Paddington is an area within the City of Westminster, in central London. Formerly a metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1965, a major project called Paddington Waterside aims to regenerate former railway and canal land between 1998 and 2018, and the area is seeing many new developments. However, the provenance is much later and likely to have been forged after the 1066 Norman conquest. There is no mention of the place in the Domesday Book of 1086, a more reliable 12th-century document cited by the cleric Isaac Maddox establishes that part of the land was held by brothers Richard and William de Padinton. In the later Elizabethan and early Stuart era, the rectory, manor, Nicholas Small was a clothworker who was sufficiently well connected to have Holbein paint a portrait of his wife, Jane Small. Nicholas died in 1565 and his wife married again, to Nicholas Parkinson of Paddington who became master of the Clothworkers company. Jane Small continued to live in Paddington after her husbands death, and her manor house was big enough to have been let to Sir John Popham. They let the building that became in this time Blowers Inn, as the regional population grew in the 17th century, Paddingtons ancient Hundred of Ossulstone was split into divisions, Holborn Division replaced the hundred for most administrative purposes. By 1773, a contemporary historian felt and wrote that London may now be said to include two cities, one borough and forty six antient villages. Roman roads formed the parishs north-eastern and southern boundaries from Marble Arch, Watling Street and, Uxbridge road, known by the 1860s in this neighbourhood as Bayswater Road. They were toll roads in much of the 18th century, before, by 1801, the area saw the start-point of an improved Harrow Road and an arm of the Grand Junction Canal - these remain. The district formed the centrepiece of an 1824 masterplan by Samuel Pepys Cockerell to redevelop the Tyburn Estate into an area to rival Belgravia. Despite this, Thackeray described the district of Tyburnia as the elegant, the prosperous, the polite Tyburnia. Derivation of the name is uncertain, speculative explanations include Padre-ing-tun, Pad-ing-tun, and Pæding-tun the last being the cited suggestion of the Victorian Anglo-Saxon scholar John Mitchell Kemble. There is another Paddington in Surrey, recorded in the Domesday Book as Padendene, a lord named Padda is named in the Domesday Book, associated with Brampton, Suffolk. An 18th-century dictionary gives the definition Paddington Fair Day, an execution day, Tyburn being in the parish or neighbourhood of Paddington. To dance the Paddington frisk, to be hanged, public executions were abolished in England in 1868. Paddington station is the terminus for services to the west of London and mainline services to Oxford, South-West England
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are generally positioned on the field between their teams defenders and forwards, some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, and are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being mobile and efficient in passing, they are commonly referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box. The number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the teams formation, most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing teams attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who typically travel the greatest distance during a match, central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided roughly equally between attack and defence. When the opposing team has the ball, a midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward. The 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders, the 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, and in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder. The term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who have abilities and are skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots. A good box-to-box midfielder needs good passing, vision, control, stamina, tackling and marking in defence, left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch. They may be asked to cross the ball into the penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1, a notable example of a right midfielder is David Beckham. Defensive midfielders are players who focus on protecting their teams goal. These players may defend a zone in front of their teams defence, defensive midfielders may also move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude, The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someones position, great. A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of play, marking, tackling, interceptions, passing and great stamina. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their teams defence, a player in this role will try to protect their goal by disrupting the opponents attacking moves and stopping long shots on the goal. The holding midfielder may also have responsibilities when their team has the ball and this player will make mostly short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the teams strategy
Chelsea Football Club is an English professional football club based in Fulham, London, that competes in the Premier League. Founded in 1905, the home ground since then has been Stamford Bridge. Chelsea had their first major success in 1955, when they won the league championship and they then won various cup competitions between 1965 and 1996. The clubs greatest period of success has come during the last two decades, winning 21 trophies since 1997. Chelsea are the only London club to win the UEFA Champions League, and one of four clubs, Chelseas regular kit colours are royal blue shirts and shorts with white socks. The clubs crest has changed several times in attempts to re-brand the club. The current crest, featuring a lion rampant regardant holding a staff, is a modification of the one introduced in the early 1950s. The club have the sixth-highest average all-time attendance in English football and their average home gate for the 2015–16 season was 41,500, the seventh highest in the Premier League. Since 2003, Chelsea have been owned by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich, in 2016, they were ranked by Forbes magazine as the seventh most valuable football club in the world, at £1.15 billion. In 1904, Gus Mears acquired the Stamford Bridge athletics stadium with the aim of turning it into a football ground, an offer to lease it to nearby Fulham was turned down, so Mears opted to found his own club to use the stadium. Chelsea were founded on 10 March 1905 at The Rising Sun pub, opposite the main entrance to the ground on Fulham Road. The club won promotion to the First Division in their second season and they reached the 1915 FA Cup Final, where they lost to Sheffield United at Old Trafford, and finished third in the First Division in 1920, the clubs best league campaign to that point. Chelsea attracted large crowds and had a reputation for signing big-name players, former Arsenal and England centre-forward Ted Drake became manager in 1952 and proceeded to modernise the club. The following season saw UEFA create the European Champions Cup, but after objections from The Football League, Chelsea failed to build on this success, and spent the remainder of the 1950s in mid-table. Drake was dismissed in 1961 and replaced by player-coach Tommy Docherty, Docherty built a new team around the group of talented young players emerging from the clubs youth set-up and Chelsea challenged for honours throughout the 1960s, enduring several near-misses. They were on course for a treble of League, FA Cup and League Cup going into the stages of the 1964–65 season, winning the League Cup. In three seasons the side were beaten in three major semi-finals and were FA Cup runners-up, under Dochertys successor, Dave Sexton, Chelsea won the FA Cup in 1970, beating Leeds United 2–1 in a final replay. Chelsea took their first European honour, a UEFA Cup Winners Cup triumph, the year, with another replayed win
Southend United F.C.
