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Terrestrial Time

Terrestrial Time is a modern astronomical time standard defined by the International Astronomical Union for time-measurements of astronomical observations made from the surface of Earth. For example, the Astronomical Almanac uses TT for its tables of positions of the Sun and planets as seen from Earth. In this role, TT continues Terrestrial Dynamical Time. TT shares the original purpose for which ET was designed, to be free of the irregularities in the rotation of Earth; the unit of TT is the SI second, the definition of, based on the caesium atomic clock, but TT is not itself defined by atomic clocks. It is a theoretical ideal, real clocks can only approximate it. TT is distinct from the time scale used as a basis for civil purposes, Coordinated Universal Time. TT indirectly underlies UTC, via International Atomic Time; because of the historical difference between TAI and ET when TT was introduced, TT is 32.184 s ahead of TAI. A definition of a terrestrial time standard was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1976 at its XVI General Assembly, named Terrestrial Dynamical Time.

It was the counterpart to Barycentric Dynamical Time, a time standard for Solar system ephemerides, to be based on a dynamical time scale. Both of these time standards turned out to be imperfectly defined. Doubts were expressed about the meaning of'dynamical' in the name TDT. In 1991, in Recommendation IV of the XXI General Assembly, the IAU redefined TDT renaming it "Terrestrial Time". TT was formally defined in terms of Geocentric Coordinate Time, defined by the IAU on the same occasion. TT was defined to be a linear scaling of TCG, such that the unit of TT is the SI second on the geoid; this left the exact ratio between TT TCG time as something to be determined by experiment. Experimental determination of the gravitational potential at the geoid surface is a task in physical geodesy. In 2000, the IAU slightly altered the definition of TT by adopting an exact value for the ratio between TT and TCG time, as 1 − 6.969290134×10−10. TT differs from Geocentric Coordinate Time by a constant rate. Formally it is defined by the equation where TT and TCG are linear counts of SI seconds in Terrestrial Time and Geocentric Coordinate Time L g is the constant difference in the rates of the two time scales, E is a constant to resolve the epochs.

L g is defined as 6.969290134×10−10. The equation linking TT and TCG is more seen in the form where J D T C G is the TCG time expressed as a Julian date; this is just a transformation of the raw count of seconds represented by the variable TCG, so this form of the equation is needlessly complex. The use of a Julian Date specifies the epoch fully; the above equation is given with the Julian Date 2443144.5 for the epoch, but, inexact. The value 2443144.5003725 is in accord with the definition. Time coordinates on the TT and TCG scales are conventionally specified using traditional means of specifying days, carried over from non-uniform time standards based on the rotation of Earth. Both Julian Dates and the Gregorian calendar are used. For continuity with their predecessor Ephemeris Time, TT and TCG were set to match ET at around Julian Date 2443144.5. More it was defined that TT instant 1977-01-01T00:00:32.184 and TCG instant 1977-01-01T00:00:32.184 correspond to the International Atomic Time instant 1977-01-01T00:00:00.000 exactly.

This is the instant at which TAI introduced corrections for gravitational time dilation. TT and TCG expressed as Julian Dates can be related and most by the equation where E J D is 2443144.5003725 exactly. TT is a theoretical ideal, not dependent on a particular realization. For practical purposes, TT must be realized by actual clocks in the Earth system; the main realization of TT is supplied by TAI. The TAI service, running since 1958, attempts to match the rate of proper time on the geoid, using an ensemble of atomic clocks spread over the surface and low orbital space of Earth. TAI is canonically defined retrospectively, in monthly bulletins, in relation to the readings that particular groups of atomic clocks showed at the time. Estimates of TAI are provided in real time by the institutions that operate the participating clocks; because of the historical difference between TAI and ET when TT was introduced, the TAI realization of TT is defined thus: Because TAI is never revised once published, it is possible for errors in it to become known and remain uncorrected.

