A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals or on occasion by humans, used for transporting goods, agricultural materials and sometimes people. Wagons are distinguished from carts and from lighter four-wheeled vehicles for carrying people, such as carriages. Wagons are pulled by animals such as horses, mules or oxen, they may be pulled by one animal or by several in pairs or teams. However, there are examples such as mining corfs. A wagon was called a wain and one who builds or repairs wagons is a wainwright. More a wain is a type of horse- or oxen-drawn, load-carrying vehicle, used for agricultural purposes rather than transporting people. A wagon or cart four-wheeled. However, a two-wheeled "haywain" would be a hay cart, as opposed to a carriage. Wain is an archaic term for a chariot. Wain can be a verb, to carry or deliver, has other meanings. A person who drives wagons is called a "wagoner", a "teamster", a "bullocky", a "muleskinner", or a "driver"; the exact name and terminology used is dependent on the design or shape of the wagon.
If low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float. When traveling over long distances and periods, wagons may be covered with cloth to protect their contents from the elements. If it has a permanent top enclosing it, it may be called a "van". Turning radius was a longstanding problem with wagons, dictated by the distance between the front wheels and the bed of the wagon—namely, the point where the rotating wheels collide with the side of the wagon when turning. Many earlier designs required a large turning radius; as this is a problem that carts do not face, this factor, combined with their lighter weight, meant that carts were long preferred over wagons for many uses. The general solutions to this problem involved several modifications to the front-axle assembly; the front axle assembly of a wagon consists of an axle, a pair of wheels and a round plate with a pin in its centre that sits halfway between the wheels. A round plate with a hole in its centre is located on the underside of the wagon.
The plate on the wagon, in turn, sits on the plate on the axle between the wheels. This arrangement allows wheels to turn horizontally; the pin and hole arrangement could be reversed. The horse harness is attached to this assembly. To enable the wagon to turn in as little space as possible, the front pair of wheels are made smaller than the rear pair to allow them to turn close under the vehicle sides, to allow them to turn still further, the wagon body may be waisted; this technique led to further designs well-adapted to narrow areas. Wagons have served numerous purposes, with numerous corresponding designs; as with motorized vehicles, some are designed to serve as many functions as possible, while others are specialized. This section will discuss a broad overview of the general classes of wagons. Farm wagons are built for general multi-purpose usage in an rural setting; these include gathering hay and wood, delivering them to the farmstead or market. A common form found throughout Europe is the leiterwagen, a large wagon where the sides consist of ladders strapped in place to hold in hay or grain, though these could be removed to serve other needs.
A common type of farm wagon particular to North America is the buckboard. Freight wagons are wagons used for the overland hauling of bulk commodities. In the United States and Canada, the Conestoga wagon was a predominant form of wagon used for hauling freight in the late 18th and 19th centuries used for hauling goods on the Great Wagon Road in the Appalachian Valley and across the Appalachian Mountains. Larger freight wagons existed. For instance, the "twenty-mule team" wagons, used for hauling borax from Death Valley, could haul 36 short tons per pair; the wagons' bodies were 6 feet deep. A delivery wagon is a wagon used to deliver merchandise such as milk, bread, or produce to houses or markets, as well as to commercial customers in urban settings; the concept of express wagons and of paneled delivery vans developed in the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, delivery wagons were finely painted and varnished, so as to serve as advertisement for the particular business through the quality of the wagon.
Special forms of delivery wagon include a milk wagon. Some wagons are intended to serve as mobile workshops; these include a traditional wagon of the 19th-century British Romani people. The steam wagon, a self-powered development of the horse-drawn wagon, was a late innovation, entering service only in the late nineteenth century. In the city center of Schwäbisch Gmünd, since 1992 the city's plants are irrigated using a horse-drawn wagon with a water tank. In migration and military settings, wagons were found in large groups called wagon trains. In warfare, large groups of supply wagons were used to support traveling armies with food and munitio
Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. While the practice of wine tasting is as ancient as its production, a more formalized methodology has become established from the 14th century onwards. Modern, professional wine tasters use a evolving specialized terminology, used to describe the range of perceived flavors and general characteristics of a wine. More informal, recreational tasting may use similar terminology involving a much less analytical process for a more general, personal appreciation. Results contradicting the reliability of wine tasting in both experts and consumers have surfaced through scientific blind wine tasting, such as inconsistency in identifying wines based on region and price; the Sumerian stories of Gilgamesh in the 3rd millennium BCE differentiate the popular beers of Mesopotamia, as well as wines from Zagros Mountains or Lebanon. In the fourth century BCE, Plato listed the main flavors of wine, classified the aromas as "species", or families. Aristotle proposed a sensory tasting defined by the four elements further deepened by the Roman noblewoman Lucretia in the first century BCE.
