National Postal Museum
The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D. C. United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993; the museum is located across the street from Union Station, in the building that once served as the main post office of Washington, D. C. from 1914, when it was constructed, until 1986. The building was designed by the Graham and Burnham architectural firm, led by Ernest Graham following the death of Daniel Burnham in 1912; the building in which the museum is housed serves as the headquarters of the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, as well as a data center for the United States Senate. The museum stores the National Philatelic Collection and hosts many interactive displays about the history of the United States Postal Service and of mail service around the world; the museum houses a gift shop and a United States Postal Service philatelic sales window, along with exhibits on the Pony Express, the use of railroads with the mail, the preserved remains of Owney, an exhibit on direct marketing called, "What's in the Mail for You," that produces a souvenir envelope with a visitor's name printed on it and a coupon for the gift shop.
As a Smithsonian museum, admission is free. This museum houses a library. In 2005, the museum acquired John Lennon's childhood stamp collection. From June 2015 until December 2018 the museum displayed the 1856 British Guiana One-Cent Magenta, the world's most valuable stamp, which sold for nearly $10 million. In September 2009, the museum received an $8 million gift from investment firm founder William H. Gross to help finance an expansion project; the museum now hosts the William H. Gross Stamp Gallery named in his honor. Since 2002, the museum has presented the Smithsonian Philatelic Achievement Award every two years. List of philatelic libraries Owney U. S. Postal Museums Postal Museum National Postal Museum official website National Postal Museum Library Official website Smithsonian's National Postal Museum at Google Cultural Institute Arago: People, Postage & the Post
Express mail in the United States
The United States Postal Service provides Priority Mail Express for domestic U. S. delivery, offers two international Express Mail services, although only one of them is part of the EMS standard. One is called Priority Mail Express International and the other service is called Global Express Guaranteed; the latter having no relation whatsoever to "EMS" International service as provided by the EMS Cooperative. The USPS Global Express Guaranteed, by which USPS offices act as drop locations for international packages which are handled by FedEx international delivery network. In some countries, import rules for packages received by courier services have different tax brackets and duties than parcels received on the postal system, thus EMS service is preferred over FedEx's co-branded Global Express Guaranteed; the term Priority Mail Express International is confused with their domestic service called Priority Mail Express, a specific classification of mail for domestic accelerated postal delivery within the U.
S. In 2013, the USPS changed the name of the service from "Express Mail International" to "Priority Mail Express International"; this may lead to confusion, as "Priority Mail" is still used, the packaging is similar. Special Delivery, a domestic accelerated local delivery service, was introduced on 3 March 1885 with a fee of 10¢ paid by a Special Delivery stamp, it was transformed into Express Mail, introduced in 1977 after an experimental period that started in 1970, although Special Delivery was not terminated until June 8, 1997. Priority Mail Express is an accelerated domestic mail delivery service operated by the United States Postal Service, it is able to provide overnight delivery to most locations within the continental United States and guaranteed delivery within 2 days. Unlike most other USPS delivery options which provide only delivery confirmation, Express Mail provides accurate, up-to-date tracking information, insurance up to $100. Priority Mail Express delivers 365 days a year, including Saturdays and federal holidays.
Sunday/Holiday delivery incurs a charge of $12.50 in addition to standard rate. Unlike Priority Mail and First Class Package Mail, USPS provides real-time tracking information online and by phone for Priority Mail Express shipments. Global Express Guaranteed service is an international expedited delivery service provided through an alliance with FedEx Corporation, it provides guaranteed, date–definite service from Post Office facilities in the United States to a large number of international destinations. Global Express Guaranteed delivery service is guaranteed to meet the specified service standards or the postage paid may be refunded. For all network destinations, liability insurance is provided for lost or damaged shipments. Other private express carriers guarantee overnight or 2-day delivery by as early as 8:30 or 10:30 AM. Priority Mail Express offers 10:30 AM delivery where available for a $5.00 surcharge. Priority Mail Express conveys other benefits under specific circumstances: U. S. patent applications and related documents transmitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office via USPS Priority Mail Express carry the postmark date as the date of patent priority, so long as each document is mailed along with a signed certificate of mailing bearing the Priority Mail Express tracking number of the mailing label
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
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National Association of Letter Carriers
The National Association of Letter Carriers is an American labor union, representing non-rural letter carriers employed by the United States Postal Service. It was founded in 1889; the NALC has 2,500 local branches representing letter carriers in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Guam. Letter carriers were the first postal workers to form their own union, they had tried to organize a national union at least three times—in 1870 in Washington, DC, in 1877 in New York City, in 1880 again in New York City. Recognizing that these earlier attempts had failed in part due to the expense of convening enough carriers to sustain a national organization, in 1889 the Milwaukee Letter Carriers Association decided to time their call for another national meeting of carriers to coincide with the annual reunion of the Grand Army of the Republic—an organization of Union Army veterans—so that letter carriers who were veterans could take advantage of reduced train fares.
