Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Cianorte is a city in northwest Paraná, with an estimated population of 76,456, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in 2013. The city was planned and founded by the Company for the Improvement of the North of Paraná, a British company for which it was named. In the beginning of the 20th century the region was dominated by a subtropical forest and wild, except for the Road of Peabiru, used by the Portuguese to connect the Guaira region, further west, to the coast; the road existed from the 17th century, but the first reported contact with the natives of the region, the Xetas, was in the 1930s. The Xetas, a group of three or four hundred, had their own language, were early Iron Age in culture; the group vanished after they were contacted by the British in controversial and unexplained circumstances. In the 1940s the English company drew the city plan and split the region into small farms. At this time, the city was redivided and part of the city and the areas around were sold to immigrants Italian-Brazilians and Japanese-Brazilians of second or third generation from São Paulo.
Those immigrants were poor ordinary workers in the huge coffee farms of São Paulo, perceived the inexpensive land in Cianorte as their big opportunity in life. They built houses and schools and businesses; the city become a municipality, under Brazilian laws, allows the area to extend its political structure. The Municipality of Cianorte was created through the State Law no. 2.412 of July 26, 1955. Cianorte had around 11,000 inhabitants in the countryside; the economy was based on coffee. A disastrous frost in the winter of 1975, in which temperatures dropped below zero for the first time in recorded weather, destroyed the coffee plantations. Coffee trees take around five years to start producing, so the economy went through a terrible crisis. Population fell and businesses closed; the disaster transformed the city. People opened clothing shops in their garages and back yards. By the time agriculture began to recover, some of the mini-factories had grown to medium-sized companies, the work force was devoted to those.
During the next decades some of those garage enterprises turned into huge factories that today sell clothes to the entire country, export a significant portion to several countries. Shop owners from several states of Brazil visit Cianorte in the beginning of every season to purchase clothing, so hotels and restaurants are opened specially for them. Local agriculture is now diversified — coffee is only 5% of the farmland now — and other farmers plant soy, sugar cane and corn. Beef and chicken are produced in a large scale. With the factories and the agriculture doing so well, in the turn of the century the city attracted more and more immigrants from all over the country, today the city population and infrastructure is growing turning Cianorte into the regional hub of part of Ivai River Valley, which includes ten smaller cities. Humid Subtropical climate, hot summers with frequent and heavy rain, mild winters with frequent frosts. Main Economical Activities Agriculture - Soy, coffee, sugarcane, cotton and chicken Manufacturing - Clothing and leatherCianorte is served by Gastão Mesquita Airport.
The municipality contains part of the 8,716 hectares Perobas Biological Reserve, a protected conservation unit created in 2006. Today Cianorte is the largest producer of clothing in southern Brazil. There are 300 clothing manufacturers in the industrial and commercial districts which employ 8,000 people; the production concentrates on informal clothing such as jeans and athletic wear, men's and women's fashion, infants' and toddlers' clothing. Throughout the year consumers and distributors come to Cianorte seeking clothing products, but every year the city hosts Expovest, the largest clothing fair in southern Brazil, in the city's central park. In that period the city receives about 5.500 tourists a month. Has elementary schools, high schools, two Universities; the cultural expressions of Cianorte are diverse, including plays, painting, plastic arts, etc. An old train station was transformed into the House of Culture, with painting exhibitions, plastic arts, old pictures of the city, musical presentations, etc.
Waterfall of the Quick River - A 2 meter tall waterfall of clean water, at the end of the municipal district, attracting local residents seeking bathing and contact with nature. Green Belt - Green area surrounding most of city, has a modern track. Forest of the Head office - The mother church is circulated by a green area, with bathrooms, animals and a complete public library. Park of Manduí - Green areas in the neighborhoods of the Labor Villa and Villa 7. Expovest - Every year the city hosts Expovest, the largest clothing fair in the South of the country, in the city's exhibition park. In that period the city receives about 5,500 tourists a month. Cianorte, Citybrazil.com Cianorte Futebol Clube Official site Radio of Cianorte
South Region, Brazil
The South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 square kilometres, being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller in Southeast Brazil, for example, it is a great tourist and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay and Paraguay as well as the Centre-West Region, the Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean; the region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit, having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country. Despite the high standard of living and safety the unemployment rate in the region is medium to high. By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting and gathering. European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Spanish Jesuits, they converted them to Catholicism.
Colonists from São Paulo arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived, they composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century. The first Germans came to Brazil soon after independence from Portugal in 1822. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region; the first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo, over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country. By 1904, it is estimated. In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society.
These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina. Considerable numbers of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia; the Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845; this conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque, suffered the hard competition of charque from Uruguay and Argentina, which had free access to the Brazilian market while the gaúchos had to pay high taxes inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul.