Although the practice of tasting is as old as the history of wine, the term "tasting" first appeared in 1519. The methodology of wine tasting was formalized by the 18th century when Linnaeus and others brought an understanding of tasting up to date. In 2004, Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their contribution to the knowledge of the senses of taste and smell; the results of the four recognized stages to wine tasting: appearance "in glass" the aroma of the wine "in mouth" sensations "finish" – are combined in order to establish the following properties of a wine: complexity and character potential possible faultsA wine's overall quality assessment, based on this examination, follows further careful description and comparison with recognized standards, both with respect to other wines in its price range and according to known factors pertaining to the region or vintage. Whereas wines are tasted in isolation, a wine's quality assessment is more objective when performed alongside several other wines, in what are known as tasting "flights".
Wines may be deliberately selected for their vintage or proceed from a single winery, to better compare vineyard and vintages, respectively. Alternatively, in order to promote an unbiased analysis and glasses may be disguised in a "blind" tasting, to rule out any prejudicial awareness of either vintage or winery. To ensure impartial judgment of a wine, it should be served blind – that is, without the taster having seen the label or bottle shape. Blind tasting may involve serving the wine from a black wine glass to mask the color of the wine. A taster's judgment can be prejudiced by knowing details of a wine, such as geographic origin, reputation, color, or other considerations. Scientific research has long demonstrated the power of suggestion in perception as well as the strong effects of expectancies. For example, people expect more expensive wine to have more desirable characteristics than less expensive wine; when given wine that they are falsely told is expensive they always report it as tasting better than the same wine when they are told that it is inexpensive.
French researcher Frédéric Brochet "submitted a mid-range Bordeaux in two different bottles, one labeled as a cheap table wine, the other bearing a grand cru etiquette." Tasters described the supposed grand cru as "woody and round" and the supposed cheap wine as "short and faulty." People have expectations about wines because of their geographic origin, vintage and many other factors. For example, when Brochet served a white wine he received all the usual descriptions: "fresh, honeyed, lively." He served the same wine dyed red and received the usual red terms: "intense, supple, deep."One of the most famous instances of blind testing is known as the Judgment of Paris, a wine competition held in 1976 where French judges blind-tested wines from France and California. Against all expectations, California wines bested French wines according to the judges, a result which would have been unlikely in a non-blind contest; this event was depicted in the 2008 movie Bottle Shock. Another well-publicized double-blind taste test was conducted in 2011 by Prof. Richard Wiseman of the University of Hertfordshire.
In a wine tasting experiment using 400 participants, Wiseman found that general members of the public were unable to distinguish expensive wines from inexpensive ones. "People just could not tell the difference between cheap and expensive wine". In 2001, the University of Bordeaux asked 54 undergraduate students to test two glasses of wine: one red, one white; the participants commented on its crushed red fruit. The participants failed to recognize; the only difference was. For 6 years, Texas A&M University invited people to taste wines labeled "France", "California", "Texas", while nearly all ranked the French as best, in fact, all three were the same Texan wine; the contest is built on the simple theory that if people do not know what they are drinking, they award points differently than if they do know what they are drinking. Vertical and horizontal wine tastings are
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries. They are classified in the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium. Vaccinium includes cranberries and huckleberries. Commercial "blueberries" – including both wild and cultivated blueberries – are all native to North America; the highbush blueberry varieties were introduced into Europe during the 1930s. Blueberries are prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from 10 centimeters to 4 meters in height. In commercial production of blueberries, the species with small, pea–size berries growing on low–level bushes are known as "lowbush blueberries", while the species with larger berries growing on taller cultivated bushes are known as "highbush blueberries"; the leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, 1–8 cm long and 0.5–3.5 cm broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish; the fruit is a berry 5–16 millimeters in diameter with a flared crown at the end. They are covered in a protective coating of powdery epicuticular wax, colloquially known as the "bloom".