On August 29, 1889, delegates moved unanimously adopting a resolution to form a National Association of Letter Carriers. On the next day, August 30, 1889, they elected William Wood of Detroit as the first president and appointed an Executive Board to coordinate all legislative efforts. NALC had 52 locals, called branches, with 4,600 members in 1890, 335 branches by 1892. In the beginning, the union focused on forcing postmasters to honor federal law mandating an eight-hour day for federal employees. In 1893, the NALC won $3.5 million in back overtime pay. Local postmasters vigorously opposed the union though it did not sponsor strikes. NALC joined the American Federation of Labor in 1917. By the mid-1960s, NALC had 175,000 members in 6,400 local branches; the history of the National Association of Letter Carriers is documented through archival collections at the Walter P. Reuther Library in Detroit, Michigan. Letter carrier morale plummeted during the mid-1960s. A growing sense of militancy developed as carriers and their families in big cities neared the poverty level.
In New York City's Branch 36, a storm of protest erupted when President Richard Nixon provided only a 4.1 percent pay raise in 1969, a figure the NALC deemed unacceptable. Events escalated as the Christmas mail rush neared and Nixon called NALC President James Rademacher to the White House to forge a compromise that tied a pay raise in 1970 to the concept of an independent postal authority to bargain with postal unions; the Nixon-Rademacher agreement incensed letter carriers and when a House committee the following March approved a bill reflecting the Nixon-Rademacher compromise, calls for a strike were shouted in New York's Branch 36 and other branches. Despite being barred from participating in a strike, on March 17, 1970, the votes were counted in Branch 36, a long-threatened strike was approved, 1,555 to 1,055. At 12:01 a.m. on March 18, picket lines created by Branch 36 went up at post offices throughout Manhattan and the Bronx in New York City as letter carriers went on strike. Within two days, more than 200,000 letter carriers and other postal employees across the country had joined the walkout.
Nixon called out 25,000 soldiers to move the mail in New York City. The strike ended after eight days when local NALC leaders assured strikers that an agreement had been reached though their word was premature. Round-the-clock negotiations began and on April 2 a satisfactory agreement was reached, approved by Congress; the NALC Office of the President: James H. Rademacher Records contain archival material related to the strike; the militancy that came out of New York's Branch 36 during the strike changed forever the nature of the NALC. In 1971, a nationwide rank-and-file movement led by Vincent Sombrotto of Branch 36 was formed with goals of giving members the right to vote directly for national union officers and ending a proxy system that had prevented non-incumbents from breaking into the union's power structure. Sombrotto was elected national president in 1978, he moved to enhance the union's lobbying power with Congress and the Executive Branch, as well as the NALC's stature within the trade union movement.
Like most other unions in the United States, the NALC, most of its rank and file, is involved politically and has supported the Democratic Party, although has been critical of Democrats on occasion, such as President Lyndon B. Johnson when he vetoed a postal pay raise in the mid-1960s; the union has supported a number of individual Republican candidates. Prior to the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970, the United States Postal Service was a federal executive department under the name Post Office Department, the Postmaster General was member of the Cabinet; the rate of postal pay was set by the Congress by federal law, meaning that the Postal Service and its employees were affected by Congress. The NALC supported the Postal Reorganization Act. NALC's expertise has traditionally been in lobbying than in traditional labor-management relations and collective bargaining. Like all federal agencies under the Taft–Hartley Act, the Postal Service is an "open shop," and no one can be compelled to join the NALC or any other union as a condition of gaining or continuing employment with the government.
