SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Territory of Papua and New Guinea

The Territory of Papua and New Guinea was established by an administrative union between the Australian-administered territories of Papua and New Guinea in 1949. In 1972, the name of the Territory changed to "Papua New Guinea" and in 1975 it became the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Archeological evidence suggests; these Melanesian people developed agriculture. Portuguese and Spanish navigators sailing in the South Pacific entered New Guinea waters in the early part of the 16th century and in 1526–27, Jorge de Menezes came upon the principal island "Papua". In 1545, the Spaniard Iñigo Ortiz de Retes gave the island the name "New Guinea" because of what he saw as a resemblance between the islands' inhabitants and those found on the African Guinea coast. Knowledge of the interior of the island remained scant for several centuries after these initial European encounters. In 1884, Germany formally took possession of the northeast quarter of the island and it became known as German New Guinea.

In 1884, a British protectorate was proclaimed over Papua – the southern coast of New Guinea. The protectorate, called British New Guinea, was annexed outright on 4 September 1888 and possession passed to the newly federated Commonwealth of Australia in 1902 and British New Guinea became the Australian Territory of Papua, with Australian administration beginning in 1906; the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force seized German New Guinea and the neighbouring islands of the Bismarck Archipelago for the Allies in 1914, during the early stages of the First World War. At the 1919 Paris Peace Conference following the war, Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes sought to secure possession of New Guinea from the defeated German Empire: telling the Conference: "Strategically the northern islands encompass Australia like fortresses, they are as necessary to Australia as water to a city." Article 22 of the Treaty of Versailles provided for the division of Germany and the Central Powers' imperial possessions among the victorious Allies of World War I and German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Nauru were assigned to Australia as League of Nations Mandates: territories "formerly governed and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world".

Shortly after the start of the Pacific War, the island of New Guinea was invaded by the Japanese. Most of West Papua, at that time known as Dutch New Guinea, was occupied, as were large parts of the Territory of New Guinea; the New Guinea campaign was a major campaign of the Pacific War. In all, some 200,000 Japanese soldiers and airmen died during the campaign against 7,000 Australian and 7,000 American service personnel. Major battles included Battle of Buna-Gona and Battle of Milne Bay; the offensives in Papua and New Guinea of 1943–44 were the single largest series of connected operations mounted by the Australian armed forces. Bitter fighting continued in New Guinea between the Allies and the Japanese 18th Army based in New Guinea until the Japanese surrender in 1945. Following the Surrender of Japan in 1945, civil administration of Papua and New Guinea was restored, under the Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act and New Guinea were combined in an administrative union; the Papua and New Guinea Act 1949 united, for administrative purposes only, the Territory of Papua and the Territory of New Guinea as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea.

The Act formally approved the placing of New Guinea under the international trusteeship system and confirmed the administrative union of New Guinea and Papua under the title of The Territory of Papua and New Guinea. It provided for a Legislative Council, a judicial organization, a public service, a system of local government; the House of Assembly replaced the Legislative Council in 1963, the first House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea opened on 8 June 1964. In 1963, the population was two million, of which about 25,000 were non-indigenous; the economy was based on cash crops including cofee and copra as well as timber mills and factories. Difficult terrain rendered communication between districts difficult and there was a lack of national unity in the territory. One of the ways in which the territory was administrated was through the use of patrol officers. Between 1949 and 1974, more than 2000 Australians served as patrol officers, known locally as "kiaps"; the job of patrol officers involved: facilitating the consolidation of administrative influence, maintaining of the rule of law, conducting court cases and presiding as Magistrate, carrying out police work, conducting censuses, encouraging economic development, providing escorts, purchasing land for governmental use and overseeing local elections.

In 1972, the name of the territory was changed to Papua New Guinea. Under Australian Minister for External Territories Andrew Peacock, the territory adopted self-government in 1972. 1972 elections saw the formation of a ministry headed by Chief Minister Michael Somare, who pledged to lead PNG to self-government and to independence. Following the passage of the Papua New Guinea Independence Act 1975, during the term of the Whitlam Government in Australia, the Territory became the Independent State of Papua New Guinea and attained independence on 16 September 1975. History of Papua New Guinea History of Nauru – the other League of Nations mandate and United Nations Trust Territory of Australia

Meal for Three

Set Meal for Three is Singapore idol boy band Mi Lu Bing's third album. With a total of 11 songs, the album was released after months of production with their new recording label company, Dragon One Entertainment Group; the album consists of nine songs produced on their own and three songs that Nic sang for two different Mediacorp dramas. The composition for the first eight songs were all done by Mi Lu Bing themselves. Nic was the assistant producer for the album. Chī xià yŭzhòu yĭnshí nánnǚ méiqì de kĕlè biàn zhuāng kafe lĕng wăncān yànshízhèng pĭncháng wàn. wèi Bonus tracks zhōng huì yŏu yī tiān xiăng wò nĭ de shŏu zhĭ yào nĭ wēi xiào

Buckingham Bay

Buckingham Bay is a large, rectangular bay on the northern coast of Arnhem Land, in the Northern Territory of Australia. It lies 120 km west of Nhulunbuy; the bay is 16 km wide. It is aligned from south-west where the Buckingham River enters, to north-east where it opens into the Arafura Sea, it is bordered by intertidal mudflats, with patches of mangroves along the lower reaches of the Buckingham River. The saline flats back on to a seasonally inundated floodplain. There are scattered patches of dry coastal vine thicket along the margins of the floodplain; the bay and adjoining plains are held by the Arnhem Land Aboriginal Land Trust as Aboriginal freehold land. The nearest communities are Galiwin'ku on Elcho Island 15 km to the north-west, Gapuwiyak some 25 km to the south; the bay's intertidal mudflats and seasonally flooded coastal plains have been classified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area. The area covered by the IBA is 32,642 ha; the bay is significant for the migratory waders, or shorebirds, that breed in northern Asia and Alaska during the northern summer and spend the non-breeding season in Australia.

Up to about 20,000 wades have been recorded on the bay's saline flats. Species for which count data indicate the site's global significance include black-tailed godwit, eastern curlew, great knot. Up to 8500 waterbirds have been recorded using the bay, with numbers of pied herons being globally significant. A waterbird breeding colony in the mangroves near the mouth of the Buckingham River contained 5500 birds in 1999, predominantly pied herons and intermediate egrets. Other birds for which the site is significant are brolgas and magpie geese. Introduced water buffalos and feral pigs threaten the wetlands. "IBA: Buckingham Bay". Birdata. Birds Australia. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. "Buckingham Bay and associated coastal floodplains". Sites of Conservation Significance. Northern Territory Government. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011