Terra nullius

Terra nullius is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land". It was a principle sometimes used in international law to justify claims that territory may be acquired by a state's occupation of it, it denotes land that has never been a part of a sovereign nation-state, such as Bir Tawil, or for which all claim to sovereign ownership has been relinquished, such as the territory east of the Oder–Neisse line that used to belong to Germany under Prussia. Terra nullius stems from the Roman law term res nullius. According to the Roman law res nullius, or things without an owner, such as wild animals, lost slaves and abandoned buildings could be taken as property by anyone by seizure. A part of the debate over the history of terra nullius is. According to historian of ideas Andrew Fitzmaurice, territorium nullius and terra nullius were two different, albeit related, legal terms, he claims that territorium nullius was first used in a meeting of the Institut de Droit International in 1888 where the legal principles of the Berlin conference were discussed and that terra nullius was introduced twenty years during legal disputes over the polar regions.

Historian Michael Connor on the other hand, argues that territorium nullius and terra nullius are the same thing. Both scholars are active in the Australian history wars debate. There is considerable debate among historians about how and when the terra nullius concepts were used; the debate has been prevalent in Australia where it was ignited by the history wars caused by the Mabo case in 1992. The history wars caused Australian historians to reevaluate the country's history, the dispossession of Aborigines and whether the land should best be characterized as having been "settled" or "conquered". A part of this debate concerned whether terra nullius as a concept was used by England and other European powers to justify territorial conquest. On one side of the debate are historians such as Alan Frost and Henry Reynolds who claim that in the 15th and 16th century, European writers adopted the res nullius concept for territorial conquest. Frost writes: By the mid–eighteenth century, the theoretical basis of a new convention of acquiring empire had emerged.

If a European state had established an effective possession of a region, another might acquire title to it only by formal cession. If the region was not possessed by a rival a state might acquire it in one of three ways, viz.: – by persuading the indigenous inhabitants to submit themselves to its overlordship. Historians debate whether "first discovery and effective occupation" was applied to territory inhabited by indigenous people that European empires sought to acquire or not. According to Frost: However, if the indigenes had advanced beyond the state of nature only so far as to have developed language and the community of the family, but no further. On the other side of the debate are historians which claim that terra nullius is a much younger concept, which did not become formalized before the end of the 19th century. Historian Merete Borch writes: When the wealth of material relevant to this issue is surveyed it seems much more that there was no legal doctrine maintaining that inhabited land could be regarded as ownerless, nor was this the basis of official policy, in the eighteenth century or before.

Rather it seems to have developed as a legal theory in the nineteenth century. These historians claim instead that territorial conquest was justified from natural law — that which has no owner can be taken by the first taker. Michael Connor in his book "The Invention of Terra Nullius" takes an more extreme view and argues that no one in the 19th century thought of Australia as being terra nullius, he calls the concept a legal fiction, a straw man developed in the late 20th century: By the time of Mabo in 1992, terra nullius was the only explanation for the British settlement of Australia. Historians, more interested in politics than archives, misled the legal profession into believing that a phrase no one had heard of a few years before was the basis of our statehood, Reynolds' version of our history The Law of the Land, underpinned the Mabo judges' decision-making. Few territories are considered terra nullius. Bir Tawil is an example of a territory claimed to be terra nullius. Between Egypt and Sudan is the 2,060 km2 landlocked territory of Bir Tawil, created by a discrepancy between borders drawn in 1899 and 1902.

One border placed Bir Tawil under the Hala'ib Triangle under Egypt's. Both countries assert the border that lets them claim the Hala'ib Triangle, larger and next to the Red Sea, with the side effect that Bir Tawil is unclaimed by either nation; the area is, under the de facto control of Egypt, although it is not shown on official Egyptian maps. Bir Tawil has no settled population but the land is used by Bedouins who roam the area. Serbia and Croatia dispute several small areas on the east bank of the Danube. However, some pockets on the west bank, of which Gornja Siga is the largest, are not claimed by either country since Croatia recognizes that they belong

Arshad Laeeq

Arshad Laeeq sometimes known as Arshad Laiq, is a former cricketer who played international cricket for the United Arab Emirates. He played two first-class cricket games for Pakistan Steel in 1986–87 and was a stand-by selection for Pakistan for the 1988 Youth World Cup, he represented Pakistan at Under-19 level in a three-day match against India. He emigrated to the UAE in 1989, making his international debut in the ICC Trophy in 1993–94, he went on to play in the 1997 ICC Trophy too. Arshad Laeeq has played six One Day International, two in the Pepsi Austral-Asia Cup of 1993–94 in Sharjah, four in the 1996 Cricket World Cup, his brother Athar Laeeq and his uncle Saeed Azad were successful cricketer in domestic Pakistani cricket. Cricinfo page on Arshad Laeeq CricketArchive page on Arshad Laeeq

Franciscus Portus

Franciscus Portus was a Greek-Italian Renaissance humanist and classical scholar. Born on Crete on 22 August 1511, Portus was orphaned early, he studied in his youth with Arsenius Apostolius. He went to study in Italy thanks to the generosity of a family friend, he studied for six years in Padova, went to Venice, where he was admitted to the city's Greek school, where he soon became the director. During the decade from 1526 to 1535, one should note his important activity as a copyist of Greek manuscripts. However, he was an adherent of Reformed Christianity, certain mocking remarks that he made about the customs of traditional Christian religion, such as fasting and veneration of images, caused him to leave Venice. In 1536, Portus obtained a Chair in Greek at Modena, although he was unwilling to sign the declaration of faith, required of public officials. In 1542, he was hired by Renée of France, the Duchess of Ferrara, as tutor to her sons, she entrusted to him the secret correspondence that she was maintaining with John Calvin.

