Assembly of the African Union
The Assembly of the African Union, formally known as the African Union Assembly of Heads of State and Government, is one of several decision-making bodies within the African Union. The other bodies are the Pan-African Parliament; the Chairperson of the Assembly has few formal functions, the most important of, to preside at the Pan-African Parliament during the election and swearing in of the President of the Pan-African Parliament. The Assembly came into existence on 25 May 1963, as part of the ratification of Organization of African Unity; the Assembly consisted of 32 independent members, the heads of state of the African states that had achieved independence by 1963. Until 2001, the governing constitution of the Assembly was the OAU Charter; the Assembly is now subject to the Union Act. The Assembly has nine basic functions: Set policies of the Union. Decide on what action to take after consideration of reports and recommendations from the other organs of the Union. Consider membership requests into the Union.
Create bodies for the Union. Monitor the implementation of policies and decisions of the Union as well ensure compliance by all Member States. Create a budget of the Union. Provide direction to the Executive Council on conflicts and other emergency situations and the restoration of peace. Select judges for and withdraw judges of the Court of Justice. Appoint the Chairman of the Commission, Commissioners of the Commission, all respective deputies and determine how long they will serve and what duties they will perform; the Assembly shall take its decisions by consensus or, failing which, by a two-thirds majority of the Member States of the Union. However, procedural matters, including the question of whether a matter is one of procedure or not, shall be decided by a simple majority. Two-thirds of the total membership of the Union shall form a quorum at any meeting of the Assembly; the Assembly may delegate any of its functions to any organ of the Union. The AU Assembly of the Heads of State and Government consists of the 54 heads of state and government of the member countries.
The Assembly meets once a year at the AU Summit. The current Chairman of the Assembly is President Paul Kagame of Rwanda; the current members of the AU-AHSG are: the European alternative. Assembly of the African Union Official Site
African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights is a continental court established by African countries to ensure protection of human and peoples' rights in Africa. It reinforces the functions of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; the Court was established by virtue of Article 1 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, adopted by Member States of the Organization of African Unity in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in June 1998. The Protocol came into force on 25 January 2004; the Court has jurisdiction over all cases and disputes submitted to it concerning the interpretation and application of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, the Protocol and any other relevant human rights instrument ratified by the States concerned. The Court has two types of jurisdiction: contentious and advisory; the Court is composed of nationals of member states of the African Union. The first Judges of the Court were elected in Khartoum, Sudan.
They were sworn in before the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union on 2 July 2006, in Banjul, the Gambia. The Judges of the Court are elected, after nomination by their respective states, in their individual capacities from among African jurists of proven integrity and of recognized practical, judicial or academic competence and experience in the field of human rights; the judges are elected for a four-year term renewable once. The judges of the Court elect a President and Vice-President of the Court among themselves who serve a two-year term, they can be re-elected only once. The President of the Court resides and works on a full-time basis at the seat of the Court, while the other ten judges work on a part-time basis. In the accomplishment of his duties, the President is assisted by a Registrar who performs registry and administrative functions of the Court; the Court started its operations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in November 2006. In August 2007, it moved its seat to Arusha, the United Republic of Tanzania, where the government has provided it with temporary premises pending the construction of a permanent structure.
Between 2006 and 2008, the Court dealt principally with operational and administrative issues, including the development of the structure of the Court's registry, preparation of its budget and drafting of its Interim Rules of Procedure. In 2008, during the Court's Ninth Ordinary Session, judges of the Court provisionally adopted the Interim Rules of the Court pending consultation with the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, based in Banjul, Gambia in order to harmonize their rules to achieve the purpose of the provisions of the Protocol establishing the Court, which requires that the two institutions must harmonize their respective Rules so as to achieve the intended complementarity between the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights; this harmonization process was completed in April 2010 and in June 2010, the Court adopted its final Rules of Court. According to the Protocol and the Rules, the Court may receive complaints and/or applications submitted to it either by the African Commission of Human and Peoples' Rights or State parties to the Protocol or African Intergovernmental Organizations.
Non-Governmental Organizations with observer status before the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and individuals from States which have made a Declaration accepting the jurisdiction of the Court can institute cases directly before the Court. As of January 2019, only nine countries have made such a declaration; those countries are Burkina Faso, Malawi, Rwanda, Republic of Côte d'Ivoire and the Gambia. The Court delivered its first judgment in 2009 following an application dated 11 August 2008 by Michelot Yogogombaye against the Republic of Senegal; as at January, 2016, the Court finalized 25 cases. The Court has five pending cases on its table to examine including requests for advisory opinion; as of January 2019, nine state parties to the protocol have made a declaration recognizing the competence of the Court to receive cases from non-government organizations and individuals. The nine states are Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Rwanda, the Gambia and Tunisia. Altogether, 30 states have ratified the protocol: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritania, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.
