2016 Dakar Rally
The 2016 Dakar Rally was the 38th edition of the event and the eighth successive year that the event was held in South America. The event started in Buenos Aires, Argentina on January 2 ran through Argentina and Bolivia. Sébastien Loeb and Mikko Hirvonen made their debuts in rally-raid, driving for Peugeot and MINI respectively; the victory in cars category was contested in court by runner-up X-Raid Team. ASO soon faced problems planning the 2016 rally. Chile refused to take the rally, the first time since Dakar is being held in South America, with just 4 months to the start, Peru refused to take the rally. Without Atacama Desert and Andes, the rally was based in Argentina with lots of fast stages on closed narrow tracks WRC style, a lack of stages in full open terrain with heavy navigation issues; the biggest issue that the competitors faced was the weather phenomenon El Niño which shortened most of the stages due to heavy rain and massive heat. All these problems led to a big criticism and made Dakar director Étienne Lavigne announce a possible change of the rally to Southern Africa, aiming to put pressure on South American countries.
He would announce that the rally would remain in South America, was looking for new countries. The rally was won by 2015 rookie Toby Price, continuing the KTM dominance, with Honda still suffering from a lack of reliability. Patronelli brothers dominated in Quads, while Peugeot returned with a better car than the rivals, as the Peugeot 2008 DKR led from the first real stage until the end of the rally; the debutant Sébastien Loeb dominated the first week, but in the end, the victory went to Mr. Dakar Stephane Peterhansel. Gerard de Rooy won the Dakar again. Honda was the biggest disappointment of the rally, showing it is still far from KTM; the difference between Mini and the new Peugeot was huge, the best Toyotas are still away from its competitors. After dominating the last Dakar last races, it was a surprise to see Kamaz so far from the lead. After the problems that the organization suffered to put 2016 Dakar Rally on track, the rally was marked by the crash of a Chinese businesswoman from the pharmaceutical industry who bought a place in the X-Raid team.
Ten people were injured, two of them seriously. This led to a discussion of whether the toughest rally race in the world should be open to anyone who has a sports license, without any other criteria. Most of the following stages were modified due to rain or heat which caused the competitive sectors to be shortened. In addition to the discussion regarding the need for the cancellations, the most controversy was generated by the double standards of the organization. In stage seven, the ASO decided to cancel the second timed sector, although 22 riders had reached the finish line, with all bike and quad riders staying within the time of the first sector. In stage 9, there was another cancellation of the second timed sector when 12 bike riders had finished, but this time ASO considered the time of the first sector, changed the stage classification, with the time at the end of the second sector for those 12 riders who finished and assigning the remaining riders a theoretical time of 34 minutes more than the first contestant.
At the end of the next stage, the penalty to Paulo Gonçalves for repairing his bike in the previous stage was given and taken away. He was out of the race because his bike broke at the end of the first sector, but when the second sector was canceled, he was again in the race. More than 24 hours he received a penalty for repairing the bike after the second sector; this Dakar was marked by several accidents involving assistance trucks, causing some deaths among the local population. The reason given by the crews was the lack of sleep since in most of the stages they had to drive for about 20 hours between bivouacs; the most controversial moment was reserved for the finish with X-Raid appealing to the French Sports Court, claiming Stephane Peterhansel had an illegal refuel in stage 8, leaving the victory decision to be taken in the court. In stage 8, Peterhansel took advantage of a neutralized section and started the race with less fuel, refueling in the neutralized section. X-Raid contested the decision, since several drivers such as Nasser Al-Aiyah or Sainz and Loeb had to reduce the pace in order to save some fuel, due the extension of the stage, but ASO stewards acquitted Peterhansel.