Other federal laws prohibit letter carriers, from striking. Nonetheless, over 93 percent of all working letter carriers are members of the NALC and the union is now recognized as the collective bargaining agent for all city carriers; the NALC distinguishes itself from other unions in several ways. For example, membership is voluntary.
Postal Regulatory Commission
The United States Postal Regulatory Commission called the Postal Rate Commission, is an independent regulatory agency created by the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970. Like the Postal Service, it was defined in law as an independent establishment of the executive branch; the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 created the PRC—originally named the Postal Rate Commission—to set the rates for different classes of mail by holding hearings on rates proposed by the USPS. From 1970 through 2006, the PRC had oversight authority over the USPS in areas besides rates changes; that additional oversight consisted of conducting public, on-the-record hearings concerning proposed mail classification or major service changes and of recommending actions to be taken by the postal Governors. The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006 enacted on December 20, 2006, made several changes to the Postal Regulatory Commission. Besides giving the body its current name, the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act strengthened the Commission's authority to serve as a counterbalance to new flexibility granted to the Postal Service in setting postal rates.
The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act requires the Postal Regulatory Commission to develop and maintain regulations for a modern system of rate regulation, consult with the Postal Service on delivery service standards and performance measures, consult with the Department of State on international postal policies, prevent cross-subsidization or other anti-competitive postal practices, promote transparency and accountability, adjudicate complaints. The law assigns new and continuing oversight responsibilities to the Postal Regulatory Commission, including annual determinations of USPS compliance with applicable laws, development of accounting practices and procedures for the Postal Service, review of the Universal Service requirement, assurance of transparency through periodic reports. New enforcement tools given to the PRC include subpoena power, authority to direct the Postal Service to adjust rates and to take other remedial actions, levying fines in cases of deliberate noncompliance with applicable postal laws.
According to the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act, the United States Postal Service must make annual payments of between $5.4 billion and $5.8 billion to the Postal Service Retiree Health Benefits Fund from 2007 to 2016. Contrary to many reports, these payments are not to prefund 75 years worth of retirement health benefits, PAEA did not require USPS to prefund 75 years of retiree health benefits over a 10-year period. Rather, pursuant to OPM's methodology, such payments would be projected to fund the liability over a period in excess of 50 years, from 2007 through 2056 and beyond; this pre-funding method is unique to the USPS. In June 2011, the United States Postal Service had to suspend its weekly payment of $115 million into the fund because it had reached $8 billion in debt and the retirement plan had a surplus of $6.9 billion. The PRC is composed of five Commissioners—each of whom is appointed to a six-year term of office by the President and confirmed by the Senate, similar to many other high-level Executive Branch office holders.
As with Postal Governors, PRC commissioners are permitted to serve for one additional "holdover" year beyond the end of their term if a replacement has not been nominated and confirmed. The President designates one Commissioner as Chairman of the Commission; the Commissioners together designate one of their number as a Vice-Chairman for a one-year term. No more than three of the Commissioners can be from any one political party; the current members are: Vice Chairman Langley and Commissioner Hammond were confirmed by the Senate in December 2014, Taub and Acton were confirmed for second terms in December 2016. Michael Kubayanda was confirmed as a new Commissioner on January 2, 2019; the PRC is organized into five operating offices: Accountability and Compliance, General Counsel, Public Affairs and Government Relations and Inspector General. The Office of Accountability & Compliance provides analytic support to the Commission for the review of various Postal Service proposed actions: rate changes, negotiated service agreements, classification of products and services, the Annual Compliance Determination, the Annual Report to President and Congress, changes to postal services, post office closings and other issues before the Commission.
