Christian terrorism comprises terrorist acts by groups or individuals who profess Christian motivations or goals. Christian terrorists justify their violent tactics through their interpretation of the Bible, in accordance with their own objectives and world view; these interpretations are different from those of established Christian denominations. These terrorist acts can be committed against other Christian denominations, other religions, or a secular government group, individuals or society. Christianity can be used cynically by terrorists as a rhetorical device to achieve political or military goals. Christian terrorist groups include paramilitary organizations and loose collections of people that might come together to attempt to terrorize another group; some groups encourage terrorist acts by unaffiliated individuals. The paramilitary groups are tied to ethnic and political goals as well as religious ones and many of the other groups have religious beliefs at odds with conventional Christianity.
The literal use of the phrase Christian terrorism is disputed. It appears in the academic literature to describe a large range of beliefs. Religion can be cited as the motivation for terrorism in conflicts that have a variety of ethnic and political causes, such as the one in Bosnia. In cases such as the Lord's Resistance Army or the Taiping Rebellion the beliefs of the founders differ from what is recognizably Christian. In such cases the term Christian terrorism is problematic despite the claim that they are motivated by their religious beliefs; the term terrorist can be applied for disingenuous reasons, to encourage public support for a groups vilification or allow the use of stricter laws in punishing a group or individual. The intimidation of minority communities along with sporadic acts of violence do not get referred to as terrorism. However, in 2015 a majority of Americans from both political parties thought that'attacks on abortion providers be considered domestic terrorism'. Christianity came to prominence in the Roman Empire during and directly after the rule of Constantine the Great.
By this time it had spread throughout western Asia as a minority belief and became the state religion of Armenia. In early Christianity there were many rival sects, which were collectively persecuted by some rulers. There is, however, no record of indiscriminate violence or attempts to use terror as a religious weapon by early Christian groups. Once a particular Christian sect or creed gained state backing religious violence increased; this took the form of persecuting adherents to other religions. In Europe during the Middle Ages Christian antisemitism increased and both the Reformation and Counter-Reformation led to an increase in interdenominational violence; as with modern examples it is debated as to what extent these acts were religious as opposed to ethnic or political in nature. The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the recusancy that emerged in opposition to it; the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of English Catholics to assassinate the Protestant King James I, to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government.
Although the modern concept of religious terrorism, or indeed terrorism at all, had not yet come into use in the seventeenth century, David C. Rapoport and Lindsay Clutterbuck point out that the Plot, with its use of explosives, was an early precursor of nineteenth century anarchist terrorism. Sue Mahan and Pamala L. Griset classify the plot as an act of religious terrorism, writing that "Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion." Peter Steinfels characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism. Orthodox Christian-influenced movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as anti-semitic and fascist they were involved in the Bucharest pogrom and committed numerous politically-motivated murders during the 1930s. After the American Civil War of 1861–1865, former Confederate soldiers organized the Ku Klux Klan organization as a social club, taken over in the next year by "night rider" elements.
It began engaging in arson, destruction of property, murder, tar-and-feathering and voter intimidation. They targeted newly freed slaves and scalawags, the occupying Union army; that iteration of the Klan disappeared by the 1870s, but in 1915 a new Protestant-led iteration of the Klan was formed in Georgia, during a period of xenophobia and anti-Catholicism. This version of the Klan vastly expanded both its geographical reach and its list of targets over those of the original Klan. Vehemently anti-Catholic, the 1915 Klan had an explicitly Protestant Christian terrorist ideology, basing its beliefs in part on a "religious foundation" in Protestant Christianity and targeting Jews and other social or ethnic minorities, as well as people who engaged in "immoral" practices such as adulterers, bad debters and alcohol abusers. From an early time onward, the goals of the KKK included an intent to "reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible", it believed that "Jesus was the first Klansman".
Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality every Christian denomination has denounced the KKK. From 1915 onward, "second era" Klansmen initiated cross burnings, not only to intimidate targets, but to demonstrate their respect and reverence for Jesus Christ; the ritual of lighting crosses was steeped in
In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away and confinement of a person against their will. Thus, it is a composite crime, it can be defined as false imprisonment by means of abduction, both of which are separate crimes that when committed upon the same person merge as the single crime of kidnapping. The asportation/abduction element is but not conducted by means of force or fear; that is, the perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly, e.g. in the belief it is a taxicab. Kidnapping may be done to demand for ransom in exchange for releasing the victim, or for other illegal purposes. Kidnapping can be accompanied by bodily injury. Kidnapping of a child is known as child abduction, these are sometimes separate legal categories. Kidnapping of children is by one parent against the wishes of a parent or guardian. Kidnapping of adults is for ransom or to force someone to withdraw money from an ATM, but may be for the purpose of sexual assault.