It is thus possible to produce a better realization of TT based on reanalysis of historical TAI data. The BIPM has done this annually since 1992; these realizations of TT are named in the form "TT", with the digits indicating the year of publication. They are published in the form of table of differences from

Seven (Indian TV series)

Seven – The Ashvamedha Prophecy is an Indian supernatural television series that aired on Sony Entertainment Television from 1 January 2010 to 25 June 2010. The series was produced by Aditya Chopra, stars Rakesh Bapat and Shama Sikander; when the "Saptarshi" constellation falls in place, Dr. Charak, an astronomer and philosopher knows the time has come for him to find the descendants of the saptarishi or seven sages. ‘Seven’, is the story of the search for the seven descendants and their journey of discovering their real capabilities. Asmin, Varya, Mastishk and Drishika, have what it takes to save the world; the unique powers they possess are complemented with their different mindsets and outlook in life. Dr Charak, the guru, must bring seven such distinct personalities under one roof and fulfil the Ashwamedha prophecy – a secret that will give great power to the person who unravels it, before Asht, the master of evil and Dr. Charak’s rival, decodes it. Seven ordinary people with extraordinary powers come together to unravel new mythological mysteries till the Ashvamedha, whose secret will change the fate of the Seven.

In the final episode they reach the place where they find deadly weapons which brings the final climax of Ashvamedha. Asht fails and unleashes his daughter Shunya to fight the Seven. Asht gains the upper hand and tries to kill Varya but Shunya intervenes and dies saving Varya but after revealing the truth that she is Asht's daughter. Asht is defeated. Shlok deletes the collective memory of everyone and the Seven carry on with their lives as normal people. To know the secret of the Ashvamedha prophecy, the Seven have to collect nine ancient books which are at nine different places; each book unravels new mysteries. The books are precious and the holders of these books first put the Seven through a test to assess their abilities; the books are given to nine different people for safekeeping until the "Saptrishis" come to collect them. Each book teaches the Seven new abilities, like "the touch of death" and "communication with nature". In his bid to stop the Seven, Asht kills all the nine guardians of the books once they have performed their duty of passing on the books to the Seven.

The Books teach the nine new abilities and powers: 1st book – Touch of death 2nd book – Communicating with plants 3rd book – Controlling light 4th book – Teleporting 5th book – Medicinal powers of healing 6th book – Looking into time in any direction 7th book – Time travel 8th book – Anti gravity 9th book – The collection of these powers in one person These Nine Books are similar to that of the Nine Unknown Men. Raqesh Vashisth as Shlok Shama Sikander as Shunya Shireen Farooq as Asmin Bharadwaj Nushrat Bharucha as Drishika Kashyap Shivam Sood as Eklavya Gautam Himmanshoo A. Malhotra as Haryaksh Vashisht Raashul Tandon as Hriday Atri Meherzan Mazda as Mastishk Kashyap Kashmira Irani as Varya Vishwamitra Naveen Melandro Kaushik as Asht Arya, antagonist Anubhav Krishna Srivastava as Daksh Rajvansh Sunny Hinduja as Shiven Riddhi Dogra as Diya Arish Bhiwandiwala as Shikher Puru Chibber as Adhirath Bakul Thakkar as Mahesh Kashyap Seema Azmi as Radhika Krishna Chaudhary as Rana Arun Bali as Mahaguru Aarun Nagar as the Boat Man Siddhartha Anand Kumar - Director Yogi and Sudhanshu - Associate Directors Arjun Singh - Assistant Director Omkar Shetty - Assistant Director Mohammad Faizan - Assistant Director Ravina Kohli - Creative Head The Seven Rishis: Asmin Bharadwaj:- Asmin means life.

A perfect blend of bold and beautiful, this young girl is an irresistible with her fiery and stubborn nature. She has the powers of healing herself, thus she can never feel any pain. Along with this she is portrayed as the leader of seven, she has mastered the ability of "the touch of death" which has given her immense power for physical ability. Haryaksh Vashishth:-Haryaksh means the one with yellow eyes. A "back street boy", Haryaksh is one of the most influencing characters of seven, his good looks and charming nature makes him popular among the group. He has the powers of throwing fire, he is a rival to Asmin. He mastered the power of light due to the third book, he is in a romantic relationship with Varya. Drishika Kashyap- Drishika means she who has a vision. A girl with an angelic face and petite charm, Drishika is the fraternal twin of Mastishk, she has precognition. She is excellent in mental abilities, she learned. She is in a relationship with Eklavya, her eyes turn solid white when she sees the future, which gives her an eerie look.