The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights was established to complement and reinforce the functions of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, a quasi-judicial body charged with monitoring the implementation of the Charter. The mission of the Court is to enhance the protective mandate of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights by strengthening the human rights protection system in Africa and ensuring respect for and compliance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, as well as other international human rights instruments, through judicial decisions; the vision of the Court is an Africa with a viable human rights culture. Judicial independence from any partisanship, influence, whether it comes from States, NGOs, funding agencies, or individuals. Fair and i
Union of African States
The Union of African States, sometimes called the Ghana–Guinea–Mali Union, was a short-lived and loose regional organization formed 1958 linking the West African nations of Ghana and Guinea as the Union of Independent African States. Mali joined in 1960, it disbanded in 1963. The union planned to develop unified foreign policy amongst members; the union was the first organization in Africa to bring together former colonies of the British and the French. Although the union was open to all independent states in Africa, no other states joined; the union had a limited impact on politics as there was never any administration or permanent meetings to support the goals of unity. Its legacy was limited to longstanding political relationships between Kwame Nkrumah, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Modibo Keïta; the union again came into the news when Nkrumah was named as the co-president of Guinea after he was deposed as President of Ghana by a military coup in 1966. The colonies of Guinea, the Gold Coast, French Sudan followed different paths toward decolonization.
French Sudan and Guinea were both French colonies and thus after the May 1958 crisis were given the chance to vote for immediate independence or to join a reorganized French Community. Guinea was the only French colony in Africa to vote for full independence in 1958. French Sudan voted to join the French Community; the Gold Coast, in contrast, was a British colony which achieved independence as Ghana in March 1957 and joined the Commonwealth of Nations. The differences continued into the post-independence era; the French government, with urging from the Ivory Coast, began a complete withdrawal of French personnel from Guinea and a suspension of aid when the country declared independence. This resulted in economic turmoil throughout the country and sent a warning against independence for the other colonies. French Sudan joined with Senegal to form the Mali Federation for a few months in 1960. However, political intractability led to the dissolution of the Mali Federation in August 1960. Ghana, in contrast, was presented as a success story of the decolonization period in Africa with a booming economy and the recognition from international organizations for its astute fiscal management.
Despite these differences, the leaders of the three countries shared a common vision of Africa's future. Kwame Nkrumah, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Modibo Keïta were each pivotal anti-colonial figures in their countries and the first leaders after independence. In addition, each became prominent in the Pan-African movement and were architects in developing a theory of African socialism. In November 1958, with the sudden cessation of French aid and personnel for Guinea and Touré met in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, to discuss an emergency loan which Ghana was going to provide to Guinea. On 23 November, the two leaders announced a plan for the creation of a union of African states which the two leaders would work towards over a series of meetings with the loan as the first of many steps towards integration. Following these negotiations, the Union of Independent African States was declared on 1 May 1959; the agreement was loose, only requiring that the members work together on relations with other African countries and thus was, in the words of journalist Russel Warren Howe, more pragmatic than ambitious.
They declared intentions for developing a shared currency and shared citizenship, but did not include unified defense or foreign policy provisions in regards to countries outside of Africa. Despite these declarations, little happened to cement any shared currency or create unified citizenship between the two countries in 1958 or 1959; the only significant effect of the union was the £10 million loan provided by Ghana to Guinea. However this relationship was hesitantly agreed to by the members. Guinea used less than half of the funds provided by Ghana despite its continued economic problems. In November 1960, following the tense end of the Mali Federation in August, talks begun between the two original members with Mali to join an expanded union; these negotiations reached fruition on 1 July 1961 when the charter of the newly named Union of African States was published in the capitals of the three members. The charter of the union provided for collective security and shared diplomatic, economic and cultural activities.
The union remained loose but the leaders believed it would set the ground for a larger and stronger union between members. At the signing ceremony on 1 July, Nkrumah declared that the union would be "a nucleus of a United States of Africa". Diplomatically, the union became a key part of the Casablanca group and the three members agreed to push for similar policy issue within that forum; the leaders approached Cold War politics in a similar manner, promoting a pro-Soviet involvement in the Non-Aligned Movement. Although Mali and Ghana had discussed creating a shared parliament, such a provision was not contained in the final agreement. Other issues, such as the creation of a single flag for all three countries, a unified economic policy, a unified foreign policy, the development of a common constitution were mentioned but not provided with details and were to be worked out by regular meetings of the three leaders. No administration was establi
Foreign relations of the African Union
The individual member states of the African Union coordinate foreign policy through this agency, in addition to conducting their own international relations on a state-by-state basis. The AU represents the interests of African peoples at large in intergovernmental organizations. Membership of the AU overlaps with other IGO's, these third-party organizations and the AU will coordinate matters of public policy. Non-Aligned Movement Commonwealth of Nations Arab LeagueArab Maghreb UnionCommunity of Sahel-Saharan StatesConseil de l'Entente Greater Arab Free Trade AreaEconomic Community of the Great Lakes CountriesG20 developing nationsG-20 major economies South Africa G33G90Group of 77Indian Ocean CommissionLiptako-Gourma AuthorityMano River UnionOPEC Community of Portuguese Language Countries Organisation internationale de la FrancophonieOrganization of Ibero-American States Equatorial Guinea Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The African Union maintains special diplomatic representation with the United States, the European Union.
