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Term limit

A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader becomes "president for life"; this is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve. Term limits have a long history. Ancient Athens and Ancient Rome, two early classic republics, had term limits imposed on their elected offices as did the city-state of Venice. In ancient Athenian democracy, only offices selected by sortition were subject to term limits. Elected offices were all subject to possible re-election, although they were minoritarian, these positions were more prestigious and those requiring the most experience, such as military generals and the superintendent of springs. In the Roman Republic, a law was passed imposing a limit of a single term on the office of censor.

The annual magistrates—tribune of the plebs, quaestor and consul—were forbidden reelection until a number of years had passed.. There was a term limit of 6 months for a dictator. Many modern presidential republics employ term limits for their highest offices; the United States placed a limit of two terms on its presidency by means of the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1951. There are no term limits for Vice Presidency and Senators, although there have been calls for term limits for those offices. Under various state laws, some state governors and state legislators have term limits. Formal limits in America date back to the 1682 Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties, the colonial frame of government of the same year, authored by William Penn and providing for triennial rotation of the Provincial Council, the upper house of the colonial legislature.. The Russian Federation has a rule for the head of state that allows the President of Russia to serve more than two terms if not consecutive. For governors of federal subjects, the same two-term limit existed until 2004, but now there are no term limits for governors.

Term limits are common in Latin America, where most countries are presidential republics. Early in the last century, the Mexican revolutionary Francisco Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo, no Reelección. In keeping with that principle, members of the Congress of Mexico cannot be reelected for the next immediate term under article 50 and 59 of the Constitution of Mexico, adopted in 1917; the President of Mexico is limited to a single six-year term, called the Sexenio. This makes every presidential election in Mexico a non-incumbent election. Countries that operate a parliamentary system of government are less to employ term limits on their leaders; this is because such leaders have a set "term" at all: rather, they serve as long as they have the confidence of the parliament, a period which could last for life. Many parliaments can be dissolved for snap elections which means some parliaments can last for mere months while others can continue until their expiration dates; such countries may impose term limits on the holders of other offices—in republics, for example, a ceremonial presidency may have a term limit if the office holds reserve powers.

Term limits may be divided into two broad categories: lifetime. With consecutive term limits, an officeholder is limited to serving a particular number of terms in that particular office. Upon hitting the limit in one office, an officeholder may not run for the same office again. After a set period of time, the clock resets on the limit, the officeholder may run for election to his/her original office and serve up to the limit again. With lifetime limits, once an officeholder has served up to the limit, he/she may never again run for election to that office. Lifetime limits are much more restrictive than consecutive limits. Research shows that legislative term limits increase legislative polarization, reduce the legislative skills of politicians, reduce the legislative productivity of politicians, weaken legislatures vis-a-vis the executive, reduce voter turnout. Parties respond to the implementation of term limits by recruiting candidates for office on more partisan lines. Term limits have not reduced campaign spending, reduced the gender gap in political representation, increased the diversity of law-makers, increased the constituent service activities of law-makers.

Term limits in the United States Term of office List of political term limits Reelection Real Term Limits: Now More Than Ever, an article by Doug Bandow in favor of term limits Legislative Term Limits: An Overview at the Library of Congress Web Archives, term limits information from the National Conference of State Legislatures

Agios Nikolaos, Chalkidiki

Agios Nikolaos is a village located 120 kilometers south-east from Thessaloniki on the Chalkidiki peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. Agios Nikolaos sits on the north-eastern top of Sithonia peninsula, smallest east-west diameter of Sithonia; the village Agios Nikolaos itself is closest to the Singitic Gulf 1,5 km. away. However, its territory is quite extensive. To the north-east it borders the village of Pyrgadikia at Salonikiou Beach. To the north it borders the village of Metangitsi. In the west and south-west it is neighboring the village of Nikiti. To the south it runs up to Armenistis Beach, a part of the village of Sarti. Agios Nikolaos' landscapes show a substantial variability. In the plains east and south-east of the village agriculture predominates with olive trees as the main cultivated plant. Forests are lacking. Toward the south, the Itamos mountain range of Sithonia gain height, is covered with forest. Towards its northeastern extension significant parts of the village territory is covered with forests.