Though it seems like she has a weird control over her power she can control it sometimes as shown in the second episodes that she was able to precognise that there would be a bomb blast at will. Mastishk Kashyap:- Mastishk means mind. Portrayed as a handsome boy, with a cute face and babyish voice, Mastishk is popular among girls, he can read people's thoughts, on some occasions makes them forget memories. He is good in physical as well as mental abilities but cannot be referred as a master in any of them, he enjoys flirting with Asmin. He has mastered the ability to communicate with t

Hans J├╝rgen von der Wense

Hans Jürgen von der Wense was a German poet, photographer and hiker. Wense was born in Ortelsburg in East Prussia but today Szczytno in Poland, to a family of military and aristocratic background. In 1914 he began to study philosophy in Berlin. A keen musician, he played some of his own compositions to Arnold Schoenberg in 1915. From 1915 to 1918 he served in the German army, he began publishing his poetry in 1917. He took part in the Spartacist uprising of 1919 in Munich. In the following years he pursued his music studies with Clara Zetkin, Hermann Scherchen and Ernst Krenek. Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt ranked Wense in 1921 with Igor Stravinsky and Béla Bartók; some of Wense's early music showed traits of Dadaism, for example his 1919 opus "Music for piano and suspended metal colander." A wealthy older artist, Hedwig Woermann, began at this period to support him financially. Although Wense was gay, his friendship with Woermann was one of the deepest in his life. In 1932 Wense first visited the region of Hesse-Kassel, to become dear to him.

He planned to write a book about hiking in the area between the towns of Göttingen and Eschwege. In 1940 he settled in Göttingen. In the period 1946–1949 some of his aphorisms were published in a Göttingen journal, but following this he published nothing for the remainder of his life. At his death he left over 300 folders with about 30,000 pages of letters, photographs and translations, of which 13 contained musical compositions, including transcriptions of music by Gustav Mahler and Dietrich Buxtehude. Wense was involved in creating a detailed alphabetical index of esoteric extracts from world literature. Wense died in Göttingen in 1966 of colorectal cancer. A number of his writings were published posthumously. Wense's compositions include: “Weht der Wind nicht leise”. After a poem by Alfred Mombert. Published in: Melos Berlin, 1920. "Musik für Klavier". Ed. Tobias Widmaier. Saarbrücken: Pfau 1994. Includes "Musik für Klavier I – IV op. 1". "Musik für Klavier Nr. 13". "Ich hatt’ einen Kameraden.". "Musik für Gesang" I – III op.

2. "Musik für Klarinette, Klavier und freihängendes Blechsieb". “Seht doch: unser Freund, er kommt gefahren”. Published in: Der Pfahl VIII. München: Matthes & Seitz 1994. “Feuersignale, über Abgründe geblinkt”. After a poem by Wilhelm Klemm. Published in: Der Pfahl VIII. München: Matthes & Seitz 1994. Wense's posthumously published writings include: Epidot Blume blühen auf Befehl Von Aas bis Zylinder Geschichte einer Jugend Wanderjahre. Notes SourcesAnon1. "Biographie", in Wense Forum Kassel website. Anon2. "Bibliographie:Kompositionen, in Wense Forum Kassel website. Anon3. "Bibliographie:Werke, in Wense Forum Kassel website. Davies, Hugh. "Sound Effects" in Oxford Music Online. Gebhart and Karl-Heinz Nickel. Hans Jürgen von der Wense – Einflusse – Wirkungen- Inspirationen, Kassel: Kassel University Press, ISBN 978-3-89958-579-7 Lissek, Michael. "Hans Jürgen von der Wense: Unverträumt träumen" on author's home site


Manuelita is a Colombian agribusiness corporation, headquartered in Cali, Valle del Cauca, whose main products are refined sugar, palm oil, mussels and fruits and vegetables. Manuelita was founded in 1864 when James Martin Eder, better known in Colombia as don Santiago Eder, an American citizen born in Mitau, bought the hacienda "La Manuelita", located near Palmira, from the father of famed Colombian novelist Jorge Isaacs at a public auction; the farm's namesake was Isaacs' mother. Eder planted various crops, including coffee in the farm, but centered on sugar, "on the first day of the first year of the twentieth century" he inaugurated a new sugar mill which had Colombia's first steam engine, replaced the former ox powered mill. After don Santiago's retirement in 1903, Manuelita continued to grow under the leadership of his sons Charles James Eder, Henry James Eder, his grandson Harold Henry Eder Caicedo, his great-grandson Henry James Eder Caicedo, still Chairman of the Board; as of April 1, 2008, don Santiago's great-great-grandson Harold Enrique Eder Garcés is President of IMSA.

