Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group, it is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of contemporary art in the world; as with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s most-visited attraction pulling in 5.8 million visitors in 2018. Tate Modern is housed in the former Bankside Power Station, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, built in two stages between 1947 and 1963, it is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral.
The power station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m; the structure was divided into three main areas each running east-west – the huge main Turbine Hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the switch house to the south. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995; the £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000. The most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof.
Much of the original internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall, which retained the overhead travelling crane. An electrical substation, taking up the Switch House in the southern third of the building, remained on-site and owned by the French power company EDF Energy while Tate took over the northern Boiler House for Tate Modern's main exhibition spaces; the history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000. Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined. Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004; these plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5,000m2 of new display space doubling the amount of display space.
The southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the company released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum planned to be completed in 2015; the tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, which would be converted to a performance art space. Structural, civil, façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016; this project was costed at £215 million. Of the money raised, £50 million came from the UK government. In June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art"; the Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".
The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, underground oil tanks used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and closed on 28 October 2012 as work on the tower building continued directly above, they reopened following the completion of the Switch House extension on 17 June 2016. Two of the Tanks are used to show live performance art and installations while the third provides utility space. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art". A ten-storey tower, 65 metres high from ground level, was built above the oil tanks; the original western half of the Switch House was demolished to make room for the tower and rebuilt around it with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 have natural top lighting. A bridge built across the turbine hall on level 4 to provides an upper access route.
The new building opened to the public on 17 June 2016. The design, again by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial, it was designed with a glass stepped pyra
Performance is completion of a task with application of knowledge and abilities. In work place, performance or job performance means good ranking with the hypothesized conception of requirements of a role. There are two types of job performances: task. Task performance is related to cognitive ability while contextual performance is dependent upon personality. Task performance are behavioral roles that are recognized in job descriptions and by remuneration systems, they are directly related to organizational performance, contextual performance are value based and additional behavioral roles that are not recognized in job descriptions and covered by compensation. Citizenship performance like contextual performance means a set of individual activity/contribution that supports the organizational culture. In the performing arts, a performance comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers present one or more works of art to an audience. In instrumental music, performance is described as "play".
The performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. An effective performance is determined by achievement skills and competency of the performer - level of skill and knowledge. Spencer and McClelland in 1994 defined competency as "a combination of motives, self-concepts, cognitive behavior skills" that helps a performer to differentiate themselves superior from average performers. A performance may describe the way in which an actor performs. In a solo capacity, it may refer to a mime artist, conjurer, or other entertainer. Williams and Krane found the following characteristics define an ideal performance state: Absence of fear Not thinking about the performance Adaptive focus on the activity A sense of effortlessness and belief in confidence or self-efficacy A sense of personal control A distortion of time and space where time does not affect the activityOther related factors are motivation to achieve success or avoid failure, task relevant attention, positive self-talk and cognitive regulation to achieve automaticity.
Performance is dependent on adaptation of eight areas: Handling crisis, managing stress, creative problem solving, knowing necessary functional tools and skills, agile management of complex processes, interpersonal adaptability, cultural adaptability, physical fitness. Performance is not always a result of practice, it is about honing the skill over practice itself can result in failure due to ego depletion. Theatrical performances when the audience is limited to only a few observers, can lead to significant increases in the performer's heart rate above his or her baseline heart rate; this increase takes place in several stages relative to the performance itself, including anticipatory activation, confrontation activation and release period. The same physiological reactions can be experienced in other mediums, such as instrumental performance; when experiments were conducted to determine whether there was a correlation between audience size and heart rate of instrumental performers, the researcher's findings ran contrary to previous studies, showing a positive correlation rather than a negative one.