He was admitted to the Accademia dei Filareti, founded in Ferrara in 1554, spoke before the Duchess a speech in praise of the Greek language. After the death of the Duke of Ferrara, Ercole II d'Este, in 1559, the Duchess returned to France. In fear of the Inquisition because of his religious views, Portus left Ferrara with his family, spent some time in the area of Friuli before settling in Geneva, becoming a citizen of Geneva in 1562. In the same year, he was appointed to the Chair of Greek at the University of Geneva, which he occupied until his death. One of his most important students was Isaac Casaubon. After the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, he had a polemical correspondence with his former colleague Pierre Charpentier, which became the instrument of French governmental propaganda and justified the massacre through the existence of a pretended plot against the royal family. Portus died in Geneva on 5 June 1581. Portus corrected and annotated the texts of many Ancient Greek authors, translated many into Latin, including Aristotle's Rhetoric, the treatises of Hermogenes of Tarsus and pseudo-Longinus, the Syntax of Apollonius Dyscolus, the hymns and letters of Synesius of Cyrene, the Odes of Gregory of Nazianus.

He produced commentaries on numerous authors: Homer, the Greek tragedians, Thucydides, Demosthenes, Dionysius of Halicarnassus. He provided additional remarks to the Lexicon of Robert Constantin. Shortly after his death, his son published many further volumes of his work at Lausanne: Commentarii in Pindari Olympia, Nemea, Isthmia, he published his Rhetoric of Aristotle at Speyer in 1598. Portus' son Aemilius Portus taught Greek in Geneva alongside his father from 1569, at Lausanne from 1581 to 1592, at Heidelberg from 1596 to 1608, published numerous works. Paolo Tavonatti, Francisci Porti Cretensis Commentaria in Aeschyli Tragoedias, doctoral thesis, University of Trento and EHESS, 2010. 1568: Synesii Cyrenaei... Hymni... Gregorii Nazianzeni Odae aliquot... Utrisque... latinam interpretationem adiunxit F P C, Genevae. 1569: Oἱ ἐν ῥητορικῇ τέχνῃ κορυφαίοι, Hermogenes et Dionysus Longinus praestantissimi artis rhetorices magistri, F P C opera industriaque illustrati et expoliti, Genevae. 1573: Ad Petri Carpentarii Causidici virulentam epistolam, responsio Francisci Porti... pro causariorum quos vocat innocentia.

1574: Response de François Portus Candiot, aux lettres diffamatoires de Pierre Carpentier... pour l'innocence des fidèles serviteurs de Dieu... massacrez le 24 jour d'aoust 1572, appellez factieux par ce plaidereau, traduite nouvellement de latin en françois. 1580: Homeri Ilias, postrema editio... a F P C innumeris in locis emendata, Genevae. 1583: Francisci Porti... Commentarii in Pindari Olympia, Nemea, Genevae. 1584: Francisci Porti Cretensis in omnes Sophoclis tragoedias προλεγόμενα, ut vulgò vocantur. In quibus Ipsa Poêtæ vita, genùsque dicendi declaratur. De Tragœdia, eiusque origine, et de Tragœdiæ, atque Comœdiæ discrimine paucis agitur. Sophoclis, et Euripidis collatio brevis instituitur, et quibus in rebus vterque potissimùm excellat, apertè demonstratur. Singularum verò Tragœdiarum Argumenta cum artificio Rhetorico separatim exponuntur, his addita ΠΑΡΑΣΚΕΥΗ´ ad orationem Demosthenis περὶ παραπρεσβείας, cui accesserunt Sex Oratiunculæ Latinæ, quas idem F. P. olim in Illustriss. Ducis Ferrariensis Academia Mutinensi Linguæ Græcæ Professor habuit.

Singulis Oratiunculis suum argumentum paucis Morgiis. 1586: Francisci Porti... Commentarii in varia Xenophontis opuscula, Lausannae. 1590: Apollonii Alexandrini de syntaxi... libri IV. A F P ante aliquot annos supplecti, Francoforti. 1592: Lexicon graecolatinum R. CONSTANTINI. Secunda hac editio partim ipsius authoris partim F P... auctum, Genevae. 1594: Thucydidis, Olori filii, de Bello Peloponnesiaco libri octo. Iidem latine, ex interpretatione Laurentii Vallae, ab Henrico Stephano nup