In the past, presently in some parts of the world, kidnapping is a common means used to obtain slaves and money through ransom. In less recent times, kidnapping in the form of shanghaiing men was used to supply merchant ships in the 19th century with sailors, whom the law considered unfree labour. Criminal gangs are estimated to make up to $500 million a year in ransom payments from kidnapping. Kidnapping has been identified as one source by which terrorist organizations have been known to obtain funding; the Perri and MacKenzie article identified "tiger" kidnapping as a specific method used by either the Real Irish Republican Army or Continuity Irish Republican Army, in which a kidnapped family member is used to force someone to steal from their employer. Bride kidnapping is a term applied loosely, to include any bride "abducted" against the will of her parents if she is willing to marry the "abductor", it still is traditional amongst certain nomadic peoples of Central Asia. It has seen a resurgence in Kyrgyzstan since the fall of the Soviet Union and the subsequent erosion of women's rights.
Express kidnapping is a method of abduction used in some countries from Latin America, where a small ransom, that a company or family can pay, is demanded. Tiger kidnapping is taking a hostage to make a loved one or associate of the victim do something: e.g. a child is taken hostage to force the shopkeeper to open the safe. The term originates from the long preceding observation, like a tiger does on the prowl. Kidnapping that does not result in a homicide is a hybrid offence that comes with a maximum possible penalty of life imprisonment. A murder that results from kidnapping is classified as 1st-degree, with a sentence of life imprisonment that results from conviction. Article 282 prohibits hostaging. Part 1 of Article 282 allows sentencing kidnappers to maximum imprisonment of 8 years or a fine of the fifth category. Part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category if there are serious injuries. Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth category if the victim has been killed.
Part 4 allows sentencing people. Part 1, 2 and 3 will apply to them. Kidnapping is an offence under the common law of Wales. Lord Brandon said in 1984 R v D: First, the nature of the offence is an attack on, infringement of, the personal liberty of an individual. Secondly, the offence contains four ingredients as follows: the taking or carrying away of one person by another. In all cases of kidnapping of children, where it is alleged that a child has been kidnapped, it is the absence of the consent of that child, material; this is the case regardless of the age of the child. A small child will not have the understanding or intelligence to consent; this means. It is a question of fact for the jury whether an older child has sufficient understanding and intelligence to consent. Lord Brandon said: "I should not expect a jury to find at all that a child under fourteen had sufficient understanding and intelligence to give its consent." If the child did consent to being taken or carried away, the fact that the person having custody or care and control of that child did not consent to that child being taken or carried away is immaterial.
If, on the other hand, the child did not consent, the consent of the person having custody or care and control of the child may support a defence of lawful excuse. It is known as Gillick competence. Regarding Restriction on prosecution, no prosecution may be instituted, except by or with the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions, for an offence of kidnapping if it was committed against a child under the age of sixteen and by a person connected with the child, within the meaning of section 1 of the Child Abduction Act 1984. Kidnapping is an indictable-only offence. Kidnapping is punishable with fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate. A parent should only be prosecuted for kidnapping their own child "in exceptional cases
Radicalization is a process by which an individual, or group comes to adopt extreme political, social, or religious ideals and aspirations that reject or undermine the status quo or contemporary ideas and expressions of the nation. The outcomes of radicalization are shaped by the ideas of the society at large. Radicalization can be both violent and nonviolent, although most academic literature focuses on radicalization into violent extremism. There are multiple pathways that constitute the process of radicalization, which can be independent but are mutually reinforcing. Radicalization that occurs across multiple reinforcing pathways increases a group’s resilience and lethality. Furthermore, by compromising its ability to blend in with non-radical society and participate in a modern, national economy, radicalization serves as a kind of sociological trap that gives individuals no other place to go to satisfy their material and spiritual needs. There is no universally accepted definition of radicalization.