They have a sweet taste, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the peak of the crop, in the northern hemisphere, can vary from May to August; the genus Vaccinium has a circumpolar distribution, with species being present in North America and Asia. Many commercially sold species with English common names including "blueberry" are from North America. Many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations. Several other wild shrubs of the genus Vaccinium produce eaten blue berries, such as the predominantly European Vaccinium myrtillus and other bilberries, which in many languages have a name that translates to "blueberry" in English. See the Identification section for more information. Note: habitat and range summaries are from the Flora of New Brunswick, published in 1986 by Harold R. Hinds, Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast, published in 1994 by Pojar and MacKinnon.
Some other blue-fruited species of Vaccinium: Vaccinium koreanum Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium uliginosum Commercially offered blueberries are from species that occur only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world, including the Pacific Northwest and southern United States, South America and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries, such as huckleberries and whortleberries and bilberries; these species are sometimes sold as blueberry jam or other products. The names of blueberries in languages other than English translate as "blueberry", e.g. Scots blaeberry and Norwegian blåbær. Blaeberry, blåbær and French myrtilles refer to the European native bilberry, while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Russian голубика does not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and nearly unknown in Russia, but rather to their close relatives, bog bilberries. Cyanococcus blueberries can be distinguished from the nearly identical-looking bilberries by their flesh color when cut in half.
Ripe blueberries have light green flesh, while bilberries and huckleberries are red or purple throughout. Blueberries are sold fresh or are processed as individually quick frozen fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries; these may be used in a variety of consumer goods, such as jellies, blueberry pies, snack foods, or as an additive to breakfast cereals. Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar and fruit pectin. Blueberry sauce is a sweet sauce prepared using blueberries as a primary ingredient. Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berry, fermented and matured. Blueberries consist of 84 % water, they contain only negligible amounts of micronutrients, with moderate levels of the essential dietary mineral manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber. Nutrient contents of blueberries are a low percentage of the DV. One serving provides a low caloric value of 57 kcal per 100 g serving and glycemic load score of 6 out of 100 per day. Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals under preliminary research for their potential role in the human body.
Most polyphenol studies have been conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries, while content of polyphenols and anthocyanins in lowbush blueberries exceeds values found in highbush cultivars. Blueberries may be cultivated. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry. Hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U. S. climates are known collectively as southern highbush blueberries. So-called "wild" blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, have intense color; the lowbush blueberry, V. angustifolium, is found from the Atlantic provinces westward to Quebec and southward to Michigan and West Virginia. In some areas, it produces natural
The Muscat family of grapes includes over 200 grape varieties belonging to the Vitis vinifera species that have been used in wine production and as raisin and table grapes around the globe for many centuries. Their colors range from white, to pink to near black. Muscat grapes and wines always have a pronounced sweet floral aroma; the breadth and number of varieties of Muscat suggest that it is the oldest domesticated grape variety, there are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape variety are descended from the Muscat variety. Among the most notable members of the Muscat family are Muscat blanc à Petits Grains, the primary grape variety used in the production of the Italian sparkling wine Asti made in the Piedmont region, it is used in the production of many of the French fortified wines known as vin doux naturels. In Australia, this is the main grape used in the production of Liqueur Muscat, from the Victorian wine region of Rutherglen. Young and unfortified examples of Muscat blanc tend to exhibit the characteristic Muscat "grapey" aroma as well as citrus and peach notes.
Fortified and aged examples tend to be dark in color due to oxidation with aroma notes of coffee, fruit cake and toffee. Muscat of Alexandria is another Muscat variety used in the production of French vin doux naturel, but it is found in Spain, where it is used to make many of the fortified Spanish Moscatels. Elsewhere it is used to make off-dry to sweet white wines labeled as Moscato in Australia and South Africa. In Alsace and parts of Central Europe, Muscat Ottonel is used to produce dry and perfumed wines. Theories about the origins of Muscat grapes date ancestors of the varieties back to the ancient Egyptians and Persians of early antiquity while some ampelographers, such as Pierre Galet, believe that the family of Muscat varieties were propagated during the period of classical antiquity by the Greeks and Romans. However, while domestic wine production had a long history in ancient Egypt and Persia and classical writers such as Columella and Pliny the Elder did describe "muscat-like" grape varieties such as Anathelicon Moschaton and Apianae that were sweet and attractive to bees, there is no solid historical evidence that these early wine grapes were members of the Muscat family.