Distance according to the official website. Notes: M: Marathon Stage. Prologue neutralized after car accident. Stage 1 cancelled due to bad weather. Stage 2 shortened due to bad weather. Stage 3 shortened due to bad weather; the trucks stage was neutralized after second waypoint due to track abatement. Stage 7 shortened for quads due to bad weather. Stage 9 and 11 shortened due to massive heat. Stage 10 shortened due to high water river; the race started with an 11 km prologue in Buenos Aires, marked by an accident when a car driver went through the spectators injuring 10 people, with the organization neutralizing the race for the remaining competitors. The first "real" stage was cancelled due to bad weather. Due to the same reason, the second and third stages were shortened about 100 km; the third stage for trucks was shortened a second time after a part of the track collapsed due to the heavy rain. The fourth and fifth stages were the two legs of 2016 Dakar first Marathon stage, with the innovation this year of vehicles entering a closed park at the end of the first leg, with the competitors being unable to do repair and maintenance work without assistance.
Stage 7 was one of the
A destination spa is a resort centered on a spa, such as a mineral spa. Many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or mineral springs. Without such mystic powers, the stress relief and health education of spas often has some degree of positive effect on health. Over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine, special interest programming; some destination spas offer an all-inclusive program that includes facilitated fitness classes, healthy cuisine, educational classes and seminars as well as similar services to a beauty salon or a day spa. Guests reside and participate in the program at a destination spa instead of just visiting for a treatment or pure vacation; some destination spas are in spa towns. Destination spas have been in use for a considerable time, some are no longer used but preserved as elements of earlier history. Resort spas are located in resorts and offer similar services via rooms with services, body treatments and fitness a la carte.
Typical services include: Balneotherapy Body treatments such as body wraps, aromatherapy Cooking lessons Facials - facial cleansing with a variety of products Fitness consultation Hair spa treatment Ionithermie Massage Medical treatment Nail care, pedicure Nutrition counseling Skin exfoliation - including chemical peels and microdermabrasion Waxing - the removal of body hair with hot wax Weight loss International Spa Association
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero is the capital of Santiago del Estero Province in northern Argentina. It has a population of 252,192 inhabitants, making it the twelfth largest city in the country, with a surface area of 2,116 km², it lies on the Dulce River and on National Route 9, at a distance of 1,042 km north-northwest from Buenos Aires. Estimated to be 455 years old, Santiago del Estero was the first city founded by Spanish settlers in the territory, now Argentina; as such, it is nicknamed "Madre de Ciudades". It has been declared the "mother of cities and cradle of folklore."The city houses the National University of Santiago del Estero, founded in 1973, the Universidad Católica, founded in 1960. Other points of interest include the city's Cathedral, the Santo Domingo Convent, the Provincial Archeology Museum; the Santiago del Estero Airport is located 6 kilometres north of the city, has regular flights to Buenos Aires and San Miguel de Tucumán. The climate is subtropical with a dry season winter and sometimes autumn.
It receives an average annual precipitation of 600 mm, the climate is warm and dry. Santiago del Estero and its region are home to about 100,000 speakers of the local variety of Quechua, making it the southernmost outpost of the language of the Incas, it is one of the few indigenous languages surviving in modern Argentina. After a series of exploratory expeditions from Chile starting in 1543, Santiago del Estero del Nuevo Maestrazgo was founded on July 25, 1553 by Francisco de Aguirre. Although it is the oldest city in Argentina, it preserves little of its former Spanish colonial architecture, except for several churches. In 1576, the governor of a province in Northern Argentina commissioned the military to search for a huge mass of iron, which he had heard that Natives used for their weapons, they called the area "Heavenly Fields," translated into Spanish as Campo del Cielo. The city was the capital of the Intendency of San Miguel de Tucumán during the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, first seat of its bishop.
Santiago del Estero stands in the middle of an extensive but semi-arid agricultural region. A dry forest area, the abundance of quebracho attracted timber industries of British capital during the 19th century, leading to extensive deforestation; the province, in 1948, elected Carlos Juárez, as its Governor. Santiago del Estero's central political figure during the second half of the 20th Century, he soon became indispensable to local politics. A true Caudillo, his amiable demeanor belied a record of ruthlessness towards opposition figures; the construction of the nearby Quiroga Dam in 1950, eased the city's chronic water shortage and spurred the growth of local agriculture, based on cotton and olives. The city's first school of higher education, the Instituto Superior del Profesorado, was established in 1953; the city developed a sizable manufacturing sector based on textile mills and other light industry from the 1950s on, though the public sector remained the largest employer. Santiago del Estero's population reached 100,000 in 1970.