Therefore, no one definition can be presented here. One of the difficulties with defining radicalization appears to be the importance of the context to determine what is perceived as radicalization. Therefore, radicalization can mean different things to different people. Presented below is a list of definitions used by different governments; the UK Home Office, MI5’s parent agency, defines radicalization as “The process by which people come to support terrorism and violent extremism and, in some cases join terrorist groups.” The MI5 report closes by saying that no single measure will reduce radicalization in the UK and that the only way to combat it is by targeting the at risk vulnerable groups and trying to assimilate them into society. This may include helping young people find jobs, better integrating immigrant populations into the local culture, reintegrating ex-prisoners into society; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police defines radicalization as "the process by which individuals—usually young people—are introduced to an overtly ideological message and belief system that encourages movement from moderate, mainstream beliefs towards extreme views.
While radical thinking is by no means problematic in itself, it becomes a threat to national security when Canadian citizens or residents espouse or engage in violence or direct action as a means of promoting political, ideological or religious extremism. Sometimes referred to as “homegrown terrorism,” this process of radicalization is more referred to as domestic radicalization leading to terrorist violence; the Danish Security and Intelligence Service defines radicalization as “A process by which a person to an increasing extent accepts the use of undemocratic or violent means, including terrorism, in an attempt to reach a specific political/ideological objective.” Despite being composed of multifarious pathways that lead to different outcomes and sometimes diametrically opposed ideological purposes, radicalization can be traced to a common set of pathways that translate real or perceived grievances into extreme ideas and readiness to participate in political action beyond the status quo.
Shira Fishman, a researcher at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, wrote "Radicalization is a dynamic process that varies for each individual, but shares some underlying commonalities that can be explored." Though there are many end products of the process of radicalization, to include all manner of extremist groups both violent and nonviolent, a common series of dynamics have been demonstrated in the course of academic inquiry. Jihadis have a "tried and tested model" of contact with different vulnerable, extremist individuals through online messaging services or social media platforms, rapidly manipulating them towards participating in violent action in their name, it was reported that Raffia Hayat of the Ahmadiyya Muslim association warned that jailed extremists attempt to recruit violent criminals into radical groups so they carry out attacks on the public once released. There have been several notable criticisms of radicalization theories for focusing disproportionately on Islam.
There have been concerns that converts to Islam are more susceptible to violent radicalization than individuals born into the faith. Dr. Abdul Haqq Baker developed the Convert's Cognitive Development Framework that describes how new converts conceptualize Islam and the stages where they are most vulnerable to radicalization. Right-wing terrorism is motivated by a variety of different right-wing ideologies, most prominently neo-fascism, neo-Nazism and white nationalism. Modern radical right-wing terrorism appeared in Western Europe and the United States in the 1970s, Eastern Europe following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Groups associated with right-wing radicals include white power skinhead gangs, far-right hooligans, sympathizers. Examples of right-wing radicals include Jim Adkisson, the Aryan Nations, the Atomwaffen Division, Alexandre Bissonnette, Robert Bowers, Cliven Bundy, David Koresh, the Ku Klux Klan, David Lane, James Mason, Timothy McVeigh, The Order, Dylann Roof, Eric Rudolph, Cesar Sayoc, Brenton Tarrant.
From 2008 to 2016, there were more right-wing terror attacks both attempted and accomplished in the US than Islamist and left-wing attacks combined. Right-wing populism by those who support ethnocentrism and oppose immigration creates a climate of "us versus them" leading to radicalization; the growth of white nationalism in a political climate of polarization has provided an opportunity for both on- and offline radicalization a
History of terrorism
The history of terrorism is a history of well-known and significant individuals and incidents associated, whether rightly or wrongly, with terrorism. Scholars agree that terrorism is a disputed term, few of those labeled terrorists describe themselves as such, it is common for opponents in a violent conflict to describe the other side as terrorists or as practicing terrorism. Depending on how broadly the term is defined, the roots and practice of terrorism can be traced at least to the 1st-century AD Sicarii Zealots, though some dispute whether the group, which assassinated collaborators with Roman rule in the province of Judea, was in fact terrorist; the first use in English of the term'terrorism' occurred during the French Revolution's Reign of Terror, when the Jacobins, who ruled the revolutionary state, employed violence, including mass executions by guillotine, to compel obedience to the state and intimidate regime enemies. The association of the term only with state violence and intimidation lasted until the mid-19th century, when it began to be associated with non-governmental groups.
