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Territorial collectivity

A territorial collectivity is a chartered subdivision of France, with recognized governing authority. It is the generic name for any subdivision with an elective form of local government and local regulatory authority; the nature of a French territorial collectivity is set forth in Article 72 of the French constitution of 1958, which provides for local autonomy within limits prescribed by law. Regions: France has 18 regions, or 14 not including collectivities with special status. Departments: France has 95 departments as territorial collectivities, but the word is used for the 101 territorial divisions of the State administration, which in most cases cove the same area as territorial collectivities. Collectivities with special status: this status is awarded by specific laws to 6 collectivities which replace departments and regions. Overseas collectivities: France has five COMs. Provinces: There are 3 provinces, all in New Caledonia. Communes: There are 36,782 communes, they are found throughout the republic.

New Caledonia is the only French local government, not a collectivité territoriale. It has its own articles in the French constitution. Since it cannot be categorized, it is sometimes unofficially called a collectivité sui generis, it is unofficially called a pays, because its local legislative assembly can rule using its own lois du pays. Corsica became the only collectivité territoriale unique, within metropolitan France starting on 1 January 2018, with new territorial elections held as a result; the régions are divided into départements: ROMs are divided into DOMs. The commune of Poya is the only French subdivision assigned to two upper-level units. Paris and some overseas entities belong to two categories. Paris is both a commune, it has one assembly. French Guiana, Martinique, Réunion are both ROM and DOM. Guadeloupe and Réunion each have two presidents and two assemblies, while French Guiana and Mayotte each have a single assembly; each COM has its own statutory law that gives it a particular designation: French Polynesia is designated as a pays d'outre-mer, Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin as collectivités, Saint Pierre and Miquelon as a collectivité territoriale, Wallis and Futuna as a territoire.

The assembly of a région and of a ROM is the regional council. They are presided over by a president of the regional council. Corsica's assembly is called the assemblée de Corse, it is presided over by the president of the regional council. The assembly of a département or that of a DOM is called a conseil départemental, it is presided over by a président du conseil départemental. The assembly of a province is called an assemblée de province, it is presided over by a président de l'assemblée de province. A commune's assembly is called a conseil municipal, it is presided over by a mayor. The Paris assembly is called the conseil de Paris, it is presided over by a mayor. The Assembly of French Polynesia is presided over by the président de la Polynésie française. Saint Barthélemy, Saint-Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon's assemblies are called conseil territorial; each of these is presided over by a président du conseil territorial. Wallis and Futuna's assembly is called an assemblée territoriale, it is presided over by the prefect.

New Caledonia's assembly is called a congrès. It is presided over by the président du gouvernement; the category of overseas territory was eliminated under the constitutional reform of 28 March 2003. French Southern Territories is still a TOM, but this is now a particular designation, not a category; this uninhabited territory no longer is a collectivité territoriale. Mayotte and Saint Pierre and Miquelon used to be collectivités territoriales belonging to no category, sometimes unofficially called collectivité territoriale à statut particulier, or collectivité territoriale d'outre-mer. Mayotte held a vote in 2009 to change its status, it became a ROM in 2011. New Caledonia will vote in 2020 on whether to become an independent country Guadeloupians and Réunionnais have refused to eliminate their ROM and DOM in order to create a unique collectivité territoriale; the European Collectivity of Alsace will be effective from 2021 Administrative divisions of France Local government

West Switzerland Company

The West Switzerland Company was a railway company in Switzerland, formed 1854 and absorbed into the Western Swiss Railway in 1872. The OS built a railway network in western Switzerland and connected with France via Geneva in 1858, although Switzerland's first railway was the French Strasbourg–Basel Railway, which connected Basel with Strasbourg, France in 1844. In 1854, the Company of West Switzerland gained a concession from the canton of Vaud for the construction of a railway line from Lausanne to Yverdon, with a proposal to continue via Payerne and Murten to Bern; the extension of the route past Yverdon was delayed by the Oron rail dispute —a dispute between the canton of Fribourg and Vaud over the route of the railway between Bern and Lausanne. Fribourg sought a route that passed through the city of Fribourg rather than along a flatter and cheaper alignment further west and was able to delay the railway because the route through Payerne and Murten had to pass through the canton of Fribourg.