The province, remained one of the poorest in Argentina, falling further behind. In 1993, the city made international headlines. What began as a protest by government workers who had not been paid in 3 months, soon grew to 4,000 demonstrators who burned cars, destroyed government buildings and invaded the homes of prominent politicians. Juárez, by the 1990s, was ordering his opponents' deaths, notably that of former Governor César Iturre in 1996 and of Bishop Gerardo Sueldo in 1998; the 2002 deaths of two local women, were traced to Juárez's assassin, Antonio Musa Azar, in an attempt to retain power, Juárez resigned. The bid failed, however, as President Néstor Kirchner signed an executive order removing Mrs. Juárez from her post, in March, 2004; the Juárez couple, in their nineties, subsequently lived under house arrest in the city of Santiago del Estero. The Vicecomodoro Ángel de la Paz Aragonés Airport was built in 1959 and has flights to and from Buenos Aires operated by Aerolíneas Argentinas and its subsidiary Austral Líneas Aéreas.
In recent years it has undergone refurbishment and expansion given that it was operating at full capacity. The city's main road connection to other provinces is National Route 9, which connects it to the cities of Cordoba and Buenos Aires to the south and San Miguel de Tucumán, Salta and San Salvador de Jujuy to the north. National Route 64 connects the city to San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, the capital of Catamarca Province. In November 2008, a new long distance bus terminal was inaugurated, replacing the previous bus terminal in the city; the city has been connected through the Belgrano and Mitre railways. An elevated commuter rail line known as Tren al Desarrollo is under construction in the city, connecting Santiago del Estero to the city of La Banda. Notes: 1 Un
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch–German–Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. It uses the degree Fahrenheit as the unit. Several accounts of how he defined his scale exist; the lower defining point, 0 °F, was established as the freezing temperature of a solution of brine made from equal parts of ice and salt. Further limits were established as the melting point of ice and his best estimate of the average human body temperature; the scale is now defined by two fixed points: the temperature at which water freezes into ice is defined as 32 °F, the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 °F, a 180 °F separation, as defined at sea level and standard atmospheric pressure. At the end of the 2010s, Fahrenheit was used as the official temperature scale only in the United States, its associated states in the Western Pacific, the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia. Antigua and Barbuda and other islands which use the same meteorological service, such as Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands and Saint Kitts and Nevis, as well as Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, use Fahrenheit and Celsius.
All other countries in the world now use the Celsius scale, named after Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. On the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit and the boiling point is 212 °F; this puts the freezing points of water 180 degrees apart. Therefore, a degree on the Fahrenheit scale is 1⁄180 of the interval between the freezing point and the boiling point. On the Celsius scale, the freezing and boiling points of water are 100 degrees apart. A temperature interval of 1 °F is equal to an interval of 5⁄9 degrees Celsius; the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales intersect at −40°. Absolute zero is −273.15 °C or −459.67 °F. The Rankine temperature scale uses degree intervals of the same size as those of the Fahrenheit scale, except that absolute zero is 0 °R — the same way that the Kelvin temperature scale matches the Celsius scale, except that absolute zero is 0 K; the Fahrenheit scale uses the symbol ° to denote a point on the temperature scale and the letter F to indicate the use of the Fahrenheit scale, as well as to denote a difference between temperatures or an uncertainty in temperature.