Areas of expertise include economic and econometric analysis, analysis of operational characteristics of the postal system, analysis of Postal Service operating costs and cost methodologies. OAC collects and periodically summarizes financial and various other statistical information to support Commission responsibilities; the Office of General Counsel provides legal assistance on matters involving the Commission's responsibilities. The Office of Public Affairs & Government Relations manages communications and public outreach for the Commission with the public, Members of Congress, the Postal Service and local governments, the news media. PAGR engages in public outreach, responds to media inquiries and disseminates information concerning Commission decisions and activities to the public. PAGR provides information to postal customers and assists in the resolution of informal complaints, called "rate and service inquiries", from members of the public; the Office of Secretary & Administration records and preserves PRC acti
Sectional center facility
}} A destination Sectional Center Facility is a Processing and Distribution Center of the United States Postal Service that serves a designated geographical area defined by one or more three-digit ZIP Code prefixes. A Sectional Center Facility routes mail between local post offices and to and from Network Distribution Centers, which form the backbone of the network; the following are the USPS SCFs by state that, form the backbone of the primary mail service in the United States. Note: Alabama 369 is served by Meridian, Mississippi. 353 is unassigned Birmingham, served by Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport Montgomery Mobile Anchorage: 4141 Postmark Dr. Anchorage, AK 99519, served by Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport Juneau Ketchikan American Samoa is served by the SCF in Honolulu, Hawaii. Note: AZ 864 served by Las Vegas, Nevada. Phoenix Tucson Note: Arkansas 723-724 served by Tennessee. Little Rock Fayetteville Note: CA 961 is served by Nevada. Los Angeles 7001 S. Central Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90052-9998 Industry 15421 E Gale Ave. City of Industry, CA 91715-9608 Santa Clarita 28201 Franklin Pkwy. Santa Clarita, CA 91383-9998 San Diego 11251 Rancho Carmel Drive, San Diego, CA 92199-9998 San Bernardino 1900 W Redlands Blvd. San Bernardino, CA 92403-9997 Santa Ana 3101 W. Sunflower Ave. Santa Ana, CA 92799-0101 Anaheim 5335 E. La Palma Ave. Anaheim, CA 92899-9002 Santa Barbara 400 Storke Road, Goleta, CA 93117 Bakersfield Fresno San Jose 1750 Lundy Avenue, San Jose, CA 95101-9998 San Francisco Sacramento 3775 Industrial Blvd. West Sacramento, CA 95799-9998 Oakland 1675 7th St, Oakland, CA 94615 Eureka Redding Note: Colorado 813 is served by Albuquerque, New Mexico. Denver 25630 East 75th Ave. Denver CO 80249 Grand Junction Note: 066, 068, 069 are served by Westchester, New York. Hartford 141 Weston St. Hartford, CT 06101 Wilmington 147 Quigley Blvd. New Castle, DE 19720 Note: Mail deposited in Washington, D. C. may be postmarked from Suburban Maryland, Southern Maryland, Washington, D.
C. or the Capital District. Washington, 900 Brentwood Rd. NE, Washington DC 20066-9998 Street and PO box addresses US government, etc. Parcel Return Service Note: Florida 343, 345, 348 are unassigned. For 340, see Military below. Jacksonville Tallahassee Pensacola Orlando 10401 Post Office Blvd. Orlando, FL 32862 Miami West Palm Beach Tampa 1801 Grant St. Tampa, FL 33605 Fort Myers Manasota 850 Tallevast Rd. Sarasota, FL. 34260 Note: Georgia 307 is served by Chattanooga, Tennessee. Georgia 313-315 are served by Jacksonville, FL. Georgia 316-317, 398 are served by Tallahassee, FL North Metro, GA Atlanta 3900 Crown Rd. SW, Atlanta, GA 30304 Augusta 525 8th St. Augusta, GA 30901 Macon 451 College St. Macon, GA 31213 SCF Barrigada, served by Guam International Airport, 489 Army Dr. Barrigada, GU 96913 Honolulu, served by Honolulu International Airport. Note: Idaho 835 and 838 are served by Spokane, Washington. 839 is unassigned. Boise Note: Illinois 620, 622, 628-629 are served by St. Louis, Missouri.