The first documented mention of grapes called "muscat" was in the works of the English Franciscan scholar Bartholomeus Anglicus who wrote of wine made from Muscat grapes in his work De proprietatibus rerum written between 1230 and 1240 while Anglicus was studying in what is now modern Saxony in Germany. Anglicus' Latin work was translated into French in 1372 with the wine being described by Anglicus as "vin extrait de raisins muscats"; because the exact origins of the Muscat family cannot be pinpointed, the theories as to the origins of the name "Muscat" are numerous. The most cited belief is the name is derived from the Persian word muchk. Similar etymology follows Latin muscus and French musc. In Italy, the Italian word mosca for fly could be one possibility with the sweet aroma and high sugar levels of Muscat grapes being a common attractant for insects such as fruit flies. Other theories suggest that the grape family originated in the Arabian country of Oman and was named after the city of Muscat located on the coast of the Gulf of Oman.
Another city, sometimes suggested as a potential birthplace/namesake is the Greek city of Moschato, located southwest of Athens in Attica with Moschato being a common synonym in Greece for Muscat varieties. Of the more than 200 grape varieties sharing "Muscat" in their name, the majority are not related to each other; the exception are the members of the Muscat blanc à Petits Muscat of Alexandria families. In the early 21st century, DNA analysis showed that Muscat of Alexandria was, itself, a natural crossing of Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and a black-skinned table grape variety from the Greek islands known as Axina de Tres Bias. Seen outside of Greece, Axina de Tres Bias is grown in Malta and Sardinia. Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat of Alexandria, have crossed and have produced at least 14 different grape varieties, 5 of which are cultivated in South America and 9 still found in Italy though none are of major use in wine production. More notable and planted offspring have come from Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat of Alexandria crossing with other grape varieties, such as the Argentine wine grapes of Cereza, Torrontés Riojano and Torrontés Sanjuanino, stemming from a cross of Muscat of Alexandria with "Listán negro" Muscat of Alexandria has been crossed with the German / Italian wine grape Trollinger to produce Muscat of Hamburg and Malvasia del Lazio, with the Italian wine grapes Catarratto bianco and Bombino bianco to produce the Marsala wine grape Grillo and Moscatello Selvatico, respectively.
Muscat Ottonel is the result of a crossing between one Muscat variety, "Muscat d'Eisenstadt", with the Swiss wine grape ChasselasMuscat blanc à Petits Grains has been identified as one of the parent grapes of several varieties, though with which crossing partner is unknown. These include the Italian wine grapes Aleatico, Moscato Giallo, Moscato rosa del Trentino and Moscato di Scanzo. DNA analysis was able to identify t
Alcohol laws of New Jersey
The state laws governing alcoholic drinks in New Jersey are among the most complex in the United States, with many peculiarities not found in other states' laws. They provide for 29 distinct liquor licenses granted to manufacturers, wholesalers and for the public warehousing and transport of alcoholic drinks. General authority for the statutory and regulatory control of alcoholic drinks rests with the state government the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control overseen by the state's Attorney General. Under home rule, New Jersey law grants individual municipalities substantial discretion in passing ordinances regulating the sale and consumption of alcoholic drinks within their limits; the number of retail licenses available is determined by a municipality's population, may be further limited by the town's governing body. As a result, the availability of alcohol and regulations governing it vary from town to town. A small percentage of municipalities in the state are "dry towns" that do not allow alcoholic drinks to be sold, do not issue retail licenses for bars or restaurants to serve alcohol to patrons.
Other towns permit alcohol sales 24 hours a day. Retail licenses tend to be difficult to obtain, when available are subject to exorbitant prices and fervent competition. In addition to granting local governments wide latitude over liquor sales, New Jersey law has some other unusual features. Corporations are limited to two retail distribution licenses, making it impractical for chain stores to sell alcoholic drinks. State law treats drunk driving as a traffic offense rather than a crime, permits individual municipalities to define the scope of underage drinking laws. New Jersey's history of taverns and alcohol production dates to its early colonial period. Colonial winemakers received recognition by the Royal Society of Arts for producing high-quality wine, a local distillery owner was asked by George Washington for his recipe for "cyder spirits". Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, the industry developed with the influx of European immigrants Germans and Italians, who presented a sizable market for alcoholic drinks and brought with them old world winemaking and distilling techniques.