A route through Fribourg was agreed in 1857. In May 1855, it opened the line from Bussigny-près-Lausanne to Yverdon and on 1 July 1855 from Bussigny to Morges via Renens as part of the Jura foot line. On 5 May 1856, the company opened two new sections, Renens to Lausanne and the connecting curve from Morges to Bussigny. On 10 June 1857 a section from Villeneuve at the western end of Lake Geneva to Bex in the Rhone Valley opened; the link between Lausanne and Villeneuve was operated by boat until 1861. On 7 November 1859, the section from Yverdon to Vaumarcus was opened, connecting the OS was to the network of the Franco-Swiss. In order to establish a rail connection to the French Paris–Lyon–Mediterranean Railway, the OS opened a line from Morges to Coppet on 14 April 1858 and a line from Coppet to Versoix on the following 21 April. On 25 June 1858 the OS connected with Geneva with the opening of the Versoix–Geneva route of the Geneva–Versoix Railway. 6 days in the Lausanne–Friborg–Bern Railway was established.

On 1 November 1860 the line from Bex to Les Paluds near St Maurice was connected to the Ligne d'italie line from Le Bouveret to Martigny, part of its ambition to build a line to the Simplon Pass. The gap on the shores of Lake Geneva from Lausanne to Villeneuve was closed on 2 April 1861; the connection from Geneva via Lausanne to Neuchâtel was owned by three competing railway companies, which were in conflict. The Lausanne–Fribourg–Bern Railway owned the short section from Geneva to Versoix, the line from Versoix to Vaumarcus belonged to the OS and the continuation to Neuchâtel was owned by Franco-Suisse; because of their financial difficulties, the three western Swiss railways established a joint business called the Association des chemins de fer de la Suisse Occidentale on 1 January 1865 after lengthy negotiations. Their operations were contracted out to a company called Laurent-Bergeron et Comp; the financial situation of the three Western Swiss railway companies stabilised and from 1868 onwards the companies were able to pay modest dividends each year.

On 1 January 1872, the Western Switzerland Railways was established as a public limited company, in which the Western Switzerland was integrated with the LFB and the FS. It became Switzerland's largest railway company, with a network, 315 kilometres long; the following is a list of locomotives used on the OS: The D 3/3 Nr. 502 was rebuilt in 1888 by the SOS in the workshop Yverdon as the only machine in the series. It received a new boiler and was equipped as the first locomotive in Switzerland with compound drive; the open driving position, protected by a small screen only, was replaced by a cab. Moser, Alfred. Der Dampfbetrieb der Schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847–1966. Basel and Stuttgart: Birkhäuser Verlag. Wägli, Hans G.. Schienennetz Schweiz. Bern: Swiss Federal Railways. Weissenbach, Plazid. Das Eisenbahnwesen der Schweiz. P. 66. Retrieved 4 August 2019. Ein Jahrhundert Schweizer Bahnen 1847–1947. I. Frauenfeld: Verlag Huber & Co. AG. 1947. Pp. 79–80

Touro Hall

Touro Hall was a building at 10th and Carpenter Streets in the Bella Vista neighborhood of South Philadelphia. It was named for Judah Touro, a public-spirited citizen of New Orleans and well-known philanthropist, who bequeathed $20,000 to the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia in 1854; the building was constructed to provide Jewish education and social resources for the neighborhood's growing Jewish immigrant community. Touro Hall was built and opened in 1891 by the Hebrew Education Society, featured a bathing pool and library, it was home to Hebrew School No. 2, served as a center for Jewish life in South Philadelphia through the 1940s. Fabiani Italian Hospital was located in Touro Hall from the 1940s until its closure in 1968; the building was demolished in 1977 and replaced with Bardascino Park which includes a public bocce court. Rabbi Isaac Leeser came to Philadelphia to serve at Mikveh Israel in 1829. In addition to leading the synagogue, he published a Jewish newspaper, authored Bible translations, prayer books, education materials, in 1848 directed the organization of the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia.

The Hebrew Education Society opened Hebrew School No. 2 in 1878, Philadelphia Jewish philanthropist David Sulzberger was a significant donor and led the construction of Touro Hall in 1891. Touro Hall served as one the centers of Jewish life in South Philadelphia's neighborhoods between 1890 and the 1940s. Many Jewish organizations held activities at Touro Hall including the Southern Branch of the Young Men's and Young Women's Hebrew Association, an employment agency, assistance for recent immigrants, multiple charitable efforts, it was used for Hebrew school, Sunday School, English night school, trade schools for tin-smithing, iron work, dress-making and millinery, garment cutting, cigar-making, typewriting and drawing, for lectures and entertainment, a University Extension, a free synagogue. Giuseppe Fabiani founded Fabiani Italian Hospital to serve the neighborhood's Italian community in 1904 in a building at 10th and Christian Streets; the name changed to Philadelphia Italian Hospital in 1936, to Community Hospital in 1942.