After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war. Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875, they were peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own lands and populate the South. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná. In 1898, there were 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul, 50,000 in Santa Catarina and 30,000 in Paraná. Nowadays, their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population. The region received large numbers of European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture; the main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, German, Luxembourger, Ukrainian, Spaniard and Russian.
Smaller numbers that follow are French, Swedish, Black, Croat, Lebanese and Latvian, Japanese and Estonian, Slovene, Ashkenazi Jew, British, Slovak and Hungarian Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12°C and 22°C, it snows in the mountain ranges. The region is urbanized and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá, both in Paraná State, it has a high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859, the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region has a 98.3% literacy rate. Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are spoken; the predominant dialects are Venetian. In Rio Grande do Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around Ponta Grossa there are some Dutch speakers.
There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well. Rio Grande do Sul has a gre
Peabiru is a municipality in the state of Paraná in the Southern Region of Brazil. List of municipalities in Paraná
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line. Its area is 199,307.9 km2 smaller than Romania, a country with similar shape. It is subdivided into 399 municipalities, its capital is the city of Curitiba. Other major cities are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, São José dos Pinhais and Foz do Iguaçu. Crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests in the world. At the border with Argentina is the National Park of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCO as a World Heritage site. At only 40 km from there, at the border with Paraguay, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu; the crime rate is considered low by Brazilian standards and the state is one of the most developed ones in the nation, ranking 4th in gross domestic product, only behind the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais.
Before the discovery of the region by European explorers, indigenous populations inhabited the region for thousands of years. This included the Carijó in the lands closer to the sea, from the Tupi group, the Caingangues in the interior, who belonged to the Jê group. Colonisation of the state by settlers started in the 16th century, but was confined to the coasts. Being a region abandoned by the Portuguese, the region was explored by other European countries, who searched for Pau brasil; the most noteworthy presence was that of the Spanish. Soon, Jesuit reductions were opened in the western and south-western parts of the state, whose territory belonged to the Spanish crown. In 1554, Domingo Martínez de Irala founded the town of Ontiveros, one league away from the Guaíra Falls. In the 1940s, the northern part of the state was settled as a result of the expansion of the São Paulo coffee industry; the south-eastern part of the state was settled. Paraná is bounded on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
The state can be separated into five main topographic areas, from east to west: a coastal zone, the mountains of Serra do Mar, three plateaus, each lower than the other, until the Paraná River is reached. More than 52% of Paraná's territory is located at an altitude above 600 m and 89% higher than 300 m; the planed areas that are arranged to the altitudes of higher elevation, which compose plateaus of cliffs forming the mountains of the Sea and the General mountain range, dominate the relief of the state. The lowest plots are situated in the coastal lowland, which covers alluvial plains and crystalline hills. Crossing the Tropic of Capricorn the state's climate is warm temperate or subtropical in cities north of the imaginary line, although with considerable differences on the border of Mato Grosso do Sul to the Campos de Palmas by altimetric variation than latitude. In most applications of the Köppen climate classification, humid subtropical climates of the Cfa:in the northern central areas with trim to the west and Cfb: in the center of the state, going further south and east, according to the elevation of plateau types appear.
Other official maps present in a higher resolution other subtypes of climates. The coastal approximate with a rainforest tropical climate. Although studies state the Cfa climate on the state coast. To the northwest the trend is approaching the A highland subtropical climate as the west of São Paulo: reduction of rains and the number of frosts falls on the transitory character of the 3rd plateau to a climate with winter warmer and less rainy; the area is more to stay longer on the domain of tropical air masses than other regions. Species such as Barirí palm begin to appear; the use of the ECMWF model allows the greatest number of climatic types because virtual stations are included and fringes of climates with dry seasons so appear in the north. Other models appear only Cf. Palmas is considered the coldest city of Paraná by the meteorological organ SIMEPAR, with more frequent snow; the temperature variation NW-SE is a common characteristic, changing towards the south when it reaches the center of Paraná.
