United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Dawson is a city in and the county seat of Terrell County, United States. The population was 4,557 at the 2010 census. Incorporated on December 22, 1857, the city is named for Senator William Crosby Dawson. Dawson is part of Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. Dawson was founded in 1856 as seat of the newly formed Terrell County, it was incorporated as a town in 1857 and as a city in 1872. Terrell was an important site in the 1960s, when the county in which it is located was labeled "Terrible Terrell" by the SNCC. Jackie Robinson helped raise money to rebuild three black churches. In 1976, five African-American youths were charged with the murder of a white customer in a roadside convenience store; the crime and pretrial proceedings garnered national attention. The five young men, one of whom was a juvenile, charged in the case were known as "The Dawson Five"; the court dropped the charges against the group of five. D. Davenport, Johnnie B. Jackson, George Poor, when it found evidence of police misconduct, including coerced confessions and improper identification procedures.
Dawson is located in Southwest Georgia along U. S. Route 82 and Georgia State Route 520, which leads southeast 8 mi to Sasser and northwest 9 mi to Parrott. U. S. 82 leads west 21 mi to Cuthbert and 47 mi to Alabama. Albany is 24 mi southeast and Columbus is 63 mi northwest; the city is located at 31°46′26″N 84°26′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.7 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,058 people, 1,791 households, 1,276 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,373.5 people per square mile. There were 1,967 housing units at an average density of 534.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 21.49% White, 77.26% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. There were 1,791 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.9% were married couples living together, 32.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families.
25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,140, the median income for a family was $25,511. Males had a median income of $26,006 versus $18,629 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,752. About 31.6% of families and 36.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.8% of those under age 18 and 26.0% of those age 65 or over. This area climate is characterized by warmer, humid summers and is mild to cold in the winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, England has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
The Terrell County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of two elementary schools, a middle school and a high school. The district has 98 full-time teachers and over 1,764 students. Cooper-Carver Elementary School Terrell County Middle High School Terrell Academy - Founded as a segregation academy in response to the racial desegregation of public schools. Nearby Albany has three colleges to which students may commute: Darton State College, Albany State University, Albany Technical College. To the west, in Cuthbert, is historic Andrew College. Nearby is Georgia Southwestern State University in Americus. Otis Redding - American singer, record producer and talent scout, considered one of the greatest singers in the history of American popular music, soul music, rhythm and blues. Lucius D. Battle - ambassador to Egypt Erle Cocke, Jr. - U. S. National Guard general Wayland Flowers - puppeteer best known for his puppet known as "Madame" Bessie Jones - gospel/folk singer Benjamin J. Davis - attorney who defended man trying to organize a union from insurrection charges.
C. after the city was granted home rule by Congress Dawson Five - five black Dawson residents who were wrongly charged with the 1976 murder of a white man. Due to forced confession and other police misconduct the case was dropped in 1977. Life and Death: Dawson, Georgia - 1977 - 27 minutes - WGBH Boston
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations. Refugee camps accommodate displaced persons who have fled their home country, but there are camps for internally displaced persons. Refugees seek asylum after they've escaped war in their home countries, but some camps house environmental- and economic migrants. Camps with over a hundred thousand people are common, but as of 2012, the average-sized camp housed around 11,400, they are built and run by a government, the United Nations, international organizations, or NGOs. There are unofficial refugee camps, like Idomeni in Greece or the Calais jungle in France, where refugees are left without support of governments or international organizations. Refugee camps develop in an impromptu fashion with the aim of meeting basic human needs for only a short time. Facilities that make a camp look or feel more permanent are prohibited by host country governments. If the return of refugees is prevented, a humanitarian crisis can continue.
According to UNHCR, the majority of refugees worldwide do not live in refugee camps. At the end of 2015, some 67 percent of refugees around the world lived in individual, private accommodations; this can be explained by the high number of Syrian refugees renting apartments in urban agglomerations across the Middle East. Worldwide over a quarter of refugees were reported to be living in managed camps. At the end of 2015, about 56 percent of the total refugee population in rural locations resided in a managed camp, compared to the 2 percent who resided in individual accommodation. In urban locations, the overwhelming majority of refugees lived in individual accommodations, compared with less than 1 percent who lived in a managed camp. A small percentage of refugees live in collective centers, transit camps and in self-settled camps. In spite of the fact that 74 percent of refugees are in urban areas, the service delivery model of international humanitarian aid agencies remains focused on the establishment and operation of refugee camps.