Heart rate shares a positive correlation with the self reported anxiety of performers. Other physiological responses to public performance include perspiration, secretion of the adrenal glands, increased blood pressure. Bell, B. S. & Kozlowski, S. W. J.. Active learning: Effects of core training design elements on self regulatory processes and adaptability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 296-316. Fadde, P. J. & Klein, G. A.. Deliberate performance: Accelerating expertise in natural settings. Performance Improvement, 49, 5-15. Freeman, S. Eddy, S. McDounough, M. et al. Active learning increases student performance in science and mathematics. PNAS, 111, 8410-8414. Gagne, R. M.. Military training and principles of learning. American psychologist, 17, 83-91. Lohman, M.. Cultivating problem solving skills through problem based approaches to professional development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13, 243-256. Meyer, R.. Problem solving skills through problem based approaches to professional development.
Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13, 263-270. Noordzu, G. Hooft, E. Mierlo, H. et al. The effects of a learning-goal orientation training on self-regulation: A field experiment among unemployed job seekers. Personnel Psychology, 66, 723-755
Marina Abramović is a Serbian performance artist and art film director and producer. Her work explores body art, endurance art and feminist art, the relationship between performer and audience, the limits of the body, the possibilities of the mind. Being active for over four decades, Abramović refers to herself as the "grandmother of performance art", she pioneered a new notion of identity by bringing in the participation of observers, focusing on "confronting pain and physical limits of the body". Abramović was born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia on November 30, 1946. In an interview, Abramović described her family as having been "Red bourgeoisie." Her great-uncle was Serbian Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Both of her parents, Danica Rosić and Vojin Abramović were Yugoslav Partisans during the Second World War. After the war, Abramović's parents became "national heroes" and were given positions in the post-war Yugoslavian government. Abramović was raised by her grandparents, her grandmother was religious and Abramović "spent childhood in a church following grandmother's rituals – candles in the morning, the priest coming for different occasions".
At the age of six, when Abramović's brother was born, she began living with her parents and took piano and English lessons. While she did not take art lessons, she took an early interest in art and enjoyed painting as a child. Life in Abramović's parental home under her mother’s strict supervision was difficult; when Abramović was a child, her mother beat her for "supposedly showing off". In an interview published in 1998, Abramović described how her "mother took complete military-style control of me and my brother. I was not allowed to leave the house after 10 o'clock at night until I was 29 years old.... Ll the performances in Yugoslavia I did before 10 o'clock in the evening because I had to be home then. It's insane, but all of my cutting myself, whipping myself, burning myself losing my life in'The Firestar' - everything was done before 10 in the evening."In an interview published in 2013, Abramović said, "My mother and father had a terrible marriage." Describing an incident when her father smashed 12 champagne glasses and left the house, she said, "It was the most horrible moment of my childhood."She was a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade from 1965 to 1970.
She completed her post-graduate studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb, SR Croatia in 1972. She returned to SR Serbia and, from 1973 to 1975, she taught at the Academy of Fine Arts at Novi Sad, while implementing her first solo performances. After Abramović was married to Neša Paripović between 1971 to 1976, in 1976, she went to Amsterdam to perform a piece decided to move there permanently. From 1990–1995 Abramović was a visiting professor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and at the Berlin University of the Arts. From 1992–1996 she was a visiting professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg and from 1997–2004 she was a professor for performance-art at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Braunschweig; some of her best known students are Chiharu Shiota. In her first performance in Edinburgh in 1973, Abramović explored elements of gesture. Making use of twenty knives and two tape recorders, the artist played the Russian game, in which rhythmic knife jabs are aimed between the splayed fingers of one's hand.
Each time she cut herself, she would pick up a new knife from the row of twenty she had set up, record the operation. After cutting herself twenty times, she replayed the tape, listened to the sounds, tried to repeat the same movements, attempting to replicate the mistakes, merging past and present, she set out to explore the physical and mental limitations of the body – the pain and the sounds of the stabbing. With this piece, Abramović began to consider the state of consciousness of the performer. "Once you enter into the performance state you can push your body to do things you could never do." In this performance, Abramović sought to re-evoke the energy of extreme bodily pain, using a large petroleum-drenched star, which the artist lit on fire at the start of the performance. Standing outside the star, Abramović cut her nails and hair; when finished with each, she threw the clippings into the flames, creating a burst of light each time. Burning the communist five-pointed star represented a physical and mental purification, while addressing the political traditions of her past.