Anarchism in league with rising nationalism and anti-monarchism, was the most prominent ideology linked with terrorism. Near the end of the 19th century, anarchist groups or individuals committed assassinations of a Russian Tsar and a U. S. President. In the 20th century, terrorism continued to be associated with a vast array of anarchist, socialist and nationalist groups, many of them engaged in'third world' anti-colonial struggles; some scholars labeled as terrorist the systematic internal violence and intimidation practiced by states such as the Stalinist Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Though many have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term "terrorism." This in part derives from the fact that the term is politically and charged, "a word with intrinsically negative connotations, applied to one's enemies and opponents."The term terrorist is believed to have originated during the Reign of Terror in France. It was a period of eleven months during the French Revolution when the ruling Jacobins employed violence, including mass executions by guillotine, in order to intimidate the regime's enemies and compel obedience to the state.
The Jacobins, most famously Robespierre, sometimes referred to themselves as "terrorists". Some modern scholars, however, do not consider the Reign of Terror a form of terrorism, in part because it was carried out by the French state. Scholars dispute whether the roots of terrorism date back to the 1st century and the Sicarii Zealots, to the 11th century and the Al-Hashshashin, to the 19th century and the Fenian Brotherhood and Narodnaya Volya, or to other eras; the Sicarii and the Hashshashin are described below, while the Fenian Brotherhood and Narodnaya Volya are discussed in the 19th Century sub-section. Other pre-Reign of Terror historical events sometimes associated with terrorism include the Gunpowder Plot, an attempt to destroy the English Parliament in 1605. During the 1st century CE, the Jewish Zealots in Judaea Province rebelled, killing prominent collaborators with Roman rule. In 6 CE, according to contemporary historian Josephus, Judas of Galilee formed a small and more extreme offshoot of the Zealots, the Sicarii.
Their efforts were directed against Jewish "collaborators," including temple priests, Sadducees and other wealthy elites. According to Josephus, the Sicarii would hide short daggers under their cloaks, mingle with crowds at large festivals, murder their victims, disappear into the panicked crowds, their most successful assassination was of the High Priest of Israel Jonathan. In the late 11th century, the Hashshashin arose, an offshoot of the Isma'ili sect of Shia Muslims. Led by Hassan-i Sabbah and opposed to Fatimid rule, the Hashshashin militia seized Alamut and other fortress strongholds across Persia. Hashshashin forces were too small to challenge enemies militarily, so they assassinated city governors and military commanders in order to create alliances with militarily powerful neighbors. For example, they killed Janah al-Dawla, ruler of Homs, to please Ridwan of Aleppo, assassinated Mawdud, Seljuk emir of Mosul, as a favor to the regent of Damascus; the Hashshashin carried out assassinations as retribution.
Under some definitions of terrorism, such assassinations do not qualify as terrorism, since killing a political leader does not intimidate political enemies or inspire revolt. The Sons of Liberty was a clandestine group that formed in New York City in the 1770s, it had a political agenda of independence of Britain's American colonies. The groups engaged in several acts that could be considered terroristic and used the deeds for propaganda purposes. On November 5, 1605, a group of conspirators led by Robert Catesby attempted to destroy the English Parliament on its State Opening by King James I, they planned in secret to detonate a large quantity of gunpowder placed beneath the Palace of Westminster. The gunpowder was placed by Guy Fawkes; the group intended to enact a coup by killing King James I and the members of both houses of Parliament. The conspirators planned to make one of the king's children a puppet monarch and restore the Catholic faith to England; the conspirator leased a coal cellar beneath the House of Lords and began stockpiling gunpowder in 1604.
As well as its primary targets, it would have killed hundreds, if not thousands, of Londoners – the most devastating act of terrorism in Britain's history, plunging the nation into a religious war. English spymasters caught Guy Fawkes with the gunpowder beneath Parliament; the other conspirators fled to Holbeach in Staffordshire
Mormonism and violence
Mormons have both used and been subjected to significant violence throughout much of the religion's history. In the early history of the United States, violence was used as a form of control. Many people of different faiths used violence in order to harass and persecute people who adhered to different religious beliefs. Mormons were violently persecuted and pushed from Ohio to Missouri, from Missouri to Illinois and from Illinois, they were pushed west to the Utah Territory. There were incidents of massacre, home burning and pillaging, followed by the death of their prophet, Joseph Smith. Smith died from multiple gunshot wounds in a gun battle. There were notable incidents in which Mormons perpetrated violence. Under the direction of Mormon prophets and apostles, Mormons burned and looted Daviess County and killed members of the Missouri state militia, carried out an extermination order on the Timpanogos. Other Mormon leaders led the Mountain Meadows Massacre, Battle Creek massacre, Circleville Massacre.