The average camp size is recommended by UNHCR to be 45 square metres per person of accessible camp area. Within this area the following facilities can be found: An administrative headquarters to coordinate services. Sleeping accommodations are tents, prefabricated huts, or dwellings constructed of locally available materials. UNHCR recommends a minimum of 3.5 sqm of covered living area per person. There should be at least 2m between shelters. Gardens attached to the family plot. UNHCR recommends a plot size of 15 sqm per person. Hygiene facilities, such as washing areas, toilets. UNHCR recommends one communal latrine per 20 persons. Distance for the latter should be no not closer than 6m. Hygiene facilities should be separated by gender. Places for water collection: either water tanks where water is off-loaded from trucks, or water tap stands that are connected to boreholes. UNHCR recommends 20 litres of water per person and one tap stand per 80 persons that should be no farther than 200m away from households.
Clinics and immunization centres: UNHCR recommends one health centre per 20,000 persons and one referral hospital per 200,000 persons. Food distribution and therapeutic feeding centres: UNHCR recommends one food distribution centre per 5,000 persons and one feeding centre per 20,000 persons. Communication equipment; some long-standing camps have their own radio stations. Security, including protection from banditry and peacekeeping troops to prevent armed violence. Police stations may be outside the actual camp. Schools and training centers: UNHCR recommends one school per 5,000 persons. Markets and shops: UNHCR recommends one market place per 20,000 persons. Schools and markets may be prohibited by the host country government in order to discourage refugees from settling permanently in camps. Many refugee camps have: Cemeteries or crematoria Locations for solid waste disposal. One 100 litre rubbish container should be provided per 50 persons and one refuse pit per 500 persons. Reception or transit centre where refugees arrive and register before they are allowed into the camp.
Reception centres may be outside the camps and closer to the border of the country where refugees enter. Churches or other religious centers or places of worshipIn order to understand and monitor an emergency over a period of time, the development and organisation of the camps can be tracked by satellite and analyzed via GIS. Most new arrivals travel distances of up to 500 km by foot; the journey can be dangerous, e.g. wild animals, armed bandits or militias, or landmines. Some refugees are supported by IOM, some use smugglers. Many new arrivals suffer from acute dehydration. There can be long queues outside the reception centres and waiting times of up to two months are possible. People outside the camp are not entitled to official support; some locals make large profits with it. It is not uncommon, they stay in the reception centre until their refugee status is approved and the degree of vulnerability assessed. This takes two weeks, they are taken by bus, to the camp. New arrivals are registered and interviewed by the host country government and the UNHCR.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Randolph County, Georgia
Randolph County is a county located in the southwestern portion of the US state of Georgia and is considered part of the Black Belt an area of plantations. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,719, less than half its peak population in 1910, when there were numerous agricultural workers; the county seat is Cuthbert. Randolph County was created on December 20, 1828, named after the Virginia planter and politician, John Randolph, he was honored as the namesake of present-day Jasper County but, because of his opposition to U. S. entry into the War of 1812, the Georgia General Assembly changed the county name in December 10, 1812. John Randolph's reputation was restored. In 1828, the General Assembly organized the current Randolph County in the west of the state. Most of the historic tribe of Muscogee people were forced from the area to Indian Territory during Indian Removal. Lumpkin, Georgia was the original county seat, it was within the portion of Randolph County, reassigned in 1830 to form Stewart County, Lumpkin was designated as the latter's county seat.
This area is considered part of the Black Belt, upland areas across the Deep South that were developed in the 19th century as plantations after invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton profitable. Enslaved Blacks made up the vast majority of workers on the plantations, with hundreds of thousands being transported through the domestic slave trade from the coast and Upper South. After the American Civil War, many freedmen and their descendants continued to work on plantations in the county and region, comprising the majority of county population until the 1930s. Like other areas of the rural South, workers in Randolph County lost jobs due to mechanization, invasion of the boll weevil, the decline in agriculture. In the 20th century, many black families moved from the county to cities in the North and Midwest for work and less oppressive conditions during the Great Migration. But, the rural counties of the Black Belt continue to have substantial African-American populations.
