HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01)
HMAS Adelaide was the lead ship of the Adelaide class of guided missile frigates built for the Royal Australian Navy, based on the United States Navy's Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates. She was built in the United States and commissioned into the RAN in 1980. During her career, Adelaide was part of Australian responses or contributions to the 1987 Fijian coups d'état, the Iraq invasion of Kuwait, the Indonesian riots of May 1998, the INTERFET peacekeeping taskforce, the War in Afghanistan, the United States-led invasion of Iraq. In 1997, the frigate rescued two competitors in the 1996–97 Vendée Globe solo, round-the-world yacht race. In 2001, a boat carrying suspected. In 2008, Adelaide was the second ship of the class to be decommissioned, in order to offset the cost of an upgrade to the other four vessels; this ship was to be sunk off Avoca Beach, New South Wales as a dive wreck on 27 March 2010, until an appeal to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal by protest groups led to a postponement of the scuttling until additional cleanup work was completed.
Despite further attempts to delay or cancel the scuttling, Adelaide was sunk off Avoca on 13 April 2011. Following the cancellation of the Australian light destroyer project in 1973, the British Type 42 destroyer and the American Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate were identified as alternatives to replace the cancelled light destroyers and the Daring-class destroyers. Although the Oliver Hazard Perry class was still at the design stage, the difficulty of fitting the Type 42 with the SM-1 missile, the success of the Perth-class acquisition compared to equivalent British designs led the Australian government to approve the purchase of two US-built Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates in 1976. A third was ordered in 1977, followed by a fourth, with all four ships integrated into the USN's shipbuilding program. A further two ships were ordered in 1980, were constructed in Australia; as designed, the ship had a full load displacement of 3,605 tons, a length overall of 135.6 metres, a beam of 13.7 metres, a draught of 24.5 metres.
Early in the ship's career, she was modified from the Oliver Hazard Perry Flight I design to Flight III, requiring a lengthening of the helicopter deck for the RAST helicopter recovery system, increasing the displacement to 4,100 tons and pushing the overall length to 138.1 metres. Propulsion machinery consisted of two General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, which provided a combined 41,000 horsepower to the single propeller shaft. Top speed was 29 knots, with a range of 4,500 nautical miles at 20 knots. Two 650-horsepower electric auxiliary propulsors were used for close manoeuvring, with a top speed of 4 knots; the standard ship's company was 184, including 15 officers, but excluding the flight crew for the embarked helicopters. The original armament for the ship consisted of a Mark 13 missile launcher configured to fire RIM-66 Standard and RGM-84 Harpoon missiles, supplemented by an OTO Melara 76-millimetre gun and a Vulcan Phalanx point-defence system. For anti-submarine warfare, two Mark 32 torpedo tube sets were fitted.
Up to six 12.7-millimetre machine guns were carried for close-in defence, beginning in 2005, two M2HB.50 calibre machine guns in Mini Typhoon mounts were installed when needed for Persian Gulf deployments. The sensor suite included an AN/SPS-49 air search radar, AN/SPS-55 surface search and navigation radar, SPG-60 fire control radar connected to a Mark 92 fire control system, an AN/SQS-56 hull-mounted sonar. Two helicopters could be embarked: either two S-70B Seahawk or one Seahawk and one AS350B Squirrel. Adelaide was laid down to the Oliver Hazard Perry class' Flight I design at Todd Pacific Shipyards at Seattle on 29 July 1977, launched on 21 June 1978 by Lady Ann Synnot, commissioned into the Royal Australian Navy on 15 November 1980. During construction, she was identified with the United States Navy hull number FFG-17. A total of four Adelaide-class ships were constructed by Todd Pacific, with a further two built by Australian shipbuilder AMECON. After commissioning and Canberra remained in the United States to work up.
The frigate ran aground off Seattle in early 1981, during post-commissioning trials, but was freed with only minor damage. Following the decommissioning of the aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne in 1982 and the disbandment of fixed-wing aviation squadrons in 1984, the RAN Fleet Air Arm became focused on helicopter operations, but had minimal experience flying helicopters from small ships. To remedy this, a Bell Kiowa was embarked aboard Adelaide during 1984. Adelaide was awarded the Gloucester Cup for being the most efficient ship in the RAN during 1984. In May 1987, Adelaide visited Fiji, was alongside in Lautoka when the first of the 1987 Fijian coups d'état occurred on 14 May. Adelaide and sister ship Sydney, alongside in Suva, were instructed to remain off Fiji to aid in any necessary evacuation of Australian citizens. Adelaide remained on station until at least 29 May. On 3 July 1990, Adelaide became the first Australian warship to visit Tahiti since 1970. On 10 August, sister ship Darwin, the replenishment ship Succes
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Pacific Motorway (Sydney–Newcastle)
The M1 Pacific Motorway known by the former names F3 Freeway, Sydney–Newcastle Freeway, Sydney–Newcastle Expressway. It is part of the AusLink road corridor between Brisbane; the name "F3 Freeway", reflects its former route allocation, but is used by both the public and the government to refer to the roadway long after the route allocation itself was no longer in use. At its southern end, the freeway starts at Pennant Hills Road, near its junction with the Pacific Highway in Sydney's north, it heads north, skirting the western edge of the Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, running parallel with the railway line until it descends to the Hawkesbury River, crossing at Kangaroo Point in Brooklyn. North of the river, the Hawkesbury River interchange provides access to Brooklyn and Mooney Mooney before the road climbs. At Mount White there are major heavy vehicle checking stations on both northbound and southbound carriageways, to assess compliance and roadworthiness of trucks; the freeway passes through the Brisbane Water National Park, the Calga interchange gives access to Peats Ridge.
The freeway turns east to cross Mooney Mooney Creek by way of the 480 m long, 75 m high Mooney Mooney Bridge before it reaches the first major interchange on the Central Coast at Kariong. After Kariong, the freeway continues through rural and semi-rural areas of the Central Coast with interchanges at Ourimbah, Tuggerah and Kiar, near Doyalson. From the Doyalson interchange the freeway continues to the west of Lake Macquarie with interchanges near Morisset, Cessnock and West Wallsend. At the West Wallsend interchange the Newcastle Link Road takes traffic into Newcastle via Wallsend and connects with the M15 Hunter Expressway towards Kurri Kurri and Singleton, while the freeway continues north to end at the roundabout at the junction of Weakleys Drive and John Renshaw Drive, Beresfield. From here traffic bound for Highway 1 takes John Renshaw Drive and the New England Highway eastwards to meet the Pacific Highway at Hexham, Weakleys Drive connects with the New England Highway towards Maitland.
Between Wahroonga and Ourimbah the freeway passes through rugged sandstone country as it descends to and ascends from the Hawkesbury River. This section of the freeway is characterised by extensive embankments. Planning for the freeway began in 1952, with the aim of providing a high-speed replacement for a section of the Pacific Highway, built in 1925–30, struggling to cope with the increased traffic, it was planned that the freeway would connect to the freeway systems being proposed for both Sydney and Newcastle, providing a city-to-city freeway link. The route between Mount White and Kariong was planned to be further south than the route as built, with an easier crossing of Mooney Mooney Creek. By the time that construction on this section was to begin, resistance from the National Parks & Wildlife Service to the proposed route forced the Department of Main Roads to take a route through Calga, using part of the first stage of a proposed freeway route to Singleton, built the 1960s; that scheme has never been further developed.
The route through Wyong Shire changed. In addition, the freeway was revised to go to the west of Lake Macquarie rather than the east, thereby bypass Newcastle. One of the reasons for this change of location was the issue of connectivity to the Pacific Highway north of Newcastle, as the route of the Newcastle Inner City Bypass, which would have provided a northern extension of the freeway, is problematic in terms of its northern terminus point at Sandgate not allowing for a northward freeway-standard route to join to the Pacific Highway; the sections of the Newcastle Inner City Bypass from the Pacific Highway at Bennetts Green to Kotara and from Jesmond to Sandgate have since been constructed, while the original freeway route between Belmont and Bennetts Green and northward to the Pacific Highway at Merewether Heights is still reserved from development, with the possibility that it could be constructed in the future. The major stages in the construction of the freeway were: April 1963 – Construction began on the 7 km section from the Hawkesbury River to Mount White.
This was opened as a toll road in December 1965. October 1966 – Opening of the Mount White-Calga section. December 1968 – Opening of Berowra to Hawkesbury River section as a toll road. October 1973 – Completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, thereby connecting the Berowra-Hawkesbury River and Hawkesbury River-Calga sections. At this time the separate tolls for the sections north and south of the Hawkesbury were abolished and a single toll of 50 cents was introduced; this was collected at the Berowra toll booths, the Mooney Mooney toll booths were removed. The toll was removed in 1990 when the Federal Government adopted a policy that a condition of its direct funding of the national highways was that they were to be toll free. December 1983 – Concurrent opening of the Somersby to Ourimbah and Kangy Angy to Wallarah Creek sections, including the single carriageway motorway link from Wallarah Creek to the Pacific Highway at Doyalson. December 1986 – Opening of the 15 km section between Calga and Somersby including the
A trail is a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland path or footpath is the preferred term for a walking trail; the term is applied, in North America, to routes along rivers, sometimes to highways. In the US, the term was used for a route into or through wild territory used by emigrants. In the USA "trace" is a synonym for trail, as in Natchez Trace; some trails are single use and can only be used for walking, horse riding and cross-country skiing. There are unpaved trails used by dirt bikes and other off-road vehicles and in some places, like the Alps, trails are used for moving cattle and other livestock. In Australia, the term track can be used interchangeably with trail, can refer to anything from a dirt road to an unpaved pedestrian path. In New Zealand, the terms track or walkway are used exclusively except in reference to cross-country skiing: "walkways vary enormously in nature, from short urban strolls, to moderate coastal locations, to challenging tramps in the high country ".
Walkway is used in St. John's, Canada, where the "Grand Concourse", is an integrated walkway system. In the United Kingdom, the term trail is in common usage. Longer distance walking routes, government-promoted long distance paths, collectively known as National Trails, are frequently called ways; the term footpath is preferred for pedestrian routes, including long distance trails, is used for urban paths and sometimes in place of pavement. Track is used for wider paths used for hiking; the terms bridleway, restricted byway are all recognised legal terms and to a greater or lesser extent in general usage. The increased popularity of mountain biking has led to a proliferation of mountain bike trails in many countries; these will be grouped to form larger complexes, known as trail centers. In the early years of the 20th century, the term auto trail was used for a marked highway route, trail is now used to designate routes, including highway routes, designated for tourist interest like the Cabot Trail, Nova Scotia and the Quilt Trails in the US.
The term trail has been used by developers and urban planners for a variety of modern paved roads and boulevards, in these countries, some highways continue to be called a trail, such as the Susquehanna Trail in Pennsylvania, a designation that varies from a two-lane road to a four-lane freeway. A unusual use of the term is in the Canadian province of Alberta, which has multi-lane freeways called trails. Trail segregation, the practice of designating certain trails as having a specific preferred or exclusive use, is common and diverse. For example, bike trails are used not only on roads open to motor vehicles, but in trail systems open to other trail users; some trails are segregated for use by both equestrians and mountain bikes, or by equestrians only, or by mountain bikes only. Designated "wilderness area" trails may be segregated for non-wheeled use. Trail segregation for a particular use is accompanied by prohibitions against that use on other trails within the trail system. Trail segregation may be supported by signage, trail design and construction, by separation between parallel treads.
Separation may be achieved by "natural" barriers including distance, banking and vegetation, by "artificial" barriers including fencing and walls. Bicycle trails encompass a wide variety of trail types, including shared-use paths used for commuting, off-road cross country trails and downhill mountain bike trails; the number of off-road cycle trails has increased along with the popularity of mountain bikes. Off-road bicycle trails are function-specific and most waymarked along their route, they may form part of larger complexes, known as trail centres. Off-road trails incorporate a mix of challenging terrain, smooth fireroads, paved paths. Trails with an easy or moderate technical complexity are deemed cross-country trails, while trails difficult to experienced riders are more dubbed all-mountain, freeride, or downhill. Downhilling is popular at ski resorts such as Mammoth Mountain in California or Whistler Blackcomb in British Columbia, where ski lifts are used to get bikes and riders to the top of the mountain.
EuroVelo bicycle routes are a network of long-distance cycling routes criss-crossing Europe in various stages of completion, more than 45,000 km was in place by 2013. It is envisaged that the network will be complete by 2020 and when finished, the EuroVelo network's total length will exceed 70,000 km. EuroVelo is a project of the European Cyclists' Federation. EuroVelo routes can be used for bicycle touring across the continent, as well as by local people making short journeys; the routes are made of both existing national bike routes, such as the Dutch LF-Routes, the German D-Routes, the British National Cycle Network, existing general purpose roads, together with new stretches of cycle routes to connect them. Off-road cycling can cause soil erosion and habitat destruction if not carried out on established trails; this is so when trails are wet, overall though, cycling may have only as mu
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Wamberal, New South Wales
Wamberal is a coastal suburb of the Central Coast region of New South Wales, just north of Terrigal. It is part of the Central Coast Council local government area and is located adjacent to the Wamberal Lagoon. Wamberal is the next suburb from Terrigal, with the two suburbs being separated by the Terrigal Lagoon Estuary; the suburb has two distinct areas. The latter contains coastal acreages and ridges of bushland which are legislated non-development areas in order to retain the area's ecosystem; the main thoroughfare through the suburb is the Central Coast Highway through the north and south known as The Entrance Road. Since 2008, the roadway has undergone developments at an estimated cost of A$100 million into a four lane dual carriageway from Matcham to the north end of the suburb. Servicing the suburb from the south-east is Ocean View Drive, linking Wamberal to Terrigal. Wamberal has small clusters of high-end cafes and boutique stores dotted along the beach front strip, Ocean View Drive, on nearby streets.
In 2009 the Wamberal Surf Life Saving Club was redeveloped to accommodate a cafe and award winning restaurant, in addition to new function rooms and surf life saving amenities. Wamberal has a Country Club, "Breakers", commemorating ANZAC efforts, it is scheduled for a redevelopment from 2011 onwards. There is a government primary school in the rural sector of the suburb, teaching kindergarten through grade six. At the 2011 census, there were 6,298 people in the suburb of Wamberal, of these 48.8% were male and 51.2% were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1.3% of the population. The median age of people in Wamberal was 38 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 21.4% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 13.9% of the population, compared to 14.0% being the national median of people aged over 65 years. Of people in the suburb aged 15 years and over, 54.3% were married and 11.1% were either divorced or separated. Population growth in Wamberal between the 2001 Census and the 2006 Census was 5.08%.
When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same periods, being 5.78% and 8.32% population growth in the suburb of Wamberal was higher than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the suburb of Wamberal was 25% higher than the national average. At the 2011 Census, the proportion of residents in Wamberal who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 83% of all residents. In excess of 60% of all residents in the suburb of Wamberal nominated a religious affiliation with Christianity at the 2011 Census, higher than the national average of 50.2%. Meanwhile, as at the Census date, compared to the national average, households in Wamberal had a lower than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken; the prestige among Wamberal's property has increased in recent years credited to leafy, family friendly streets, shrinking availability of land and its proximity to local amenities including public transport and industrial areas and education whilst still remaining distant.
This motif was heralded in 2008 by the passing in at auction of a 1940s bungalow on a double block of beach front land at A$7.2 million, the property has been redeveloped, believed to be worth in excess of $10 million, which would make it the most valuable home on the Central Coast. This practice of redevelopment of property within Wamberal is seeing a shift further upmarket in property prices and moving the suburb further into the limelight with wealthier home buyers; this shift may be credited to the redevelopment of local amenities, such as playgrounds, community spaces such as parks of which some were initiated under the Nation Building Scheme of the Rudd Government's Economic Stimulus Policy. In September 2010, the median house price for Wamberal was $1.1 million
Gosford is a New South Wales suburb located in the heart of the Central Coast Region, about 76 kilometres north of the Sydney CBD. The suburb is situated at the northern extremity of Brisbane Water, an extensive northern branch of the Hawkesbury River estuary and Broken Bay; the suburb is the administrative centre and CBD of the Central Coast region, the third largest urban area in New South Wales after Sydney and Newcastle. Following its formation from the combination of the previous Gosford City and Wyong Shire Councils, Gosford has been earmarked as a vital CBD spine under the NSW Metropolitan Strategy; the population of the suburb was 3,499 in the 2016 census. But there were 169,053 people in the Gosford area in 2016; until white settlement, the area around Gosford was inhabited by the Guringai peoples, who were principally coastal-dwellers, the Darkinjung people that inhabited the hinterland. Along with the other land around the Hawkesbury River estuary, the Brisbane Water district was explored during the early stages of the settlement of New South Wales.
Gosford itself was explored by Governor Phillip between 1788 and 1789. The area was difficult to access and settlement began around 1823. By the late 19th century the agriculture in the region was diversifying, with market gardens and citrus orchards occupying the rich soil left after the timber harvest; as late as 1850, the road between Hawkesbury and Brisbane Water was a cart wheel track. Typical of early Colonial settlement, convicts worked in the Gosford area. In 1825, Gosford's population reached 100. East Gosford was the first centre of settlement. Gosford was named in 1839 after Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford – a friend of the Governor of New South Wales George Gipps. Acheson's title derives its name from Gosford, a townland of Markethill in County Armagh in Northern Ireland. In 1887, the rail link to Sydney was completed, requiring a bridge over the Hawkesbury River and a tunnel through the sandstone ridge west of Woy Woy; the introduction of this transport link and the Pacific Highway in 1930 accelerated the development of the region.
Gosford became a town in 1885 and was declared a municipality in 1886. At the 2016 census, there were 3,499 people in Gosford. 59.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were India 4.5%, England 2.9%. 65.2% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin at 3.7%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.9% and Catholic 18.2%. Gosford has a humid subtropical climate with mild winters. In summer, temperatures average about 27-28 °C in the day with high humidity and about 17-18 °C at night. Winters are mild with cool overnight temperatures and mild to warm daytime temperatures with lower humidity. Average rainfall is 1333 mm, much of which falls in autumn. Records range from a maximum of 44.8 °C on 18 January 2013, to a low of −4.2 °C on 16 July 1970. Gosford proper is located in a valley with President's Hill on the city's western border, Rumbalara Reserve on its eastern border, Brisbane water to the city's south.
Mann Street, Gosford's main street and part of the Pacific Highway, runs north-south and contains the frontage for much of the commercial district. In the centre of Gosford is a shopping and community precinct, including Kibble Park, William Street Mall, Gosford City Library, the Imperial Shopping Centre and a full range of shops, cafes and services. A renewed period of optimism has followed demolition of several derelict buildings and several infrastructure investment projects including the full fibre optic telecommunications rollout of the National Broadband Network in 2012 in the city's CBD as well as the so-called Kibbleplex project, announced in 2013 that plans to house the new regional library, tertiary teaching rooms and associated organisations. Gosford Classic Car Museum opened in 2016 at nearby suburb of West Gosford. Recent residential apartments have been built in various areas of the Gosford Central Business District. Gosford is situated along an identified business growth corridor between Erina, the West Gosford light industrial zone and Somersby.
Connectivity of main roads and rail travel times between Sydney, the Central Coast, Lake Macquarie and the city of Newcastle are key issues for corporate business relocation to the region. Aged and personal care and retail are major employers in Gosford; as an entertainment hub, Mann Street enjoys good public transport links and is one of the Central Coast's most popular spots for pubs and clubs and in close proximity to cultural and sporting events. Yacht and other boat building has been undertaken by East Coast Yachts since 1964 in West Gosford. Gosford is home to: Gosford Hospital – the largest hospital on the NSW Central Coast Laycock Street Community Theatre - the only professional, proscenium arch theatre venue on the Central Coast The Central Coast Conservatorium Central Coast Stadium in Grahame Park, adjacent to the Central Coast Leagues Club. Built for the Central Coast Bears team in the NRL rugby league competition, since 2005 it is the home of the successful Central Coast Mariners A-League soccer / association football team and was the home venue of the Central Coast Rays rugby union Australian Rugby Championship team.
Central Coast Leagues Club - is the largest community sporting and social club in the region The Entertainment Grounds known as Gosford Racecourse Gosford Showground The headquarters of the Government of New South Wales workplace health and safety regulator, SafeWo