In 1980, the size of the company was cut in half, after surviving a hostile takeover attempt by the Carlos Ardila Lülle's business group. This unfortunate incident resulted in the split of the Ingenio Manuelita and Ingenio del Cauca sugar mills; this latter mill had been founded by Harold Henry Eder while he was at the head of the Eder Family enterprise and was hence a great loss to the family both economically and sentimentally. Under Henry J. Eder's stewardship, Manuelita's standing in Colombia's sugar sector in terms of production was recovered and surpassed when compared to Manuelita and Ingenio del Cauca's combined production levels in 1980. During this period of time, Manuelita expanded its sugar production to ventures in Peru and Brasil, including a project named Arena Dulce, or Sweet Sand, in which nearly 2000 hectares of Peruvian desert were planted in sugarcane using vanguard drip irrigation technology adapted by Manuelita technicians to the specificities of cane cultivation and harvesting and which are producing record levels of tons of cane per hectare and percentage of sucrose in cane.

Additionally, Henry Eder diversified Manuelita into other products and countries in order to diversify risk, namely shrimp, palm oil, ethanol and table grapes. Many details of Manuelita's business affairs from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are preserved at the Phanor James Eder Collection at the University of Miami, which includes a great deal of don Santiago's business correspondence. 1. Manuelita Azúcar y Energía is Colombia's oldest sugar mill and the original business of the Manuelita group of companies. Manuelita Azúcar y Energía is served by 25,000 hectares of land, 15,000 of which are company owned, has a crushing capacity of 10,000 tons of cane per day, making it the second largest mill in Colombia after Ingenio del Cauca, a mill, founded by Harold Henry Eder Caicedo and the Manuelita Group in the 1950s. Manuelita Azúcar y Energía produces nearly 300,000 tons of high quality refined sugar per year, has a fuel ethanol production capacity of 250,000 lts per day, it is one of its most efficient producer.

Given Manuelita's strict adherence to a sound environmental policy, the company's ethanol production process is geared to produce as little vinasse as possible.2. Manuelita Aceites y Energía is an African palm oil processing company based in Bogota, but with operations in the Meta and Casanare departments of Colombia; the Meta plant, known as Yaguarito, was a greenfield project started in 1986 in the cattle lands of Colombia's Eastern Plains. The Company owns 15,000 hectares of palm and is served by an additional 20,000 hectares of palm owned by independent farmers; each year the Yaguarito operation processes nearly 150,000 tons of fruit and produces refined palm oil, bio diesel and other sub-products. In 2009, Manuelita purchased a 25,000 hectare property in Casanare province to set up a second palm oil processing operation which will look to produce refined palm oil and bio diesel. Palmar de Altamira's new processing plant started operating in 2014; this new operation is a greenfield project to be laid out in cattle lands.

Special attention is being given to environmental concerns, however, so as to ensure that the native flora and fauna of this Colombian frontier region are not adversely affected by Manuelita's arrival. 3. Océanos is a 99,9% owned subsidiary of Manuelita and the world's largest contiguous shrimp farm with 148 production pools covering a total area of 1,052 hectares. Oceanos produces over 10,000 tons of shrimp per year and exports 90% of its production to Europe and the United States. 1. Agroindustrial Laredo is one of the fourth largest sugar producer in Peru, it produces over 100.000 metric tons of high quality refined sugar per year. Laredo's mill has a cane crushing capacity of 5,000 metric tons per day and is served with sugarcane, cultivated in over 15,000 hectares of land; the company owns and cultivates cane on nearly 8,000 hectares of company owned land, including 1,000 hectares of desert which Manuelita technicians were able to plant with cane using drip irrigation technology and taking full advantage of the Chavimochic irrigation canal.

1. Mejillones America is a m

Aynho Park railway station

Aynho Park was a railway station serving the village of Aynho in Northamptonshire, England. It was on. Aynho Park was the northernmost of six new stations that the Great Western Railway provided when it opened the high-speed Bicester cut-off line between Ashendon Junction and Aynho Junction in 1910; the station was opened for passengers on 1 July 1910. The line became part of the Western Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948. British Railways closed Aynho Park station in 1963. Trains on the Chiltern Main Line pass the site. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. MacDermot, E. T.. History of the Great Western Railway. Vol. II. Paddington: Great Western Railway. Mitchell, Vic. Princes Risborough to Banbury.