Palatine 1300 Northwest Hwy. Palatine, IL 60095 Carol Stream South Suburban Fox Valley, Aurora Chicago Champaign Quad Cities Peoria Springfield Note: Indiana 470 is served by Cincinnati, Ohio. Indianapolis Gary South Bend Fort Wayne Muncie, Indiana Evansville. Des Moines Waterloo Cedar Rapids Note: 664-668 are served by Kansas City, Missouri. Wichita Note: Kentucky 407-409, 417, 418, 425, 426 are served by Knoxville, Tennessee. Louisville Lexington Note: 715 are unassigned. New Orleans Lafayette Baton Rouge Shreveport Southern 125 Forest Ave. Portland, ME 04101 Eastern 16
Railway post office
In the United States, a railway post office abbreviated as RPO, was a railroad car, operated in passenger service as a means to sort mail en route, in order to speed delivery. The RPO was staffed by trained Railway Mail Service postal clerks, was off-limits to the passengers on the train. In the UK and Ireland, the equivalent term was Travelling Post Office. From the middle of the 19th century, many American railroads earned substantial revenues through contracts with the U. S. Post Office Department to carry mail aboard high-speed passenger trains. In fact, a number of companies maintained passenger routes where the financial losses from moving people were more than offset by transporting the mail; the world's first official carriage of mail by rail was by the United Kingdom's General Post Office in November 1830, using adapted railway carriages on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Sorting of mail en route first occurred in the United Kingdom with the introduction of the Travelling Post Office in 1838 on the Grand Junction Railway following the introduction of the Railways Act 1838.
In the United States, some references suggest that the first shipment of mail carried on a train occurred in 1831 on the South Carolina Rail Road. Other sources state that the first official contract to carry mail on a train was made with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in either 1834 or 1835; the United States Congress designated all railroads as official postal routes on July 7, 1838. Similar services were introduced on Canadian railroads in 1859; the Railway post office was introduced in the United States on July 28, 1862, using converted baggage cars on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Purpose-built Railway Post Office cars entered service on this line a few weeks after the service was initiated, their purpose was to separate mail for connection with a westbound stagecoach departing soon after the train's arrival at St. Joseph; this service lasted one year. The first permanent Railway Post Office route was established on August 28, 1864, between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa; this service is distinguished from the 1862 operation because mail was sorted to and received from each post office along the route, as well as major post offices beyond the route's end-points.
George B. Armstrong, assistant postmaster at Chicago came up with the idea of having mail processed and distributed while the mail was on board, en route in mail cars. With the assistance of Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the House at the time, A. N. Zevely, Third Assistant Postmaster General, he was duly authorized to test his ideas. In 1869, the Railway Mail Service, headed by George B. Armstrong, was inaugurated to handle the transportation and sorting of mail aboard trains. Armstrong was promoted from a supervisory position in the Chicago post office following his experiments in 1864 with a converted route agent's car on runs between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa. RPO car interiors, which at first consisted of solid wood furniture and fixtures, would soon be redesigned. In 1879, an RMS employee named Charles R. Harrison developed a new set of fixtures that soon gained widespread use. Harrison's design consisted of hinged, cast-iron fixtures that could be unfolded and set up in a number of configurations to hold mail pouches, racks and a sorting table as needed for specific routes.
The fixtures were designed so they could be folded away to provide a wholly open space to carry general baggage and express shipments as needed by the railroads. Harrison followed through with manufacturing his design at a factory he opened in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin in 1881; the July 1, 1862, Pacific Railroad Act signed by President Lincoln established government funding for the construction of a railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean with the express idea of opening a main line mail route across the western frontier. The act was entitled "AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean, to secure to the government the use of the same for postal and other purposes," The Act opened the door to government funded railroad mail routes across the American continent. By the 1880s, railway post office routes were operating on the vast majority of passenger trains in the United States. A complex network of interconnected routes allowed mail to be transported and delivered in a remarkably short time.
Railway mail clerks were subjected to stringent training and ongoing testing of details regarding their handling of the mail. On a given RPO route, each clerk was expected to know not only the post offices and rail junctions along the route, but specific local delivery details within each of the larger cities served by the route. Periodic testing demanded both accuracy and speed in sorting mail, a clerk scoring only 96% accuracy would receive a warning from the Railway Mail Service division superintendent. Interurban and Streetcar systems were known to operate RPOs; the Boston Elevated Railway car being noted as making circuits of the city to pick up mail. In the United States, RPO cars were equipped and staffed to handle most back-end postal processing functions. First class mail and newspapers were all sorted, cancelled when necessary, dispatched to post offices in towns along the route. Registered mail was handled, the foreman in charge was required to carry a regulation pistol