The temperature varies from 22.9 °C in the northwest of the state to below 16.5 °C in the southern end. Precipitation is less than 1200 mm in most of the fringe of the extreme north and northeast going above 1800 mm in the southwest of the state, therefore an NE-SE variation, although it extends more to the west in the north the lower precipitation. Foz do Iguaçu has one of the largest thermal amplitudes of the cities of Paraná by its position more interior than several other municipalities. Average temperatures can vary by 11 °C between winter and summer the city can pass from 40 °C hot summers in relation to the cities of the
Campo Mourão is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Its population in 2018 was 94,212 inhabitants; the people from Campo Mourão are called Mourãoenses. The region of the "Fields" bordered by the Atlantic forest and Araucaria, headquarters of the Nation Guarani, began to be visited by the Spanish Jesuits between 1524 and 1541 and by the Paulist from 1628; the region belonged to the former Spanish possession call Guairá Province, with capital in Asunción, Paraguay today. In 1765 he began to be raided by government militias in the captaincy of São Paulo, who named the valley between the wilderness and rivers Ivaí Piquiri of "Campos do Mourão" in homage to the governor of the captaincy of São Paulo, Luís António de Sousa Botelho Mourão. In the 1890s the natural pasture and native vegetation of the "Campo Mourão" served as a resting spot for travelers who passed through the region, playing herds to negotiate in Mato Grosso do Sul in 1903 came and stood at "Campos do Mourão "The family of São Paulo Matheus Vieira dos Santos Baron Portuguese Henrique Cardoso of Jesus, with his wife, Baroness Sarah Elizabeth Cardoso, admired and prestigious family of William, followed by Andrade, Davanso, Oliveira, Mendonça, Ribeiro Mendes and guarapuavanos Gustavo, Paulatti Peri, John Benedict, Norberto Marcondes, Jorge Walter, among other pioneers such as Barbara Louise Ferreira Tiago Hobold followed by their families Metchko, Staniszewski, Schumoski, Klanke, Slomp, Behrens, Almeida, Heickhoff and others with Germans, Poles and Japanese who settled in large areas within Campos do Mourão.
Campo Mourão until 1943 belonged to the Guarapuava. From that year became a district of the city of Pitanga and 10 October 1947 began to walk on his own, emancipated politically and economically by Law 02/47, passed by Governor Moses Lupion, having as its first mayor appointed 18 October 1947 José Antonio dos Santos and Pedro Viriato de Sousa Filho, first elected mayor; until the 1960s the city of Campo Mourão understand all the micro and 12 municipalities that were part of today to their administrative districts. In the 80s, were separated from their last two administrative districts: Luiziana Lighthouse and the West, leaving just the tutelage of his district Piquirivaí. Has its origins in ancient roads where they went flying circus and stores coming from Mato Grosso and São Paulo to destinations west of Paraná The city is predominantly agricultural, its main agricultural products are soybeans and corn. Campo Mourão is the largest cooperative in Brazil and the third largest in the world. In recent years, the city has attracted large companies such as Colacril Paraná Ltda, VRI Electronics and Frangobras.
Campo Mourão, due to its location at a major junction of highways, receives a large flow of vehicles those heading to Foz do Iguaçu, the main tourist attraction in the frontier with Argentina and Paraguay. The following highways cross the county area of Campo Mourao: 487 - Campo Mourão/Cruzeiro do Oeste /Guarapuava/Curitiba BR 158 - Campo Mourão/Peabiru - Campo Mourão/Roncador PR 317 - Campo Mourão/Maringá BR 369 - Campo Mourão/Cascavel BR 272 - Campo Mourão/Goioerê - Campo Mourão/Barbosa Ferraz The main sights of Campo Mourão are: St. Joseph Cathedral The Cathedral of St. Joseph Campo Mourão, episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Campo Mourão, is based on the same design as the Mother Church of the Pure Heart of Mary of St. Benedict South. Ecological Station Savannah On 1.3 acres of conservation species are remnants of the Old Quaternary, the Cerrado southernmost of the planet. It welcomes scientists all over the world. Park Lake The Municipal Park Joaquim Teodoro de Oliveira is one of the cards in the city.
Has jogging track that enters the woods, playground sand, Scout Group Headquarters City, French Garden and a lake with several fish species. Blue Lake State Park Biodiversity has an exuberant, a lake with 70 million cubic meters of water open to the practice of sports such as jet skiing, water skiing, boating and recreational fishing. Moreover, it has a large forest area with summer houses; the Environmental Education Center is headquartered in this area, where he conducts lectures and accompanies visitors through the various tracks. Campo Mourão is considered a developed city despite being predominantly agricultural. There are five institutions of higher education and an institution of professional education in the city: Faculdade Estadual de Ciências e Letras Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná Centro Educacional Integrado - Faculdade União de Campo Mourão - UNICAMPO SENAC-PR One of the most modern cultural facilities in the city, located in the plaza Getulio Vargas, the central area of Campo Mourão.
It now houses the collection of the Municipal Public Library and Professor Egydio Martello is the headquarters of the Mourãoense Academy of Arts. Offers space for classes and art exhibitions, open free of charge. Theatre with capacity for 470 seats is held annually the season of theater, as well as projects for youth and children, it has 1500 meters of built area, foyer for 100 people, stage 13 by 11 meters, dressing rooms, cenotécnica and modern system of sound and light. It houses the memory and history of Campo Mourão, with reports and testimonies by family members through testimonies, retraced all t