With the rise of the temperance movement culminating in Prohibition, New Jersey's alcohol industry suffered. The legacy of Prohibition restricted and prevented the industry's recovery until the state legislature began loosening restrictions and repealing Prohibition-era laws starting in 1981. New Jersey's alcohol industry is experiencing a renaissance, enacted laws provide new opportunities for the state's wineries and breweries. New Jersey's laws and regulations regarding alcohol are overseen by the Department of Law and Public Safety's Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, managed by the state's Attorney General; the current director of the Alcohol Beverage Control division is Dave Rible. State and municipal laws, including those that regulate alcoholic drinks, apply in all territorial waters which includes inland rivers and bays, tidal waters up to three nautical miles from the New Jersey shoreline. Starting in 1738, towns in New Jersey began issuing liquor licenses to tavern keepers. Before federal Prohibition in 1919, despite many state liquor statutes, the regulation of alcoholic drinks in New Jersey was exclusively local, with wide variations among municipalities.
In 1933, after the repeal of Prohibition, the states were again permitted to regulate alcoholic drinks. Upon the end of Prohibition in 1933, New Jersey instituted the Alcoholic Beverage Control Law, which established and granted rulemaking powers to the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control; the law established a three-tier alcohol distribution system whereby, with minor exceptions, alcohol manufacturers may only sell to wholesalers, who may only sell to retailers, who may only sell to customers. New Jersey's alcohol laws and regulations are codified in Title 33 of the New Jersey Statutes, Title 13, Chapter 2 of the New Jersey Administrative Code respectively. After New Jersey's current state constitution was adopted in 1947 and some departments were consolidated, the department was incorporated into the Department of Law and Public Safety under the New Jersey Attorney General's office; the statutes define an alcoholic drink as "any fluid or solid capable of being converted into a fluid, suitable for human consumption, having an alcohol content of more than one-half of one per centum by volume, including alcohol, lager beer, porter fermented wine, treated wine, blended wine, fortified wine, sparkling wine, distilled liquors, blended distilled liquors and any brewed, fermented or distilled liquors fit for use for drink purposes or any mixture of the same, fruit juices."
New Jersey has a strong tradition of municipal home rule. Local municipalities thus have considerable authority in the licensing and regulating of alcohol-related businesses; these powers include: limiting the number of licenses to sell alcoholic beverages at retail, limiting the hours of retail alcohol sales, prohibiting the retail sale of alcoholic beverages on Sunday, regulating the conduct of any retail establishment licensed to sell alcoholic beverages, regulating the nature and condition of the licensed premises limiting persons within the municipality to a single liquor license, limiting a license to cover only the specific licensed premises.
Mercer County, New Jersey
Mercer County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is the state capital; the county constitutes the Trenton-Ewing, NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area and is considered part of the New York Metropolitan Area by the United States Census Bureau, but directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is included within the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area and the greater Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 374,733, making it the state's 12th-most populous county, an increase of 2.2% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 366,513, in turn an increase of 15,752 from the 350,761 enumerated in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the 12th-most populous county in the state. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $63,247, the sixth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 121st of 3,113 counties in the United States.
Mercer County stands among the highest-income counties in the United States, with the Bureau of Economic Analysis having ranked the county as having the 78th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 22, 1838, from portions of Burlington County, Hunterdon County, Middlesex County; the former Keith Line bisects the county and is the boundary between municipalities, separated into West Jersey and East Jersey. It was named for Continental Army General Hugh Mercer, who died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777; the Mercer Oak, against which the dying general rested as his men continued to fight, appears on the county seal and stood for 250 years until it collapsed in 2000. Mercer County is home to Princeton University, Princeton Theological Seminary, the Institute for Advanced Study, Rider University, The College of New Jersey, Thomas Edison State University and Mercer County Community College.
Trenton-Mercer Airport, in Ewing Township, is a commercial and corporate aviation airport serving Mercer County and its surrounding vicinity. The official residence of the governor of New Jersey, known as Drumthwacket, is located in Princeton, is listed on both the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. Founded February 22, 1838, from portions of surrounding counties, Mercer County has a historical impact that reaches back to the pivotal battles of the American Revolutionary War. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington led American forces across the Delaware River to attack the Hessian barracks in Trenton on the morning of December 26 known as the First Battle of Trenton. Following the battle, Washington crossed back to Pennsylvania, he crossed a third time in a surprise attack on the forces of General Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek, on January 2, 1777 known as the Second Battle of Trenton, at the Battle of Princeton on January 3.