Mormons have been a major part in several wars, including the 1838 Mormon War, Walker War and Black Hawk War. The memory of this violence has affected both the history and the doctrines of the Latter Day Saint movement. Early Mormon history is marked by many instances of violence, which have helped to shape the church's views on violence; the first significant instance occurred in Missouri. Mormons who lived there tended to vote as a bloc, which lead to the unseating of the local political leadership. Differences culminated in hostilities and the eventual issuing of an executive order by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs declaring "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, must be exterminated or driven from the State." Three days a militia unit attacked a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, resulting in the death of 18 Mormons and no militiamen. The Extermination Order was not formally rescinded until 1976. In Nauvoo, conflict was based on the tendency of Mormons to "dominate community and political life wherever they landed."
The city of Nauvoo had become the largest in Illinois, the city council was predominantly Mormon, the Nauvoo Legion continued to grow. Other issues of contention included polygamy, freedom of speech, anti-slavery views during Smith's presidential campaign, the deification of man. After the destruction of the press of the Nauvoo Expositor, Joseph Smith was arrested and incarcerated in Carthage Jail where he was killed by a mob on June 27, 1844; the conflict in Illinois became so severe that most of the residents of Nauvoo fled across the Mississippi River in February 1846. After Mormons established a community hundreds of miles away in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, anti-Mormon activists in the Utah Territory convinced President Buchanan that the Mormons in the territory were rebelling against the United States under the direction of Brigham Young. In response in 1857 Buchanan sent one-third of United States's standing army to Utah in what is known as the Utah War. During the Utah War, the Mountain Meadows Massacre occurred.
Religious justification for capital punishment is not unique to Mormonism. Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, was a strong proponent of capital punishment, he favored execution methods that involved the shedding of blood as retribution for crimes of bloodshed. In 1843, he or his scribe commented that the common execution method in Christian nations was hanging, "instead of blood for blood according to the law of heaven." In a March 4, 1843, debate with church leader George A. Smith, who argued against capital punishment, Smith said that if he had the opportunity to enact a death penalty law, he "was opposed to hanging" the convict. In the church's April 6, 1843, general conference, Smith said he would "wring a thief's neck off if I can find him. If I cannot bring him to justice any other way." Sidney Rigdon, Smith's counselor in the First Presidency supported capital punishment involving the spilling of blood, stating, "There are men standing in your midst that you cant do anything with them but cut their throat & bury them."
On the other hand, Smith was willing to tolerate the presence of men "as corrupt as the devil himself" in Nauvoo, who "had been guilty of murder and robbery," in the chance that they might "come to the waters of baptism through repentance, redeem a part of their allotted time". Brigham Young, Smith's successor in the LDS Church held views on capital punishment that were similar to those of Smith. On January 27, 1845, he spoke approvingly of Smith's toleration of "corrupt men" in Nauvoo who were guilty of murder and robbery on the chance that they might repent and be baptized. On the other hand, on February 25, 1846, after the Saints had left Nauvoo, Young threatened adherents who had stolen wagon cover strings and rail timber with having their throats cut "when they get out of the settlements where his orders could be executed"; that year, Young gave orders that "when a man is found to be a thief... cut his throat & thro' him in the River." Young stated that the decapitation of repeated sinners "is the law of God & it shall be executed."
There are no documented instances of such a sentence being carried out on the Mormon Trail. In the Salt Lake Valley, Young acted as the executive authority while the Council of Fifty acted as a legislatur
A letter bomb called parcel bomb, mail bomb, package bomb, note bomb, message bomb, gift bomb, present bomb, delivery bomb, surprise bomb, postal bomb, or post bomb, is an explosive device sent via the postal service, designed with the intention to injure or kill the recipient when opened. They have been used in Israeli assassinations and in terrorist attacks such as those of the Unabomber; some countries have agencies whose duties include the interdiction of letter bombs and the investigation of letter bombings. The letter bomb may have been in use for nearly as long as the common postal service has been in existence, as far back as 1764. Letter bombs are designed to explode on opening, with the intention of injuring or killing the recipient. A related threat is mail containing unidentified powders or chemicals, as in the 2001 anthrax attacks. Letter-bombs, along with anti-personnel mines, are typical examples of subject-matter excluded from patentability under the European Patent Convention, because the publication or exploitation of such inventions are contrary to the "ordre public" and/or morality.