For an exact conversion, the following formulas can be applied. Here, f is the value in Fahrenheit and c the value in Celsius: f °Fahrenheit to c °Celsius: °F × 5°C/9°F = /1.8 °C = c °C c °Celsius to f °Fahrenheit: + 32 °F = °F + 32 °F = f °FThis is an exact conversion making use of the identity −40 °F = −40 °C. Again, f is the value in Fahrenheit and c the value in Celsius: f °Fahrenheit to c °Celsius: − 40 = c. C °Celsius to f °Fahrenheit: − 40 = f. Fahrenheit proposed his temperature scale in 1724, basing it on two reference points of temperature. In his initial scale, the zero point was determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture "of ice, of water, of ammonium chloride or of sea salt"; this combination forms a eutectic system which stabilizes its temperature automatically: 0 °F was defined to be that stable temperature. The second point, 96 degrees, was the human body's temperature. According to a story in Germany, Fahrenheit chose the lowest air temperature measured in his hometown Danzig in winter 1708/09 as 0 °F, only had the need to be able to make this value reproducible using brine.
According to a letter Fahrenheit wrote to his friend Herman Boerhaave, his scale was built on the work of Ole Rømer, whom he had met earlier. In Rømer's scale, brine freezes at zero, water freezes and melts at 7.5 degrees, body temperature is 22.5, water boils at 60 degrees. Fahrenheit multiplied each value by four in order to eliminate fractions and make the scale more fine-grained, he re-calibrated his scale using the melting point of ice and normal human body temperature. Fahrenheit soon after observed; the use of the freezing and boiling points of water as thermometer fixed reference points became popular following the work of Anders Celsius and these fixed points were adopted by a committee of the Royal Society led by Henry Cavendish in 1776. Under this system, the Fahrenheit scale is redefined so that the freezing point of water is 32 °F, the boiling point is 212 °F or 180 degrees higher, it is for this reason that normal human body temperature is 98° on the revised scale. In the present-day Fahrenheit scale, 0 °F no longer corresponds to the eutectic temperature of ammonium chloride brine as described above.
Instead, that eutectic is at 4 °F on the final Fahrenheit scale. The Rankine temperature s
Fox Sports (United States)
Fox Sports is the programming division of the Fox Broadcasting Company, owned by Fox Corporation, responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, its dedicated regional and national sports cable channels. The flagship entity of Fox Sports Media Group division, it was formed in 1994 with Fox's acquisition of broadcast rights to National Football League games. In subsequent years, it has televised the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, NASCAR, Bowl Championship Series, Major League Soccer, the USGA Championships and NHRA. On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced plans to acquire 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion. Under the terms of the proposed acquisition, the Fox broadcast network, Fox News Channel, the non-regional Fox Sports assets cable channels, the broadcast network division would be spun off into an independent company owned by 21st Century Fox's current shareholders; when the Fox Broadcasting Company launched in October 1986, the network's management, having seen how sports programming played a critical role in the growth of the British satellite service BSkyB, determined that sports would be the type of programming that would ascend Fox to a major network status the quickest.
In 1987, after ABC hedged on renewing its contract with the National Football League for the television rights to Monday Night Football, Fox made an offer for the package at the same price that ABC had been paying at the time – about $13 million per game. However due to the fact that Fox had yet to establish itself as a major network, the NFL decided to resume negotiations with ABC, with the two parties agreeing to a new contract, keeping what was the crown jewel of the league's television broadcasts on that network. Six years as the league's television contracts for both the National Football Conference and American Football Conference divisions, for the Sunday and Monday primetime football packages were up for renewal, Fox placed a bid for $1.58 billion to obtain the broadcast rights to the National Football Conference. On December 17, 1993, the NFL selected Fox's bid and signed a four-year contract with the network to award it the rights to televise regular season and playoff games from the NFC, beginning with the 1994 season.