Fabiani moved the hospital to Touro Hall in the 1940s. Community Hospital closed in 1968 and the building was demolished in 1977; the City of Philadelphia created Bardascino Park on the former Touro Hall site in 1978, named for Giuseppe Bardascino, longtime maestro of the Philadelphia Brass Band, manager of the Philadelphia Italian Band, a longtime resident of the neighborhood. The Friends of Bardascino Park formed in 1991 to beautify the park. In 1999 the group became a part of the Parks Revitalization Project, a collaborative partnership between the City of Philadelphia's Department of Recreation and the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society's Philadelphia Green initiative; the group has secured multiple community partnerships and grants, renovated the park in 2003 and 2004, has continued to maintain it. The park has an active bocce court and the park's summer bocce league began in 1997. "Friends of Bardascino Park". Friends of Bardascino Park. Retrieved September 5, 2019

Andrews A1

The Andrews A1 was a flying ½-scale replica of the un-built Andrews A2 New Zealand agricultural aircraft. The Andrews A2 was designed by C. G. Andrews in Wellington, New Zealand, intended to compete in the market for a de Havilland Tiger Moth replacement in New Zealand's Aerial Topdressing industry. From the outset it was intended that a ½-scale model of the type be built and flown to prove the design, this became the Andrews A1; the Andrews A1 is a conventional low-wing thick-section monoplane of plywood-covered spruce and steel construction with a bubble-type canopy, powered by a 65 hp Continental flat 4 air-cooled engine, with spatted tailwheel undercarriage. First flown in 1957, the A1 completed flight testing, but by that time the market for the larger Andrews A2 was dominated by the more modern Fletcher Fu24; the sole Andrews A1, ZK-BLU, was sold to a private owner. It was owned for many years by Alan Rowe, best known as the designer of the Rowe R6b model aircraft, is now owned by P. G. Alexander of Blenheim, continuing to fly regularly.

Andrews A2 A proposed agricultural aircraft tobe optimised for Aerial topdressing. Andrews A1 A flying scale replica of the A2 built to verify aerodynamic qualities and flying characteristics. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 19 ft 0 in Wingspan: 23 ft 11 in Empty weight: 700 lb Gross weight: 899 lb Powerplant: 1 × Continental A65 4-cyl. Air-cooled horizontally opposed piston engine, 65 hp Performance Maximum speed: 79 kn Cruise speed: 78 kn Range: 235 nmi

Salem Village Historic District

The Salem Village Historic District encompasses a collection of properties from the early center of Salem Village, as Danvers, Massachusetts was known in the 17th century. The district includes an irregular pattern of properties along Centre, Hobart and Collins Streets, as far north as Brentwood Circle, south to Mello Parkway, it includes several buildings notable for their association with the 1692 Salem witch trials, which were centered on individuals who lived in Salem Village. Included in the village are the Rebecca Nurse Homestead, now a house museum, the remains of the local parsonage, both places of relevance to the witch hysteria; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts

Leptodiaptomus minutus

Leptodiaptomus ashlandi is a calanoid copepod zooplankton. Leptodiaptomus minutus is found over most of North America north of the 40th parallel and in Greenland and Iceland, it may extend further south in mountainous areas of the East, but appears to be absent from the far western United States. It is found in all the Great Lakes and is abundant in Lake Huron and Lake Michigan Leptodiaptomus minutus adult females are characterized by a two-segmented urosome, metasomal wings that are nearly symmetrical and rounded, endopods of leg 5 are reduced in size. In adult males, the small lateral spine on the terminal segment of leg 5 is located in the proximal third of the segment, the right antennule has a slender process on the third to the last segment; this species is the smallest calanoid in the Great Lakes, only Leptodiaptomus ashlandi may overlap its size range. One might determine that the lateral spine on leg 5 of L. minutus is located more in the middle portion of the terminal segment. However, the size of the spine would not allow its confusion with Onychodiaptomus sanguineus, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, or Leptodiaptomus siciloides, where the spine is at least as long as the width of the segment.

These species are physcially similar to other leptodiaptomids (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Leptodiaptomus sicilis and skistodiaptomids. Leptodiaptomus minutus are known prey items for a number of native and non-native Great Lakes fishes, they are prey items for other invertebrate zooplankton. Remains have been found within gut-contents of Mysis diluviana and are trophically below Limnocalanus macrurus