What might be the first recorded case of a device broadly similar to a modern parcel bomb featured in the 18th Century affair known as the Bandbox Plot. On November 4, 1712 a bandbox was sent to Earl of Oxford, the British Lord Treasurer, it contained a number of loaded and cocked pistols, to whose triggers was attached a thread - which would have made the pistols fire the moment the box was opened. The plot was foiled by the perspicacity of Jonathan Swift, who happened to be visiting the Earl of Oxford. Swift, perceiving the thread, cut the thread, thus disarming the device; the attack was laid at the door of the opposition Whig party and threw enormous popular sympathy behind Harley. The precise perpetrators were never apprehended. One of the world's first mail bombs is mentioned in the 18th century diary of Danish official and historian Bolle Willum Luxdorph, his diary consists of concise references to news from Denmark and abroad. In the entry for January 19, 1764 he writes the following: Colonel Poulsen residing at Børglum Abbey was sent by mail a box.
When he opens it, therein is to be found gunpowder and a firelock which sets fire unto it, so he became injured. The entry for February 15 same year says: Colonel Poulsen receives a letter in German, that soon the dose will be increased, it is referring to the dose of gunpowder in the box. The perpetrator was never found. In a reference Luxdorph has found a mention of a similar bomb being used in 1764, but in Savona in Italy. June 1889: Edward White an artist at Madame Tussauds, was alleged to have sent a parcel bomb to John Theodore Tussaud after being dismissed. August 20, 1904: A Swedish man named Martin Ekenberg sent a mail bomb to businessman Karl Fredrik Lundin in Stockholm, it was a box loaded with explosives. 1915: Vice President of the United States Thomas R. Marshall was the target of an assassination attempt by letter bomb. 1946: Several British high officials, including Sir Stafford Cripps, Ernest Bevin, Anthony Eden received letter bombs sent by the extreme Zionist Stern Gang. 1947: Several letter bombs were sent to President Harry Truman in the White House.
They were intercepted by White House mail room workers, who were on alert because of the letter bombs to British officials. These were claimed by the Stern Gang. August 30, 1958: A parcel bomb sent by Ngo Dinh Nhu, younger brother and chief adviser of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, failed to kill King Sihanouk of Cambodia. 1961: The Nazi war criminal Alois Brunner received a letter bomb that caused the loss of an eye. In 1980 another letter bomb cost him the fingers of his left hand. Two Damascus postal workers were killed; the senders are unknown but some suspect the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. November 27, 1962: A parcel sent to rocket scientist Wolfgang Pilz exploded in his office in Egypt when opened, injuring his secretary. Another parcel sent to the Heliopolis rocket factory killed five Egyptian workers. 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s: Several terrorist organizations in Argentina such as Montoneros and ERP included letter bombs into their weaponry. December 28, 1977: In Malta, Karen Grech, age 15, was killed when she opened a letterbomb addressed to her father Edwin Grech.
On the same day, another bomb was sent to Labour MP Dr. Paul Chetcuti Caruana, but it did not detonate. Late 1970s to the early 1990s: Theodore Kaczynski, the "UNAbomber", killed three and injured 23 in a series of mail bombings in the United States. August 17, 1982: Ruth First, a South African communist anti-apartheid activist was killed by a parcel bomb mailed by the South African government to her home in Mozambique. August 1985: A woman in Rotorua, New Zealand, Michele Sticovich, was killed and a close friend of hers injured after she opened a parcel addressed to her containing a number of sticks of gelignite. Mrs Sticovich's estranged husband, David Sticovich, was arrested and pleaded guilty to her murder. October 19, 1986: Dele Giwa, a Nigerian journalist and editor of the Newswatch magazine was killed with a mail bomb, claimed to be sent by Nigeria's former dictator, Gen. Ibrahim Babangida; the general has never admitted complicity. December 16, 1989: Robert Smith Vance, a U. S. federal judge, was killed upon opening a letter bomb in the kitchen of his home in Birmingham, with his wife, Helen injured.