S. television rights to broadcast Super Bowl XXXI in 1997. The deal stripped CBS of football telecasts for the first time since 1955. Fox lured commentators Pat Summerall, John Madden, Dick Stockton, Matt Millen, James Brown and Terry Bradshaw as well as many behind-the-scenes production personnel from CBS Sports to staff the network's NFL coverage. In order to bolster viewership for the NFL telecasts, Fox parent News Corporation decided to strike affiliation deals with broadcasting companies that owned stations affiliated with ABC, NBC and CBS in order to raise the profile of Fox's affiliate body, which at the time consisted of UHF stations that had little to no prior history as a major network affiliate, had weaker signals and did not carry as much value with advertisers as the Big Three's affiliates. During the late spring and summer of 1994, Fox reached separate agreements with New World Communications and SF Broadcasting to switch a total of sixteen stations to Fox between September 1994 and September 1996 as affiliation contracts with those stations' existing network partners expired.
The NFL television rights and affiliation deals established Fox as the nation's fourth major network. The network's relationship with the NFL would expand in 1997, when it began airing games from NFL Europe, an agreement which ended when the European league folded in 2005. With a sports division now established, Fox decided to seek broadcast rights agreements with other major sports leagues. On September 9, 1994, Fox was awarded the broadcast television rights to the National Hockey League in a $155 million bid. Again, Fox outbid CBS, which wanted to secure the rights as a result of losing the NFL to Fox, for the NHL package. Fox lost the NHL rights to ABC Sports and ESPN in 1999. On November 7, 1995, Fox was awarded partial broadcast rights to Major League Baseball games, in a shared deal with NBC. Through the deal, which Fox paid a fraction of the amount that CBS paid to obtain the rights effective wit
The Celsius scale known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units. As an SI derived unit, it is used by all countries except the United States, the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia, it is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. The degree Celsius can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale or a unit to indicate a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty. Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, gradus, which means steps. From 1743, the Celsius scale is based on 0 °C for the freezing point of water and 100 °C for the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure. Prior to 1743, the scale was based on the boiling and melting points of water, but the values were reversed; the 1743 scale reversal was proposed by Jean-Pierre Christin. By international agreement, since 1954 the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale are defined by absolute zero and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, a specially purified water.
This definition precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, which defines the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature with symbol K. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the triple point of water is defined as 273.16 K. This means that a temperature difference of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin are the same. On 20 May 2019, the kelvin, along with it the degree Celsius, will be redefined so that its value will be determined by definition of the Boltzmann constant. In 1742, Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius created a temperature scale, the reverse of the scale now known as "Celsius": 0 represented the boiling point of water, while 100 represented the freezing point of water. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the melting point of ice is unaffected by pressure, he determined with remarkable precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure.
He proposed that the zero point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point, would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at mean sea level. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere; the BIPM's 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures defined one standard atmosphere to equal 1,013,250 dynes per square centimetre. In 1743, the Lyonnais physicist Jean-Pierre Christin, permanent secretary of the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de LyonAcadémie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Lyon, working independently of Celsius, developed a scale where zero represented the freezing point of water and 100 represented the boiling point of water. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, the "Thermometer of Lyon" built by the craftsman Pierre Casati that used this scale. In 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus reversed Celsius's scale, his custom-made "linnaeus-thermometer", for use in his greenhouses, was made by Daniel Ekström, Sweden's leading maker of scientific instruments at the time, whose workshop was located in the basement of the Stockholm observatory.
As happened in this age before modern communications, numerous physicists and instrument makers are credited with having independently developed this same scale. The first known Swedish document reporting temperatures in this modern "forward" Celsius scale is the paper Hortus Upsaliensis dated 16 December 1745 that Linnaeus wrote to a student of his, Samuel Nauclér. In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden:...since the caldarium by the angle of the windows from the rays of the sun, obtains such heat that the thermometer reaches 30 degrees, although the keen gardener takes care not to let it rise to more than 20 to 25 degrees, in winter not under 15 degrees... Since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide have used the phrase "centigrade scale". Temperatures on the centigrade scale were reported as degrees or, when greater specificity was desired, as degrees centigrade; because the term centigrade was the Spanish and French language name for a unit of angular measurement and had a similar connotation in other languages, the term centesimal degree was used when precise, unambiguous language was required by international standards bodies such as the BIPM.