In all parts of the village territory plains or smooth hill segments are devoted to agriculture. On the beaches there are hotels and pensions as well as individual homes that have been built since the 1980s; the highest point within Agios Nikolaos territory is mount Karvounas in the south-west. A couple of settlements do belong to Agios Nikolaos, as there are: Vourvourou – located 10 km south-east. Vourvourou is a village near Agios Nikolaos, in the Chalkidiki peninsula of northern Greece, it is best known as a holiday destination. Close to Vourvourou are the settlements of Fteroti. Diasporos island is close to Vourvourou. Salonikiou Beach – located 8 km north-east. Akti Salonikiou is the area around the beach of Salonikiou on the northeast coast of Sithonia, between Ormos Panagias and Pyrgadikia; the closest village is Metangitsi. Most of the buildings in the region are private villas but there are some studios and apartments to rent; the beach is more than 1 km long, with 5 то 25 meters width. Ormos Panagias – located 4 km east/south-east, serving as the villages port.

Ormos Panagias is an important port for Halkidiki. Considered as being a part of Agios Nikolaos, the port of Ormos Panagias is located just a few kilometres to the south; the amount of accommodation and restaurants that have collected around this harbour has made it grow into somewhat of its own village built around an existing old church. Though it is not recognized as a village, Ormos Panagias is considered a Halkidiki resort in its own right that attracts many people. Agios Nikolaos was an independent municipality. In 2001 widespread rearrangement of Greek local administrative divisions was undertaken; this resulted in Agios Nikolaos being combined with the municipality of Sithonia and with the villages of Nikiti, Neos Marmaras, Metangitsi. Agios Nikolaos has 1,714 inhabitants. Including the settlements of Vourvourou, Salonikiou Beach, Ormos Panagias, the population is 1,895. All inhabitants are indigenous Greeks. After the rise of tourism, some non-Greeks do settle permanently in Agios Nikolaos, for example, Germans and Austrians.

During the holiday period, the population may rise to 10,000. Traditionally, inhabitants of Agios Nikolaos had two economic mainstays: fishery. Agriculture was devoted to olive trees and winery. Fishery was limited to the waters of the Singitic Gulf. Since the 1980s, tourism replaced agriculture as economic mainstay. Inhabitants have built own hotels and pensions or sold-off their agricultural land for real estate purposes. Concomitantly, living standards have risen significantly; the village's history starts back in the 16th century. Other sources point back to the 14th century. Little is known through written records; as traditional story-telling recounts, Agios Nikolaos was moved from the sea into the land because of repeated attacks by pirates. But this information lacks historic proof. One indicator of the former village position however can be found at Pyrgos Beach, where remains of a watchtower of Byzantine origin can be found; the ancient city of Singos, which gave its name to the Singitic Gulf, was located within Agios Nikolaos' territory.

It was near the Vourvourou bay on Livari peninsula, where an ancient wall of large stones is still visible. Individual reports mention remains of an ancient port at the same location. No excavation was performed to confirm position and location of ancient Singos and significant remains of buildings are not evident. Agios Nikolaos has following public facilities: police station health center pharmacies post office ATM radio station volunteer firefighters stationAgios Nikolaos does not have a bank; the nearest bank is located in Nikiti. Agios Nikolaos lies adjacent to the road leading from Nikiti from Nikiti to Pyrgadikia. All roads are covered with asphalt. There is no link to a railroad.. Ormos Panagias serves as port of Agios Nikolaos. Daily cruises to Mount Athos' west coast take off from that port, it serves as home port of the village's fishery boats. Air traffic is managed by the international airport of Thessaloniki. Bus traffic is the mainstay of public transport in Agios Nikolaos, as is in Chalkidiki and in Greece as a whole.