In the final act of purification, Abramović leapt across the flames, propelling herself into the center of the large star. Due to the light and smoke given off by the fire, the observing audience did not realize that, once inside the star, the artist had lost consciousness from lack of oxygen; some members of the audience realized what had occurred only when the flames came near to her body and she remained inert. A doctor and several members of the audience extricated her from the star. Abramović commented upon this experience: "I was angry because I understood there is a physical limit; when you lose consciousness you can't be present, you can't perform." Prompted by her loss of consciousness during Rhythm 5, Abramović devised the two-part Rhythm 2 to incorporate a state of unconsciousness in a performance. She performed the work at the Gallery of Contemporary Art in Zagreb, in 1974. In Part I, which had a duration of 50 minutes, she ingested a medication she describes as'given to patients who suffer from catatonia, to force them to change the positio
Whitney Museum of American Art
The Whitney Museum of American Art, known informally as the "Whitney", is an art museum in Manhattan. It was founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a wealthy and prominent American socialite and art patron after whom it is named; the Whitney focuses on 20th- and 21st-century American art. Its permanent collection comprises more than 23,000 paintings, drawings, photographs, films and artifacts of new media by more than 3,400 artists, it places particular emphasis on exhibiting the work of living artists as well as maintaining an extensive permanent collection of important pieces from the first half of the last century. The museum's Annual and Biennial exhibitions have long been a venue for younger and lesser-known artists whose work is showcased there. From 1966 to 2014, the Whitney was at 945 Madison Avenue on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the museum closed in October 2014 to relocate to a new building designed by Renzo Piano at 99 Gansevoort Street in the West Village/Meatpacking District neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan.
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the museum's namesake and founder, was a well-regarded sculptor as well as a serious art collector. As a patron of the arts, she had achieved some success with the Whitney Studio Club, a New York–based exhibition space she created in 1918 to promote the works of avant-garde and unrecognized American artists. Whitney favored the radical art of the American artists of the Ashcan School such as John French Sloan, George Luks and Everett Shinn, as well as others such as Edward Hopper, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber. With the aid of her assistant, Juliana R. Force, Whitney collected nearly 700 works of American art. In 1929, she offered to donate over 500 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but the museum declined the gift. This, along with the apparent preference for European modernism at the opened Museum of Modern Art, led Whitney to start her own museum for American art, in 1929. Whitney Library archives from 1928 reveal that during this time the Studio Club used the gallery space of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong of the Art Students League to exhibit traveling shows featuring modernist work.
In 1931, architect Noel L. Miller converted three row houses on West 8th Street in Greenwich Village—one of which, 8 West 8th Street had been the location of the Studio Club—to be the museum's home as well as a residence for Whitney. Force became the museum's first director, under her guidance it concentrated on displaying the works of new and contemporary American artists. In 1954, the museum left its original location and moved to a small structure on 54th Street connected to and behind the Museum of Modern Art on 53rd Street. On April 15, 1958, a fire on MOMA's second floor that killed one person forced the evacuation of paintings and staff on MOMA's upper floors to the Whitney. Among the paintings evacuated was A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, on loan from the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1961, the Whitney began seeking a site for a larger building. In 1966 it settled at the southeast corner of Madison Avenue and 75th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the building and built 1963–1966 by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith in a distinctively modern style, is distinguished from the neighboring townhouses by its staircase façade made of granite stones and its external upside-down windows.