Agriculture has been industrialized and depends on few workers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 431 square miles, of which 428 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. More than half of Randolph County east of U. S. Route 27, is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the northwestern portion of the county, from just south of Cuthbert north, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin; the southwestern corner, centered on Coleman, is located in the Lower Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin. Stewart County – north Webster County – northeast Terrell County – east Calhoun County – southeast Clay County – southwest Quitman County – west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,719 people, 3,187 households, 2,011 families residing in the county; the population density was 18.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,153 housing units at an average density of 9.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 61.8% black or African American, 36.6% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population. In terms of European-American ancestry, 11.7% identified as English, 8.1% were Irish, 2.4% were American. Of the 3,187 households, 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 22.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families, 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 42.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $26,194 and the median income for a family was $29,800. Males had a median income of $21,313 versus $23,542 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,632. About 23.7% of families and 28.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.2% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,791 people, 2,909 households, 1,972 families residing in the county. The population density was 18 people per square mile. There were 3,402 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.47% Black or African American, 38.94% White, 0.35% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 0.44% from two or more races. 1.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,909 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.90% were married couples living together, 22.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were non-families. 30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 24.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 85.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,004, the median income for a family was $30,278. Males had a median income of $27,033 versus $20,394 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,809. About 22.00% of families and 27.70% of the po
I Have a Dream
"I Have a Dream" is a public speech, delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he called for civil and economic rights and an end to racism in the United States. Delivered to over 250,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. the speech was a defining moment of the civil rights movement. Beginning with a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed millions of slaves in 1863, King said "one hundred years the Negro still is not free". Toward the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a improvised peroration on the theme "I have a dream", prompted by Mahalia Jackson's cry: "Tell them about the dream, Martin!" In this part of the speech, which most excited the listeners and has now become its most famous, King described his dreams of freedom and equality arising from a land of slavery and hatred. Jon Meacham writes that, "With a single phrase, Martin Luther King Jr. joined Jefferson and Lincoln in the ranks of men who've shaped modern America".
The speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century in a 1999 poll of scholars of public address. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was intended to demonstrate mass support for the civil rights legislation proposed by President Kennedy in June. Martin Luther King and other leaders therefore agreed to keep their speeches calm to avoid provoking the civil disobedience which had become the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement. King designed his speech as a homage to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, timed to correspond with the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation. King had been preaching about dreams since 1960, when he gave a speech to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People called "The Negro and the American Dream"; this speech discusses the gap between the American dream and reality, saying that overt white supremacists have violated the dream, that "our federal government has scarred the dream through its apathy and hypocrisy, its betrayal of the cause of justice".
King suggests that "It may well be that the Negro is God's instrument to save the soul of America." In 1961, he spoke of the Civil Rights Movement and student activists' "dream" of equality—"the American Dream... a dream as yet unfulfilled"—in several national speeches and statements, took "the dream" as the centerpiece for these speeches. On November 27, 1962, King gave a speech at Booker T. Washington High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina; that speech was longer than the version which he would deliver from the Lincoln Memorial. And while parts of the text had been moved around, large portions were identical, including the "I have a dream" refrain. After being rediscovered, the restored and digitized recording of the 1962 speech was presented to the public by the English department of North Carolina State University. King had delivered a "dream" speech in Detroit, in June 1963, when he marched on Woodward Avenue with Walter Reuther and the Reverend C. L. Franklin, had rehearsed other parts.
Mahalia Jackson, who sang "How I Got Over", just before the speech in Washington, knew about King's Detroit speech. The March on Washington Speech, known as "I Have a Dream Speech", has been shown to have had several versions, written at several different times, it has no single version draft, but is an amalgamation of several drafts, was called "Normalcy, Never Again". Little of this, another "Normalcy Speech", ended up in the final draft. A draft of "Normalcy, Never Again" is housed in the Morehouse College Martin Luther King Jr. Collection of the Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center and Morehouse College; the focus on "I have a dream" comes through the speech's delivery. Toward the end of its delivery, noted African American gospel singer Mahalia Jackson shouted to King from the crowd, "Tell them about the dream, Martin." King departed from his prepared remarks and started "preaching" improvisationally, punctuating his points with "I have a dream." The speech was drafted with the assistance of Stanley Levison and Clarence Benjamin Jones in Riverdale, New York City.
Jones has said that "the logistical preparations for the march were so burdensome that the speech was not a priority for us" and that, "on the evening of Tuesday, Aug. 27, Martin still didn't know what he was going to say". Leading up to the speech's rendition at the Great March on Washington, King had delivered its "I have a dream" refrains in his speech before 25,000 people in Detroit's Cobo Hall after the 125,000-strong Great Walk to Freedom in Detroit, June 23, 1963. After the Washington, D. C. March, a recording of King's Cobo Hall speech was released by Detroit's Gordy Records as an LP entitled "The Great March To Freedom". Hailed as a masterpiece of rhetoric, King's speech invokes pivotal documents in American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Emancipation Proclamation, the United States Constitution. Early in his speech, King alludes to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by saying "Five score years ago..." In reference to the abolition of slavery articulated in the Emancipation Proclamation, King says: "It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity."
Anaphora is employed throughout the speech. Early in his speech, King urges his audience to seize the moment; the most cited example of anaphora is found in the quoted phrase "I have a dream", repeated eight times as King paints a picture of an integrated and unified Americ
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th