The successful attacks built morale among the pro-independence colonists. Mercer County has the distinction of being the famed landing spot for a fictional Martian invasion of the United States. In 1938, in what has become one of the most famous American radio plays of all time, Orson Welles acted out his The War of the Worlds invasion, his imaginary aliens first "landed" at what is now West Windsor Township. A commemorative monument is erected at Grover's Mill park. There were 27 Mercer County residents killed during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in Lower Manhattan. A 10-foot long steel beam weighing one ton was given to the county by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in March 2011 and is now displayed at Mercer County Park. According to the 2010 Census, Mercer County had a total area of 228.89 square miles, including 224.56 square miles of land and 4.33 square miles of water. The county is flat and low-lying on the inner coastal plain with a few hills closer to the Delaware River.
Baldpate Mountain, near Pennington, is the highest hill, at 480 feet above sea level. The lowest point is at sea level along the Delaware; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 366,513 people, 133,155 households, 89,480.160 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,632.2 per square mile. There were 143,169 housing units at an average density of 637.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.39% White, 20.28% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 8.94% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 6.24% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.09% of the population. There were 133,155 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.8% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the county, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 26.9% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.8 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 an
Autumn known as fall in American English and sometimes in Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer to winter, in September or March, when the duration of daylight becomes noticeably shorter and the temperature cools considerably. One of its main features in temperate climates is the shedding of leaves from deciduous trees; some cultures regard the autumnal equinox as "mid-autumn", while others with a longer temperature lag treat it as the start of autumn. Meteorologists use a definition based on Gregorian calendar months, with autumn being September and November in the northern hemisphere, March and May in the southern hemisphere. In North America, autumn traditionally starts on September 21 and ends on December 21, it is considered to end with the winter solstice. Popular culture in the United States associates Labor Day, the first Monday in September, as the end of summer and the start of autumn; as daytime and nighttime temperatures decrease, trees shed their leaves.
In traditional East Asian solar term, autumn starts on or around 8 August and ends on or about 7 November. In Ireland, the autumn months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are September and November. However, according to the Irish Calendar, based on ancient Gaelic traditions, autumn lasts throughout the months of August and October, or a few days depending on tradition; the names of the months in Manx Gaelic are based on autumn covering August and October. In Argentina and New Zealand, autumn begins on 1 March and ends on 31 May; the word autumn comes from the ancient Etruscan root autu- and has within it connotations of the passing of the year. It was borrowed by the neighbouring Romans, became the Latin word autumnus. After the Roman era, the word continued to be used as the Old French word autompne or autumpne in Middle English, was normalised to the original Latin. In the Medieval period, there are rare examples of its use as early as the 12th century, but by the 16th century, it was in common use.
Before the 16th century, harvest was the term used to refer to the season, as it is common in other West Germanic languages to this day. However, as more people moved from working the land to living in towns, the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, autumn, as well as fall, began to replace it as a reference to the season; the alternative word fall for the season traces its origins to old Germanic languages. The exact derivation is unclear, with the Old English fiæll or feallan and the Old Norse fall all being possible candidates. However, these words all have the meaning "to fall from a height" and are derived either from a common root or from each other; the term came to denote the season in 16th-century England, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year". During the 17th century, English emigration to the British colonies in North America was at its peak, the new settlers took the English language with them.
While the term fall became obsolete in Britain, it became the more common term in North America. The name backend, a once common name for the season in Northern England, has today been replaced by the name autumn. Association with the transition from warm to cold weather, its related status as the season of the primary harvest, has dominated its themes and popular images. In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits and grains that ripen at this time. Many cultures feature autumnal harvest festivals the most important on their calendars. Still extant echoes of these celebrations are found in the autumn Thanksgiving holiday of the United States and Canada, the Jewish Sukkot holiday with its roots as a full-moon harvest festival of "tabernacles". There are the many North American Indian festivals tied to harvest of ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or Moon festival, many others; the predominant mood of these autumnal celebrations is a gladness for the fruits of the earth mixed with a certain melancholy linked to the imminent arrival of harsh weather.
This view is presented in English poet John Keats' poem To Autumn, where he describes the season as a time of bounteous fecundity, a time of'mellow fruitfulness'. In North America, while most foods are harvested during the autumn, foods associated with the season include pumpkins and apples, which are used to make the seasonal beverage apple cider. Autumn in poetry, has been associated with melancholia; the possibilities and opportunities of summer are gone, the chill of winter is on the horizon. Skies turn grey, the amount of usable daylight drops and many people turn inward, both physically and mentally, it has been referred to as an unhealthy season. Similar examples may be found in Irish poet William Butler Yeats' poem The Wild Swans at Coole where the maturing season that the poet observes symbolically represents his own ageing self. Like the natural world that he observes, he too has reached his prime and now must look forward to the inevitability of old age and death. French p