More properly, what was defined as "centigrade" would now be "hectograde". To eliminate any confusion, the 9th CGPM and the CIPM formally adopted "degree Celsius" in 1948, formally keeping the recognized degree symbol, rather than adopting the gradian/centesimal degree symbol. For scientific use, "Celsius" is the term used, with "centigrade" remaining in common but decreasing use in informal contexts in English-speaking countries, it was not until February 1985 that the weather forecasts issued by
Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle road racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM. Independent motorcycle racing events have been held since the start of the twentieth century and large national events were given the title Grand Prix, The foundation of a recognised international governing body for motorcycle sport, the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949 provided the opportunity to coordinate rules and regulations in order that selected events could count towards official World Championships as FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix, it is the oldest established motorsport world championship. Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are unavailable for purchase by the general public or able to be ridden on public roads; this contrasts with the various production-based categories of racing, such as the Superbike World Championship and the Isle of Man TT Races that feature modified versions of road-going motorcycles available to the public.
The championship is divided into four classes: MotoGP, Moto2, Moto3 and MotoE. The first three classes use four-stroke engines; the 2019 MotoGP season comprises 19 Grands Prix, with 12 held in Europe, three in Asia, two in the Americas, one each in Australia and the Middle East. A FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949; the commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sport sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association. Rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members; these four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission. There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, one class for sidecars.
Classes for 50 cc, 80 cc, 125 cc, 250 cc, 350 cc, 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, 350 cc and 500 cc sidecars. Up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders and a multiplicity of gears. In the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes. In 1969, the FIM —citing high development costs for non-works teams— brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears and most to two cylinders; this led to a mass walk-out of the sport by the highly successful Honda and Yamaha manufacturer teams, skewing the results tables for the next several years, with MV Agusta the only works team left in the sport until Yamaha and Suzuki returned with new two-stroke designs. By this time, two-strokes eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. In 1979, Honda, on its return to GP racing, made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the top class with the NR500, but this project failed, and, in 1983 Honda was winning with a two-stroke 500.
The championship featured a 50cc class from 1962 to 1983 changed to an 80cc class from 1984 to 1989. The class was dropped for the 1990 season, after being dominated by Spanish and Italian makes, it featured a 350cc class from 1949 to 1982, a 750 cc class from 1977 to 1979. Sidecars were dropped from world championship events in the 1990s. From the mid-1970s through to 2001, the top class of GP racing allowed 500 cc displacement with a maximum of four cylinders, regardless of whether the engine was a two-stroke or four-stroke; this is unlike TT Formula or motocross, where two and four strokes had different engine size limits in the same class to provide similar performance. All machines were two-strokes, since they produce power with every rotation of the crank, whereas four-stroke engines produce power only every second rotation; some two- and three-cylinder two-stroke 500s were seen, but though they had a minimum-weight advantage under the rules attained higher corner speed and could qualify well, they lacked the power of the four-cylinder machines.
In 2002, rule changes were introduced to facilitate the phasing out of the 500 cc two-strokes. The premier class was rebranded MotoGP, as manufacturers were to choose between running two-stroke engines up to 500 cc or four-strokes up to 990 cc or less. Manufacturers were permitted to employ their choice of engine configuration. Despite the increased costs of the new four-stroke engines, they were soon able to dominate their two-stroke rivals; as a result, by 2003 no two-stroke machines remained in the MotoGP field. The 125 cc and 250 cc classes still consisted of two-stroke machines. In 2007, the MotoGP class had its maximum engine displacement capacity reduced to 800 cc for a minimum of five years; as a result of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, MotoGP underwent changes in an effort to cut costs. Among them are reducing Friday practice sessions and testing sessions, extending the lifespan of engines, switching to a single tyre manufacturer, banning qualifying tyres, active suspension, launch control and ceramic composite brakes.
For the 2010 season, carbon brake discs were banned. For the 2012 season, the MotoGP engine capacity was increased again to 1,000 cc, it saw the introduction of Claiming Rule Teams, which were given more engi