In 1967, Mauricio Lasansky showed The Nazi Drawings. The exhibition traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, where it appeared with shows by Louise Nevelson and Andrew Wyeth as the first exhibits in the new museum; the institution grappled with space problems for decades. From 1973 to 1983 the Whitney operated its first branch at 55 Water Street, a building owned by Harold Uris, who gave the museum a lease for $1 a year. In 1983 Philip Morris International installed a Whitney branch in the lobby of its Park Avenue headquarters. In 1981 the museum opened an exhibition space in Stamford, housed at Champion International. In the late 1980s, the Whitney entered into arrangements with Park Tower Realty, I. B. M. and The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, setting up satellite museums with rotating exhibitions in their buildings' lobbies. Each museum had its own director, with all plans approved by a Whitney committee; the institution attempted to expand its landmark building in 1978, commissioning UK architects Derek Walker and Norman Foster to design a tall tower alongside it, the first of several proposals from leading architects.
But each time the effort was abandoned, because of either both. To secure additional space for the museum's collections, then-director Thomas N. Armstrong III developed plans for a 10-story, $37.5 million addition to the main building. The proposed addition, designed by Michael Graves and announced in 1985, drew immediate opposition. Graves had proposed demolishing the flanking brownstones down to the East 74th Street corner for a complementary addition; the project lost the support of the museum's trustees, the plans were dropped in 1989. Between 1995 and 1998, the building underwent a expansion by Richard Gluckman. In 2001, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to submit two designs for a $200 million expansion; those plans were dropped in 2003. New York restaurateur Danny Meyer opened Untitled, a restaurant in the museum, in March 2011; the space was designed by the Rockwell Group. The Whitney developed a new main building, designed by Renzo Piano, in the West Village and Meatpacking District in lower Manhattan.
The new museum, at the intersection of Gansevoort and Washington Streets, was bu
Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta, known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer and actress. She is known for her unconventionality, provocative work, visual experimentation, she began singing at open mic nights and acting in school plays. She studied at Collaborative Arts Project 21, through New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, before dropping out to pursue a music career; when Def Jam Recordings canceled her contract, she worked as a songwriter for Sony/ATV Music Publishing, where Akon helped her sign a joint deal with Interscope Records and his own label KonLive Distribution in 2007. She rose to prominence the following year with her debut album, the electropop record The Fame, its chart-topping singles "Just Dance" and "Poker Face". A follow-up EP, The Fame Monster, featuring the singles "Bad Romance", "Telephone" and "Alejandro", was successful. Gaga's second full-length album, Born This Way, explored electronic techno-pop, it peaked atop the US Billboard 200 and sold more than one million copies in the country in its first week.
Its title track became the fastest selling song on the iTunes Store with over a million downloads in less than a week. Gaga experimented with EDM on her third studio album, which reached number one in the US and included the single "Applause", her collaborative jazz album with Tony Bennett, Cheek to Cheek, her soft rock-influenced fifth studio album, Joanne topped the US charts. During this period, Gaga ventured into acting, playing leading roles in the miniseries American Horror Story: Hotel, for which she received a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress, the critically acclaimed musical drama A Star Is Born, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, she contributed to the latter's soundtrack, which received a BAFTA Award for Best Film Music and made her the only woman to achieve five US number one albums in the 2010s. Its lead single, "Shallow", topped the US charts and earned Gaga the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Having sold 27 million albums and 146 million singles as of January 2016, Gaga is one of the best-selling music artists in history.
Her achievements include several Guinness world records, nine Grammy Awards, an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, two Golden Globe Awards, an award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Council of Fashion Designers of America. She has been declared Billboard's Artist of the Year and included among Forbes's power and earnings rankings, she was ranked number four on VH1's Greatest Women in Music in 2012 and second on Time's 2011 readers' poll of the most influential people of the past ten years, was named Billboard's Woman of the Year in 2015. She is known for her philanthropy and social activism, including her work related to LGBT rights, for her nonprofit organization, the Born This Way Foundation, which focuses on empowering youth and preventing bullying. Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta was born on March 28, 1986 at Lenox Hill Hospital in Manhattan, New York City, to a Catholic family, her parents both have Italian ancestry. Her parents are Cynthia Louise and Internet entrepreneur Joseph Germanotta, she has a younger sister, Natali.