In 2011, the United States Mission to the African Union donated a state of the art multimedia box to the cash-starved African Union in a formal ceremony, in which they presented new interns who will be trained to use it. Enlargement of the African Union
Bureau of the Pan-African Parliament
The Bureau of the Pan-African Parliament is the leadership of the Pan-African Parliament and consists of one President and four Vice-Presidents. The President and each Vice-President represents a different region of Africa; the current members of the Bureau are: President - Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi from Nigeria, representing West Africa First Vice-President - Roger Nkodo Dang from Cameroon, representing Central Africa Second Vice-President - Moustafa El Gendy from Egypt, representing North Africa Third Vice-President - Loide L. Kasingo from Namibia, representing Southern Africa Fourth Vice-President - Safia Elmi Djibril from Djibouti, representing East AfricaThe Bureau is responsible for: The management and administration of the affairs and facilities of Parliament and its organs. Regulating the procedures relating to the financial and administrative needs in accordance with Financial Rules of the AU and matters concerning Members and the internal organisation of Parliament and its organs. Determining the draft agenda and the programmes of the sessions of Parliament.
Determining the establishment and structure of the Secretariat and lay down regulations for the staff, including their terms and conditions of service. Proposing to Parliament for adoption the establishment and job descriptions of its support staff. Proposing, to the Pan African Parliament, the appointment of the Clerk and Deputy Clerks to Parliament; the preparation of the draft budget and its presentation to the responsible Committee. Coordinating and harmonising the functions of Permanent Committees. Any other matters in accordance with the directives issued by Parliament. Carrying out any other functions as may be prescribed by Parliament or incidental to these functions. Pan-African Parliament Pan-African Parliament Bureau
The African Union is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa; the intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity, established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states; the AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa. The African Union has an area of around 29 million km2 and includes popular world landmarks, including the Sahara and the Nile; the primary languages spoken include Arabic, English and Portuguese and the languages of Africa. Within the African Union, there are official bodies such as the Peace and Security Council and the Pan-African Parliament.
The objectives of the AU are the following: To achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and African nations. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its Member States. To accelerate the political and social-economic integration of the continent. To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples. To encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To promote peace and stability on the continent. To promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good governance. To promote and protect human and peoples' rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant human rights instruments. To establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations. To promote sustainable development at the economic and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies.
To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African peoples. To coordinate and harmonise the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic Communities for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the Union. To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in particular in science and technology. To work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent; the African Union is made up of both administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ is the Assembly of the African Union, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of the AU; the Assembly is chaired by President of Egypt. The AU has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national legislatures of the AU member states, its president is Roger Nkodo Dang. Other political institutions of the AU include: the Executive Council, made up of foreign ministers, which prepares decisions for the Assembly.
The AU Commission, the secretariat to the political structures, is chaired by Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma of South Africa. On 15 July 2012, Ms. Dlamini-Zuma won a contested vote to become the first female head of the African Union Commission, replacing Jean Ping of Gabon. Other AU structures are hosted by different member states: the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights is based in Banjul, the Gambia; the AU's first military intervention in a member state was the May 2003 deployment of a peacekeeping force of soldiers from South Africa and Mozambique to Burundi to oversee the implementation of the various agreements. AU troops were deployed in Sudan for peacekeeping during Darfur conflict, before the mission was handed over to the United Nations on 1 January 2008 UNAMID; the AU has sent a peacekeeping mission to Somalia, of which the peacekeeping troops are from Uganda and Burundi. The AU has adopted a number of important new documents establishing norms at continental level, to supplement those in force when it was created.
These include the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, the African Charter on Democracy and Governance, the New Partnership for Africa's Development and its associated Declaration on Democracy, Political and Corporate Governance. The historical foundations of the African Union originated in the First Congress of Independence African States, held in Accra, from 15 to 22 April 1958; the conference aimed at forming the Africa Day, to mark the liberation movement each year concerning the willingness of the African people to free themselves from foreign dictatorship, as well as subsequent attempts to unite Africa, including the Organisation of African Unity, established on 25 May 1963, the African Economic Community in 1981. Critics argued that the OAU in particular did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders dubbing it the "Dictators' Club"; the idea of creating the AU was revived in the mid-1990s under the leadership of Libyan head of state Muammar al-Gaddafi: the heads of state and government of the OAU issued the Sirte Declara
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins