Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago
The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. The Parliament is bicameral, it consists of the elected House of Representatives, which has 41 members elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies, the Senate which has 31 members appointed by the President: 16 Government Senators appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister, 6 Opposition Senators appointed on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition and 9 Independent Senators appointed by the President to represent other sectors of civil society. ACP–EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly Canada-Caribbean Parliamentary Friendship Group Commonwealth Parliamentary Association House of Representatives of Trinidad and Tobago Senate of Trinidad and Tobago Elections in Trinidad and Tobago List of political parties in Trinidad and Tobago Politics of Trinidad and Tobago List of Parliaments of Trinidad and Tobago The Red House, Parliament building Official website
National Assembly (Panama)
The National Assembly the Legislative Assembly, is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Panama. It is a unicameral legislature made up of 71 members, who serve five-year terms. Legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis, while districts located in more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based formula. Panama's legislative elections are held simultaneous with its presidential elections. Panama returns a delegation of 20 deputies to the supranational Central American Parliament. *: 11 seats that the party won were annulled by the electoral body of Panama. Those seats will be contested again List of political parties in Panama List of Presidents of the National Assembly of Panama Politics of Panama Official website
The Republicans (France)
The Republicans is a centre-right, conservative political party in France. The party was formed on 30 May 2015 by renaming the Union for a Popular Movement party, founded in 2002 under the leadership of former President of France Jacques Chirac; the party used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic along with the centre-left Socialist Party, following the 2017 legislative election, it remains the second largest party in the National Assembly. LR is a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International, the International Democrat Union. After the election in November 2014 of Nicolas Sarkozy, the President of France from 2007 to 2012, as president of the Union for a Popular Movement, Sarkozy put forward a request to the party's general committee to change its name to "The Republicans" and alter the statutes of the party. With the name chosen, vice-president of the UMP Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet presented Sarkozy and the party's political bureau the proposed new statutes.
The proposed statutes provided for, among other provisions, the election of the presidents of the departmental federations by direct democracy, the end of the political currents and consulting members on election nominations. Critics of Sarkozy claimed it was "illegal" for him to name the party "Republicans" because every French person is a republican if they support the values and ideals of the French Republic that emanated from the French Revolution, as such the term is above party politics; the new name was adopted by the party bureau on 5 May 2015 and approved by the party membership on 28 May by an online "yes" vote of 83.3% on a 45.7% turnout after a court ruling in favour of Sarkozy. The new party statutes were adopted by 96.3% of voters and the composition of the new political bureau by 94.8%. The change to the name "The Republicans" was confirmed at the party's founding congress on 30 May 2015 at the Paris Event Centre in Paris, attended by 10,000 activists. Angela Merkel, chairwoman of the centre-right CDU, sent a congratulatory message to the congress.
The Republicans thus became the legal successor of the UMP and the leading centre-right party in France. The organisation has been declared in the préfecture de Saône-et-Loire on 9 April 2015. According to the statement of this declaration, its aim is to "promote ideas of the right and centre, open to every people who wish to be member and debate in the spirit of a political party with republican ideas in France or outside France"; this party foundation was published in the Journal officiel de la République française on 25 April 2015. On 3 July 2016, Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would resign as leader that year in order to compete to be the right-wing candidate in the 2017 presidential election. After winning the party's presidential primary, François Fillon suffered a historic defeat in the first round of the presidential election, with the candidate of the right failing to continue to the second round for the first time in the history of the Fifth Republic amid "Penelopegate". In the second round of the legislative elections in June, The Republicans and its allies suffered further losses, losing nearly a hundred deputies, which represented its worst performance.
After Emmanuel Macron was elected as president, he appointed three right-wing politicians in his government – Édouard Philippe as Prime Minister, Bruno Le Maire as French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, Gérald Darmanin as Minister of Public Action and Accounts. As a consequence, a parliamentary group including LR dissidents supportive of the government line, "The Constructives", was formed in the National Assembly, separate from the existing group. On 11 July, the political bureau of The Republicans agreed to hold a leadership election for president of the party on 10 and 17 December. Politics of France List of political parties in France The Republicans group The Republicans group Official web site of Les Républicains
Saint-Pierre, Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre is the capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of Newfoundland in Canada. Saint-Pierre is the more populated of the two communes making up Saint Miquelon; the commune of Saint-Pierre is made up of the island of Saint-Pierre proper and several nearby smaller islands, such as L'Île-aux-Marins. Although containing nearly 90% of the inhabitants of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the commune of Saint-Pierre is smaller than the commune of Miquelon-Langlade, which lies to its northwest on Miquelon Island; the main settlement and communal seat is situated on the north side of a harbour called Barachois, which faces the Atlantic Ocean, on the Saint-Pierre Island's east coast. The mouth of the harbour is guarded by a small chain of islands. St. Pierre was an outpost used by Al Capone to transport alcohol from Canada to the United States during Prohibition; until 1945, there existed a third commune in Saint Miquelon: L'Île-aux-Marins. The commune of L'Île-aux-Marins was annexed by the commune of Saint-Pierre in 1945.
The population of Saint-Pierre at the 2006 local census was 5,888, many of whom are of Basque, Normand or Acadian descent. All inhabitants in the commune live on the island of Saint-Pierre proper; the commune is led by a council. Close to the centre of the harbour's edge lie the Post office and Custom House, behind, General Charles de Gaulle Square, the town's centre. Other prominent landmarks in Saint-Pierre include the cathedral, to the north of the square, rebuilt in the early twentieth century after a major fire, the Pointe aux Canons Lighthouse, at the mouth of the harbour. Further north, close to the town's former hospital, is the Fronton Zazpiak Bat - an arena for the traditional Basque sport of pelota. Hospitalier François Dunan is the only hospital in St. Pierre et Miquelon with additional health care needs at the seniors residence at Maison de Retraite Eglantine. Saint-Pierre Airport, the international airport of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, is located south of the settlement of Saint-Pierre and is served by Air Saint-Pierre with flights both to Miquelon Airport, five Canadian airports and seasonal service to Paris, France.
Radio France Outremer Radio Atlantique Public primary schools in the commune: Ecole maternelle Ile aux Enfants - As of 2014 it had 62 students. Ecole primaire Henriette Bonin - As of 2014 it had 62 students Ecole élémentaire du Feu Rouge - As of 2014 it had 163 students As of 2016 it had 172 students, it is one nautical cable from the Ile aux Enfants nursery. Lycée-Collège d'État Émile Letournel is the public secondary school in the commune, with junior high, vocational high, general senior high/sixth-form programmes. Private schools: Ecole maternelle Saint-Louis de Gonzague Ecole élémentaire Sainte-Croisine - It opened on November 4, 1925 Ecole élémentaire Sainte-Odile Collège Saint Christophe Saint-Pierre is twinned with: Port-en-Bessin-Huppain, since 1976. Miquelon-Langlade Official website Encyclopédie de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon Tourism and Travel Resources for St Pierre & Miquelon Frequently Asked Questions Tourism and Travel Map of Saint-Pierre Local Airline Air Saint-Pierre Ferry service for Saint-Pierre and Fortune Newfoundland
Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica
The Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Costa Rica. The national congress building is located in the city capital, San José in El Carmen District in San José Canton; the Legislative Assembly is composed of 57 deputies, who are elected by direct, popular vote on a closed party list proportional representation basis, by provinces, for four-year terms. A 1949 constitutional amendment prevents deputies from serving for two successive terms. A proposal to switch to a Mixed-member proportional representation based on the German system is under discussion. Following the 2018 legislative election, the President of the Legislative Assembly was elected in the person of Carolina Herrera Hidalgo, a Citizens' Action Party's member with the support of most of the plenary except for the unified National Restoration Party's group; the Directory's Secretary went to the National Liberation Party's deputy Luis Fernando Chacon and the Vice Presidency went to Social Christian deputy Inés Solís.
The Assembly meets in the Edificio Central located in the city centre of San José. Work began on this building in 1937, with the plan of having it serve as the new presidential palace. Since much of the building materials were imported from Germany and Czechoslovakia, the onset of the Second World War put a halt to the project. Work did not recommence until 1957, but by 1958 the legislature was installed and operating in its new premises; the foundations of the Legislative Assembly date back to the establishment of various courts and congresses in New Spain. The modern assembly was created in the aftermath of the Costa Rican Civil War that deposed Teodoro Picado Michalski in 1948. José Figueres Ferrer headed a ruling junta. Between 1948 and 1949, this Constituent Assembly created the Constitution of Costa Rica which lays forth the rules governing the assembly today. During each four-year legislative session, various political parties have occupied majority and coalition caucuses in the assembly.
Costa Rica is the only Spanish-speaking Central American country not to return deputies to the supranational Central American Parliament. List of Presidents of the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica Politics of Costa Rica List of legislatures by country Asamblea Legislativa de la República de Costa Rica
Congress of Colombia
The Congress of the Republic of Colombia is the name given to Colombia's bicameral national legislature. The Congress of Colombia consists of the 108-seat Senate, the 172-seat House of Representatives. Members of both houses are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; the composition and powers of Congress and the legislative procedure are established by the fourth title of the Colombian Constitution. According to article 114 of the Constitution, the Congress amends the constitution, makes the law and exercises political control over the government and the public administration. In addition, the Constitution and the law grant other powers to Congress, including certain judicial powers and electing senior judges and other senior public officials. Both houses of Congress meet at the neoclassical Capitolio Nacional building in central Bogotá, the construction of which began in 1847 and was not concluded until 1926; each house has its own election procedure and individual powers distinguishing them from the other, which are further discussed in the article for each individual chamber.
Each house has its own eligibility requirements established by the Constitution, but there are common rules of ineligibility and incompatibility, determined by the Constitution. Anyone, sentenced to deprivation of liberty at any time except for political crimes and culpable negligence. In addition, relatives through marriage or kinship who are registered candidates for the same party for an office elected on the same day may not be members of Congress; the constitution bans election to or membership in more than one office or body if the terms only overlap partially. Members of Congress may not hold another private office. Violations of the rules of ineligibility, conflict of interest lead to the loss of one's mandate as congressmen; the Council of State rules on the loss of mandate within twenty days of the request made by a citizen or the executive committee of the appropriate house. Members of Congress enjoy immunity for their opinions and the votes that they cast in the exercise of their office.
For crimes committed during their term, only the Supreme Court of Justice may order the arrest and try them. Members of Congress do not have alternates and are only replaced in the event of a temporary or permanent absences, as decreed by law, by the next non-elected candidate on the list from which he/she was elected, ranked in order of registration or votes received. Permanent absences include death, physical incapacity, nullification of the election and accepted resignation, disciplinary sanctions and the loss of one's mandate. Temporary absences include maternity leave and temporary deprivation of liberty from crimes other than those signalled in the paragraph below. In the wake of the parapolitics scandal, a political reform in 2009 created the so-called silla vacía mechanism, according to which anyone, sentenced for membership, promotion or funding of illegal armed groups. Any congressmen who resigns after having been formally indicted in Colombia for any of these crimes or, temporarily absent after an arrest warrant has been issued for any of these crimes is not replaced.
These rules not only apply to Congress, but to all other directly elected bodies - departmental assemblies, municipal councils and local administrative boards. These provisions were strengthened by the 2015 constitutional reform, which added fraudulent wrongdoings against public administration as a crime not resulting in replacement. Although each house of Congress serves a particular role and have individual powers distinguishing them from one another, both houses have certain powers in common, according to Article 135 of the Constitution. To summon (by writing, with five days
National Congress of Argentina
The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. Its composition is bicameral, constituted by a 72-seat Senate and a 257-seat Chamber of Deputies; the Congressional Palace is located at the western end of Avenida de Mayo. The Kilometre Zero for all Argentine National Highways is marked on a milestone at the Congressional Plaza, next to the building; the Argentine National Congress is the Chamber of Deputies. The ordinary sessions span is from March 1 to November 30. Senators and deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity during their mandates, which may be revoked by their peers if a senator or deputy is caught in flagrante, in the midst of committing a crime; the Congress is in charge of setting customs, which must be uniform across the country. It rules the Central Bank of Argentina, manages internal and external debt payment, the value of national currency, it rules the legal codes on Civil, Penal, Minery and Social Welfare affairs, all of which cannot be in contradiction with the respective provincial codes.
Any changes on national or provincial limits, or the creation of new provinces, ought to be allowed by the Congress. The Congress is entitled to approve or reject every international treaty that Argentina signs with other states or international organizations; when approved, the treaties acquire priority over ordinary legislation. Declarations of war and the signing of peace, as well as the mobilization of the national troops, within or outside of the Argentine territory must be allowed by the Congress. From 1976 to 1983, the Congressional Palace of Argentina housed the CAL, a group of officers from the three Armed Forces. Commissioned to review and discuss laws before they were issued by the Executive Branch, they served a succession of de facto military presidents during the National Reorganization Process. In practice, this became a mechanism to detect and discuss the differences between the three commanders-in-chief of the Army and Air Force regarding a specific project; the CAL was established by the Acta del Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the guiding document for the military government established after the coup d'état of March 24, 1976.
Following a 1994 reform of the Constitution, the Senate was expanded from 48 members to 72 members, whereby the party garnering second place in elections for Senator would be assured the third seat for the corresponding province. Opening of regular sessions of the National Congress of Argentina Argentine National Congress Palace List of current Argentine Senators List of current Argentine Deputies Politics of Argentina List of legislatures by country "National Constitution of Argentina". Constitution of Argentina. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17; the official website of Congress Satellite picture by Google Maps