Daily connections to Thessaloniki

Gunshot wound

A gunshot wound is physical trauma caused by a bullet from a firearm. Damage may include bleeding, broken bones, organ damage, infection of the wound, or loss of the ability to move part of the body. Damage depends on the part of the body hit, the path the bullet follows through the body, the type and speed of the bullet. Long term complications can post traumatic stress disorder. Factors that determine rates of firearm violence vary by country; these factors may include the illegal drug trade, access to firearms, substance misuse including alcohol, mental health problems, firearm laws, social and economic differences. Where guns are more common, altercations more end in death. Before management begins it should be verified the area is safe; this is followed by stopping major bleeding, than assessing and supporting the airway and circulation. Firearm laws background checks and permit to purchase, decrease the risk of death from firearms. Safer firearm storage may decrease the risk of firearm related deaths in children.

In 2015 about a million gunshot wounds occurred from interpersonal violence. In 2016, firearms resulted in 251,000 deaths globally, up from 209,000 in 1990. Of these deaths 161,000 were the result of assault, 67,500 were the result of suicide, 23,000 were accidents. In the United States, guns result in about 40,000 deaths in 2017. Firearm related deaths are most common in males between the ages of 20 to 24 years. Economic costs due to gunshot wounds have been estimated at $US 140 billion a year in the United States. Trauma from a gunshot wound varies based on the bullet, mass, entry point and affected anatomy. Gunshot wounds can be devastating compared to other penetrating injuries because the trajectory and fragmentation of bullets can be unpredictable after entry. Additionally, gunshot wounds involve a large degree of nearby tissue disruption and destruction due to the physical effects of the projectile correlated with the bullet velocity classification; the immediate damaging effect of a gunshot wound is severe bleeding, with it the potential for hypovolemic shock, a condition characterized by inadequate delivery of oxygen to vital organs.

In the case of traumatic hypovolemic shock, this failure of adequate oxygen delivery is due to blood loss, as blood is the means of delivering oxygen to the body's constituent parts. Devastating effects can result when a bullet strikes a vital organ such as the heart, lungs or liver, or damages a component of the central nervous system such as the spinal cord or brain. Common causes of death following gunshot injury include bleeding, low oxygen caused by pneumothorax, catastrophic injury to the heart and major blood vessels, damage to the brain or central nervous system. Non-fatal gunshot wounds have mild to severe long-lasting effects some form of major disfigurement such as amputation due to a severe bone fracture, may cause permanent disability; the degree of tissue disruption caused by a projectile is related to the cavitation the projectile creates as it passes through tissue. A bullet with sufficient energy will have a cavitation effect in addition to the penetrating track injury; as the bullet passes through the tissue crushing lacerating, the space left forms a cavity.

Higher-velocity bullets create a pressure wave that forces the tissues away, creating not only a permanent cavity the size of the caliber of the bullet but a temporary cavity or secondary cavity, many times larger than the bullet itself. The temporary cavity is the radial stretching of tissue around the bullet's wound track, which momentarily leaves an empty space caused by high pressures surrounding the projectile that accelerate material away from its path; the extent of cavitation, in turn, is related to the following characteristics of the projectile: Kinetic energy: KE = 1/2mv2. This helps to explain why wounds produced by projectiles of higher mass and/or higher velocity produce greater tissue disruption than projectiles of lower mass and velocity; the velocity of the bullet is a more important determinant of tissue injury. Although both mass and velocity contribute to the overall energy of the projectile, the energy is proportional to the mass while proportional to the square of its velocity.

As a result, for constant velocity, if the mass is doubled, the energy is doubled. The initial velocity of a bullet is dependent on the firearm; the US military uses 5.56-mm bullets, which have a low mass as compared with other bullets. As a result, they produce a larger amount of kinetic energy, transmitted to the tissues of the target; the size of the temporary cavity is proportional to the kinetic energy of the bullet and depends on the resistance of the tissue to stress. Muzzle energy, based on muzzle velocity, is used for ease of comparison. Yaw Handgun bullets will travel in a straight line or make one turn if a bone is hit. Upon travel through deeper tissue, high-energy rounds may become unstable as they decelerate, may tumble as the energy of the projectile is absorbed, causing stretching and tearing of the surrounding tissue. Fragmentation Most bullets do not fragment, secondary damage from fragments of shattered bone is a more common complication than bullet fragments. Gunshot wounds are classified according to the speed of the projectile: Low-velocity: < 1,100 ft/s Medium-velocity: 1,100 ft/s