Southend United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Southend-on-Sea, Essex, England. The team compete in League One, the tier of English football. Southend are known as The Shrimpers, a reference to the maritime industry included as one of the quarterings on the club badge. Founded 19 May 1906 in the Blue Boar pub Southend has been a member of the Football League since 1920, the club has spent most of its League career in the English lower divisions, with seven seasons in the Leagues second tier. The club is based at Roots Hall Stadium in Prittlewell, with plans to move to a new stadium at Fossetts Farm. The club has played at five grounds, the original Roots Hall, the Kursaal, the Greyhound Park, Roots Hall was the first stadium that the club owned and was built on the site of their original home, albeit at a lower level. The site previous to Southend purchasing it in 1952 had been used as a quarry, by the council as a landfill site. It took 10 years to complete the building of Roots Hall. The first game was played on 20 August 1955, a 3–1 Division Three victory over Norwich City, the North Stand had a single-barrelled roof which ran only the breadth of the penalty area, whilst the West Bank was covered at its rear only by a similar structure. Drainage was a problem, and the wet winter turned the ground into a quagmire, the terracing was finally completed soon after, but the colossal task of completely terracing the South Bank, all of its 72 steps, was not completed until 1964. The North Bank roof was extended in the early 1960s, floodlights were also installed during this period. Until 1988 Roots Hall was still the newest ground in the Football League, United had hit bad times in the mid-1980s and new chairman Vic Jobson sold virtually all of the South Bank for development, leaving just a tiny block of 15 steps. In 1994, seats were installed onto the original terracing whilst a second tier was added, the West Bank had already become seated in 1992 upon Uniteds elevation to Division Two whilst the East Stand paddock also received a new seating deck, bolted and elevated from the terracing below. The application was submitted to Ruth Kelly, then Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. However, the application was called in at the beginning of April 2007, the inquiry began in September 2007, followed in October 2007 by a final inquiry, when chairman Ron Martin called for supporters to show in numbers at Southends local government headquarters. On 6 March 2008, permission to develop Fossetts Farm was given by the government, the club has a fierce local rivalry with fellow Essex side Colchester United. The two clubs were promoted from League One at the end of the 2005–06 season after a battle for top spot was eventually won by Southend. The rivalry extends back many years, the two clubs met again in an Essex derby match in the same competition the following season, with Southend emerging as the victors once more after a penalty shootout
Leyton Orient F.C.
Leyton Orient Football Club /ˌleɪtən ˈɔəriənt/ is a professional football club in Leyton, London, England. They play in League Two, the tier of the English football league system. The clubs home colours are all red, Leyton Orient have spent one season in the top flight of English football, in 1962–63. In 1978, they reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup for the time in their history. Between October 1993 and September 1995, Orient did not win an away game in the league. Leyton Orients home ground Brisbane Road is officially known as the Matchroom Stadium after former club chairman Barry Hearns sports promotion company, in 2014, Hearn sold the club to Italian businessman Francesco Becchetti. Leyton Orient finished seventh, one away from the playoff positions. In the 2013–14 season, Orient lost the League One Play-Off final at Wembley to Rotherham United, the team has had several name changes since, first as Eagle Cricket Club in 1886 then as Orient Football Club in 1888. Indeed, the nickname the Savage Cuts came from a particularly gruesome incident during training in the 19th Century when the goalkeeper suffered a laceration to the arm. A cry was heard across the pitch, the goalkeeper is cut, its a deep and savage cut. The other players believing this to be a lampoon, mockingly repeated, we have savage cuts, the Os are the second-oldest league club in London behind Fulham and are the 24th oldest club currently playing in the Football League. Following Fulhams promotion to the Premier League they became the oldest London club playing in the Football League and they played in the Second Division of the Southern Federations League in 1904, joined the Football League in 1905. By this time such as part-time outside right, Herbert Kingaby could earn £2 4s per week – payment being somewhat sporadic. The twelve History books written on the club by its historian Neilson N. C, the name Leyton Orient was adopted following the conclusion of the Second World War. The club had moved to Leyton in 1937, though there was another team called Leyton F. C. A further rename back to simply Orient took place in 1966 after the Borough of Leyton was absorbed into the London Borough of Waltham Forest, the 1914–15 season was the last football season before the League was suspended due to the outbreak of the First World War. Forty one members of the Clapton Orient team and staff joined up into the 17th Battalion Middlesex Regiment, the highest of any team in the country. At the final game of the season – Clapton Orient vs Leicester Fosse,20,000 people came out to support the team, a farewell parade was also hosted, but not before the Os had won 2–0