Western Main Lines. Midhurst: Middleton Press. ISBN 1-901706-85-0. Aynho station on navigable O. S. map

Grinding wheel

A grinding wheel is a wheel composed of an abrasive compound and used for various grinding and abrasive machining operations. Such wheels are used in grinding machines; the wheels are made from a composite material consisting of coarse-particle aggregate pressed and bonded together by a cementing matrix to form a solid, circular shape. Various profiles and cross sections are available depending on the intended usage for the wheel, they may be made from a solid steel or aluminium disc with particles bonded to the surface. Today most grinding wheels are artificial composites made with artificial aggregates, but the history of grinding wheels began with natural composite stones, such as those used for millstones; the manufacture of these wheels is a precise and controlled process, due not only to the inherent safety risks of a spinning disc, but the composition and uniformity required to prevent that disc from exploding due to the high stresses produced on rotation. Grinding wheels are consumables, although the life span can vary depending on the use case, from less than a day to many years.

As the wheel cuts, it periodically releases individual grains of abrasive because they grow dull and the increased drag pulls them out of the bond. Fresh grains are exposed in this wear process; the rate of wear in this process is very predictable for a given application, is necessary for good performance. There are five characteristics of a cutting wheel: material hardness, grain size, wheel grade, grain spacing, bond type, they are indicated by codes on the wheel's label. The abrasive aggregate is selected according to the hardness of the material being cut. Aluminum oxide Silicon carbide Ceramic Diamond Cubic boron nitride Grinding wheels with diamond or CBN grains are called superabrasives. Grinding wheels with aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or ceramic grains are called conventional abrasives. From 10 to 600, determines the average physical size of the abrasive grains in the wheel. A larger grain will cut allowing fast cutting but poor surface finish. Ultra-fine grain sizes are for precision finish work.

Generally grain size of grinding wheel are 10-24,30-60,80-200 and 220-600. From A to Z, determines how the bond holds the abrasive. A to H for softer structure, I to P for moderately hard structure and Q to Z for hard structure. Grade affects all considerations of grinding, such as wheel speed, coolant flow and minimum feed rates, grinding depth. Spacing or structure, from 1 to 17. Density is the ratio of bond and abrasive to air space. A less-dense wheel will cut and has a large effect on surface finish, it is able to take a deeper or wider cut with less coolant, as the chip clearance on the wheel is greater. How the wheel holds the abrasives. To the right is an image of a straight wheel; these can be found on bench or pedestal grinders. They are used on the periphery only and therefore produce a concave surface on the part; this can be used to advantage on many tools such as chisels. Straight Wheels are used for cylindrical and surface grinding operations. Wheels of this form vary in size, the diameter and width of face depending upon the class of work for, used and the size and power of the grinding machine.

Cylinder wheels provide a wide surface with no center mounting support. They can be large, up to 12" in width, they are used only in horizontal spindle grinders. Cylinder or wheel ring is used for producing flat surfaces, the grinding being done with the end face of the wheel. A straight wheel that tapers outward towards the center of the wheel; this arrangement can accept higher lateral loads. Tapered face straight wheel is used for grinding thread, gear teeth... Straight cup wheels are an alternative to cup wheels in tool and cutter grinders, where having an additional radial grinding surface is beneficial. A shallow cup-style grinding wheel; the thinness allows grinding in crevices. It is used in cutter grinding and jig grinding. A special grinding profile, used to grind milling cutters and twist drills, it is most common in non-machining areas, as sawfilers use saucer wheels in the maintenance of saw blades. Diamond wheels are grinding wheels with industrial diamonds bonded to the periphery, they are used for grinding hard materials such as carbide cutting tips, gemstones or concrete.

The saw pictured to the right is a slitting saw and is designed for slicing hard materials gemstones. Mounted points are small grinding wheels bonded onto a mandrel. Diamond mounted points are tiny diamond rasps for use in a jig grinder doing profiling work in hard material. Resin and vitrified bonded mounted points with conventional grains are used for deburring applications in the foundry industry. Mounted points is a small handle with a general name, used in electric mill, hanging mill, hand drill. Many of the main types of ceramic mounted points, rubber mounted points, diamond mounted points, emery cloth and so on. Ceramic mounted points: granular sand made of ceramic binder sintering, the central supplemented by metal handle. Grinding all kinds of metal, for the diameter of the inner wall of the grinding, mold correction. Rubber mounted points: finer particle size sand c