Brought up in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, Gaga says that her parents came from lower-class families and worked hard for everything. From age 11, she attended the Convent of the Sacred Heart, a private all-girls Roman Catholic school. Gaga described her high school self as "very dedicated studious disciplined" but "a bit insecure", she considered herself a misfit and was mocked for "being either too provocative or too eccentric". Gaga began playing the piano at age four when her mother insisted she become "a cultured young woman", she practiced through her childhood. The lessons taught her to create music by ear, her parents encouraged her to pursue music, enrolled her in Creative Arts Camp. As a teenager, she played at open mic nights. Gaga played the lead roles of Adelaide in Guys and Dolls and Philia in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum at a nearby boys' high school, she studied method acting at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute for ten years. Gaga unsuccessfully auditioned for New York shows, though she did appear in a small role as a high school student in a 2001 episode of The Sopranos titled "The Telltale Moozadell".
She said of her inclination towards music: I don't know where my affinity for music comes from, but it is the thing that comes easiest to me. When I was like three years old, I may have been younger, my mom always tells this embarrassing story of me propping myself up and playing the keys like this because I was too young and short to get all the way up there. Just go like this on the low end of the piano... I was really good at piano, so my first instincts were to work so hard at practicing piano, I might not have been a natural dancer, but I am a natural musician; that is the thing. In 2003, at age 17, Gaga gained early admission to Collaborative Arts Project 21, a music school at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, lived in an NYU dorm, she studied music there, improved her songwriting skills by writing essays on art, social issues and politics, including a thesis on pop artists Spencer Tunick and Damien Hirst. She withdrew from school during the second semester of her sophomore year, in 2005, to focus on her music career.
That year she played an unsuspecting diner customer for MTV's Boiling Points, a prank reality television show. In
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Castilla y León
The Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Castilla y León, better known as the MUSAC, is a contemporary art museum in the city of León, Spain. Inaugurated in April 2005 by Felipe, Prince of Asturias, this cultural institution aims to be a "Museum of the Present", in the words of its curator Agustín Pérez Rubio, thus only collects artworks from the latest generation of artists, between 1992 and 2012; the museum has won international prestige for its 21st-century collection and innovative programming, being labelled, for example, as "one of the most astonishingly bold museums to hit the Spanish cultural landscape in years" by The New York Times. The MUSAC building is celebrated for its avant-garde architecture, it has been awarded a number of prizes, such as the 2007 European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture. Designed by the architectural studio of Luis M. Mansilla and Emilio Tuñón, the multicolored panels that adorn the exterior of the museum resemble the stained-glass windows of a cathedral.
The architects drew their inspiration for this work from the main rose window at the local 13th century Gothic cathedral, Santa María de León. MUSAC has become a landmark for the city of León, an emblem of the new 21st century Spanish architecture, as showcased in a 2006 exhibition at the MoMA of New York City, which selected the MUSAC as one of the arquitectural projects that make Spain today "an international center for design innovation and excellence". Official Website At a New Museum in Spain, a Contemporary Inspiration Drawn From Stained Glass Architectural analysis of MUSAC by Want Magazine
The Vienna Secession was an art movement formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters and architects; the first president of the Secession was Gustav Klimt, Rudolf von Alt was made honorary president. Its official magazine was called Ver Sacrum which featured decorative works representative of the period; the Vienna Secession was founded on 3 April 1897 by artists Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, Wilhelm Bernatzik and others. Although Otto Wagner is recognised as an important member of the Vienna Secession he was not a founding member; the Secession artists objected to the prevailing conservatism of the Vienna Künstlerhaus with its traditional orientation toward Historicism. The Berlin and Munich Secession movements preceded the Vienna Secession, which held its first exhibition in 1898; the group's exhibition policy was notable for providing the first dedicated space for contemporary art in the city, with the express aim of making contacts with international art movements and campaigning against nationalism in art.