Walter Leroy Moody, Jr was convicted of killing both V
Leaderless resistance, or phantom cell structure, is a social resistance strategy in which small, independent groups, or individuals, challenge an established institution such as a law, economic system, social order, or government. Leaderless resistance can encompass anything from non-violent protest and civil disobedience to vandalism and other violent activity. Leaderless cells lack vertical command links and so operate without hierarchical command, but they have a common goal that links them to the social movement from which their ideology was learned. Leaderless resistance is difficult to stamp out, it has been employed by a wide range of movements, including animal-liberation, radical environmentalist, anti-abortion, military invasion resistance, colonialism resistance and hate groups. A covert cell may be a small group; the basic characteristic of the structure is that there is no explicit communication between cells that are acting toward shared goals. Members of one cell have little or no information about who else is agitating on behalf of their cause.
Leaderless movements may have a symbolic figurehead. This can be a public figure, a multiple-use name, or an inspirational author, who picks generic targets and objectives, but does not manage or execute plans. Media, in this case create a positive feedback loop: by publishing declarations of a movement’s role model, this instills motivation and assumed sympathy in the minds of potential agitators who in turn lend further authority to the figurehead. While this may loosely resemble a vertical command structure, it is notably unidirectional: a titular leader makes pronouncements, activists may respond, but there is no formal contact between the two levels of organization; as a result, leaderless resistance cells are resistant to traitors. As there is neither a center that may be destroyed, nor links between the cells that may be infiltrated, it is more difficult for established authorities to arrest the development of a leaderless resistance movement than it is with movements that adopt more conventional hierarchies.
Given the asymmetrical character of leaderless resistance, the fact that it is strategically adopted in the face of a power imbalance, it has much in common with guerrilla warfare. The latter strategy, however retains some form of organized, bidirectional leadership and is more broad-based than the individualized actions of leaderless cells. In some cases, a leaderless movement may evolve into a coherent insurgency or guerrilla movement, as with the Yugoslav partisans of World War II. Leaderless resistance involves resistance by violent means, but it is not limited to them. Non-violent groups can use the same structure to author and distribute samizdat literature, to create self-propagating boycotts against political opponents via the internet, to maintain an alternative electronic currency outside of the reach of taxing governments and transaction-logging banks, so forth; the concept of leaderless resistance was developed by Col. Ulius Louis Amoss, a former U. S. intelligence officer, in the early 1960s.
An anti-communist, Amoss saw leaderless resistance as a way to prevent the penetration and destruction of CIA-supported resistance cells in Eastern European countries under Soviet control. The concept was revived and popularized in an essay published by the anti-government Ku Klux Klan member Louis Beam in 1983 and again in 1992. Beam advocated leaderless resistance as a technique for white nationalists to continue the struggle against the U. S. government, despite an overwhelming imbalance in power and resources. Beam argued that conventional hierarchical pyramidal organizations are dangerous for their participants, when employed in a resistance movement against government, because of the ease of disclosing the chain of command. A less dangerous approach would be to convince like-minded individuals to form independent cells without close communication between each other but operating in the same direction. Further information: Animal liberation movement, Abolitionism and Anarchism and animal rightsThe first recorded direct action for animal liberation which progressed into a movement of leaderless resistance was by the original "Band of Mercy" in 1824 whose goal was to thwart fox hunters.
Inspired by this group and after seeing a pregnant deer driven into the village by fox hunters to be killed, John Prestige decided to oppose this sport and formed the Hunt Saboteurs Association in 1964. Within a year, a leaderless model of hunt-sabotage groups was formed across the country. A new Band of Mercy was formed in 1972, it used direct action to liberate animals and cause economic sabotage against those thought to be abusing animals. Ronnie Lee and others changed the name of the movement to the Animal Liberation Front in 1976 and adopted a leaderless resistance model focusing broadly on animal liberation. Earth First! and the environmental movement in the 1980s adopted the leaderless resistance model. An animal liberation movement advocating violence emerged with the name Animal Rights Militia in 1982. Letter bombs were sent to the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. Two years the name Hunt Retribution Squad was used; the Earth Liberation Front formed in 1992, breaking from Earth First! when that organization decided to focus on public direct action, instead of the ecotage that the ELF participated in.
A violent group called the Justice Department was established in 1993, in 1994 sent razor blades to hunters such as Prince Charles and to animal researchers. In 1999 the lea