahl John O. Evjen Hans Gerhard Stub Jacob Tanner Terence E. Fretheim Johan Arnd Aasgaard Lowell G. Almen Stuart E. Barstad Paul Egertson Mark Hanson Robert Jenson John N. Kildahl M. Victor Paul J. A. O. Preus II Fredrik A. Schiotz V. Trygve Jordahl Norway Lutheran Church Official website
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Luther College (Iowa)
Luther College is a private liberal arts college in Decorah, Iowa. Established as a Lutheran seminary in 1861 by Norwegian immigrants, the school today is an institution of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. On October 10, 1857, the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church created a seminary to supply ministers for Norwegian congregations in the Upper Midwest; until the seminary was established in 1861, students studied at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. On October 14, 1859, the Rev. Peter Laurentius Larsen was appointed professor to the Norwegian students at Concordia by the NELC. Upon the closing of the seminary in April 1861, at the start of the Civil War, the NELC decided to open its own college that fall in a former parsonage at Halfway Creek, just north of La Crosse and close to present day Holmen, Wisconsin. On September 1, 1861, classes began with an enrollment of 16; the following year classes moved to Decorah, with NELC Pastor Ulrik Vilhelm Koren arranging the college's relocation and permanent settlement.
In 1866, a group of students signed a "bill of rights" criticizing the rigid schedule, the rules about going downtown, the lack of windows in some of the sleeping rooms, the woodcutting and shoe-shining chores, concluding that "there was not enough freedom." The leader of the group, 18-year-old Rasmus Anderson, was expelled. This event was viewed as a rebellion and "the worst of sins" by the pastors assembled in a pastoral conference shortly after. In 1905, Dr. Carlo A. Sperati, an 1888 graduate of Luther, became the music director of the college and developed the Luther College Concert Band, founded in 1878, on the model of the wind ensemble pioneered by John Philip Sousa. Under Sperati, the band undertook several tours of Europe, their first in 1914, earning international acclaim for their musical talent. Sperati remained on the faculty until his death in 1945. In 1932, Luther College dropped its mandatory study of the classics and embraced the modern concept of the liberal arts education.
Due to financial constraints associated with the Great Depression, the college decided to admit women as students in 1936. During the 1960s Luther constructed several new campus buildings and adopted a 4-1-4 semester schedule. In 1964, Luther's museum collection became separate from the college and was established as the Norwegian-American Museum. Now known as Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum, it is the largest and most comprehensive museum in the United States devoted to a single immigrant group. Nordic Fest, started in 1967, grew from Luther College Women’s Club's annual celebration of Norwegian Constitution Day. Luther lies at the edge of Decorah, a small town situated in the hilly driftless region of the Midwestern United States; the Upper Iowa River flows through the lower portion of the nearly 200-acre central campus. The college owns an adjoining 800 acres devoted to environmental research, biological studies, recreation. Luther student housing includes residence halls and several houses and apartment buildings.
Ninety-five percent of Luther students live on campus all four years. In the 2000s, the college engaged in extensive building projects. A renovation of residence halls and the Dahl Centennial Union was completed in 2006, Sampson Hoffland Laboratories, an extension of Valders Hall of Science, was completed in 2008; the Center for Faith and Life is Luther's primary performing arts facility. Luther is an undergraduate institution, enrolling 2,337 students and employing 177 full-time faculty in 2015-16; the college is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. It is a member institution of the Associated Colleges of the Annapolis Group. Among liberal arts colleges, Luther was ranked 90th by the 2016 edition of U. S. News and World Report. Luther enrolled 624 first-year students for the entering class of 2015. Thirty-one percent of first-year students were in the top 10 percent of their high school class, the average high school grade point average was 3.7, the interquartile range for ACT scores was 23-29.
Tuition and fees are shown as $40,040 for 2016-17, with 98 percent of students receiving need- and/or merit-based financial aid. Luther has a number of music organizations that sell recordings internationally; the Nordic Choir, Concert Band, Symphony Orchestra and Jazz Orchestra are the college's four internationally touring ensembles, which have performed in many of the major concert halls and music centers of Europe, as well as Russia, Japan, Mexico and the Caribbean. About 40 percent of the students participate in at least one of the college's six choirs, three concert bands, three string orchestras, two jazz ensembles. "Christmas at Luther," Luther's annual Christmas concert, is broadcast nationwide each year. The concert broadcast is updated annually, with a current stream of the concert each December. Much of Luther's musical heritage can be attributed to the influence of two long-serving individuals; the 40-year tenure of Dr. Carlo A. Sperati, Class of 1888, fostered the college's Lutheran musical tradition beginning in 1905 and developed the Luther College Concert Band into one of the first nationally touring music ensembles.
Sperati's Concert Band achieved national acclaim, famed bandmaster John Philip Sousa canceled a performance of his own touring ensemble just so that he could attend a performance of the Luther College Concert Band, scheduled to appear in a nearby city. Sperati's foundation was built upon by Weston Noble'43, himself a student of Sperati. Following three years of U. S. Army enlistment in World War II, Noble returned to his alma ma