This helped make others familiar to the Viennese public. The 14th Secession exhibition, designed by Josef Hoffmann and dedicated to Ludwig van Beethoven, was famous. A statue of Beethoven by Max Klinger stood at the center, with Klimt's Beethoven frieze mounted around it; the Klimt frieze can be seen in the gallery today. In 1903, Hoffmann and Moser founded the Wiener Werkstätte as a fine-arts society with the goal of reforming the applied arts. On 14 June 1905 Gustav Klimt and other artists seceded from the Vienna Secession due to differences of opinion over artistic concepts; the movement was as much philosophical as aesthetic. Unlike other movements, there is no one style that unites the work of artists who were part of the Vienna Secession; the Secession building most nearly represents the movement. Above its entrance is the phrase "Der Zeit ihre Kunst. Der Kunst ihre Freiheit.". Secession artists were concerned, above all else, with the possibilities of art outside the confines of academic tradition.
They hoped to create a new style that owed nothing to historical influence, in keeping with the spirit of turn-of-the-century Vienna. Along with painters and sculptors, there were several prominent architects who became associated with the Vienna Secession. During this time, architects focused on bringing purer geometric forms into the designs of their buildings. Though they had their own type of design, the inspiration came from neoclassical architecture, with the addition of leaves and natural motifs; the three main architects of this movement were Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Otto Wagner. Secessionist architects decorated the surface of their buildings with linear ornamentation in a form called whiplash or eel style, although Wagner's buildings tended towards greater simplicity and he has been regarded as a pioneer of modernism. In 1898, the group's exhibition house was built in the vicinity of Karlsplatz. Designed by Joseph Maria Olbrich, the exhibition building soon became known as "the Secession" and became an icon of the movement.
The secession building displayed art from several other influential artists such as Max Klinger, Eugène Grasset, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Arnold Bocklin. Otto Wagner's Majolika Haus in Vienna, part of Vienna Lines houses by Otto Wagner, is a significant example of the Austrian use of line. Other significant works of Otto Wagner include The Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station in Vienna, Austrian Postal Savings Bank in Vienna. Wagner's way of modifying Art Nouveau decoration in a classical manner did not find favour with some of his pupils who broke away to form the Secessionists. One was Josef Hoffmann. A good example of his work is the Stoclet Palace in Brussels; the Secession movement was selected as the theme for a commemorative coin: the 100 euro Secession commemorative coin minted on 10 November 2004. On the obverse side there is a view of the Secession exhibition hall in Vienna; the reverse side features a small portion of the Beethoven Frieze by Gustav Klimt. The extract from the painting features three figures: a knight in armor representing Armed Strength, one woman in the background symbolizing Ambition and holding up a wreath of victory, a second woman representing Sympathy with lowered head and clasped hands.
On the obverse side of the Austrian € 0,50 or 50 euro-cent coin, the Vienna Secession Building figures within a circle, symbolising the birth of art nouveau and a new age in the country. National Gallery, London, 2013, Facing the Modern: The Portrait in Vienna 1900 Schorske, Carl E. "Gustav Klimt: Painting and the Crisis of the Liberal Ego" in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture. Vintage Books, 1981. ISBN 978-0-394-74478-0 Borsi and Ezio Godoli. "Vienna 1900 Architecture and Design". New York, NY: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc, 1986. ISBN 978-0-8478-0616-4 Arnanson, Harvard H. "History of Modern Art". Ed. Daniel Wheeler. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc, 1986. ISBN 978-0-13-390360-7. Kathrin Romberg: Maurizio Cattelan. Text by Francesco Bonami, Wiener Secession, Wien. ISBN 3-900803-87-0 Topp, Leslie. "Architecture and truth in fin-de-siecle vienna". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-82275-6 "Architecture