Wrexham Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in Wrexham, Wales. Based on the clubs recorded formation date of 1864, they are the oldest club in Wales, since August 2011 Wrexham have been a supporter-owned football club. As of May 2015, the club has 4,129 adult members, Wrexham are perhaps most notable for an FA Cup upset over reigning English Champions Arsenal in 1992 and a 1–0 victory over FC Porto in 1984 in the European Cup Winners Cup. Wrexhams home stadium, the Racecourse Ground, is the worlds oldest international stadium that still continues to host international games, the record attendance at the ground was set in 1957, when Wrexham hosted a match against Manchester United in front of 36,445 spectators. Their first game was played on 22 October 1864 at the Denbigh County Cricket Ground against the Prince of Wales Fire Brigade, as the rules of football were still somewhat fluid at the time, early matches featured teams with up to 17 players on each side. In these early years Wrexham were leaders of the campaign to restrict teams to having just 11 players on the pitch at any one time. C, in the 1877–78 season the FAW inaugurated the Welsh Cup competition, to run on similar lines to the English FA Cup. The first Welsh Cup Final was played at Acton Park, Wrexham got to the final of the inaugural competition, where they defeated Druids F. C. 1–0, with James Davies being credited with the goal. Because of a lack of money at the fledgling FAW, Wrexham did not receive their trophy until the next year. 1883 also saw Wrexhams first appearance in the FA Cup, when receiving a bye to the second round of the competition they were defeated 3–4 at home by Oswestry. Crowd trouble at the game led to the club being expelled from the Football Association, Olympic was dropped from this clubs name in 1888. In 1890 Wrexham joined The Combination league, playing their first game against Gorton Villa on 6 September 1890, Lea played for the club despite only having one arm as did playing colleague James Roberts. Wrexham finished the second from bottom in eighth place in the first season. Wrexham played in the Combination for four years before an increase in costs resulted in the club joining the Welsh League in the 1894–95 season. The club then remained in the Combination league until 1905, by time they had managed to win the league four times. After several unsuccessful attempts Wrexham were finally elected to the Birmingham, Wrexhams first ever match in this league was at home against Kidderminster Harriers at the Racecourse, and two thousand spectators witnessed Wrexham win the match 2–1. Wrexham finished sixth in their first season in this league, during their time in the Birmingham and District League, Wrexham won the Welsh Cup six times, in 1908–09, 1909–10, 1910–11, 1913–14, 1914–15, and 1920–21. They also reached the First Round proper of the FA Cup for a time in the 1908–09 season before losing a replay 1–2 to Exeter City after extra time. In 1921 Wrexham were elected to the newly formed Third Division North of the Football League and their first League game was against Hartlepool United at the Racecourse in front of 8,000 spectators
Chester City F.C.
Chester City Football Club was an English football team from Chester which played in a variety of leagues between 1885 and 2010. The club, which was founded as Chester F. C. joined the Football League in 1931, over the next eight decades, the club spent most of its time competing in the lower divisions playing its home games at Sealand Road. In 1983 it was renamed Chester City, the club moved to the Deva Stadium in 1992 after playing two seasons of home games at Macclesfield Towns Moss Rose. In 2004 Chester won the Conference National, their league title. However, halfway through the 2009–10 Conference season, HM Revenue & Customs served a winding-up order on the club in January 2010, the Conference National subsequently suspended Chester – which had been put up for sale – for breaching its financial rules and for cancelling matches. A month after the winding up order was served it was dismissed from the league with all results annulled, in March 2010 Chester was formally wound up after unsuccessfully trying to join the Welsh Premier League. With the official winding up of Chester City, supporters immediately began forming a new club, Chester F. C. was officially established in May 2010. Chester F. C. was founded in 1885 as an amalgamation of Chester Rovers and Old Kings Scholars F. C. after a few years of playing only friendly and occasional cup matches, Chester joined The Combination League in 1890. In 1898 the club moved to The Old Showground, but were forced to leave a year later when the ground was destroyed to make way for housing, leaving the club temporarily disbanded. In 1901, however, they moved to Whipcord Lane, again their stay was only brief and their new stadium on Sealand Road, called simply The Stadium became their first long-term home and provided them with their first league success, as they won the Combination League in 1909. In 1910, Chester moved to the Lancashire Combination League and stayed there until after World War I, charlie Hewitt was appointed manager in 1930, and in 1931 he guided Chester City to the Football League, in place of Nelson F. C. Throughout the 1930s Chester never finished outside of the top ten in Division Three North, during this period Chester recorded their biggest win in the FA Cup, beating Fulham 5–0 in 1933, and in 1936, they recorded their highest league victory, beating York City 12–0. The period also saw Chester win the Welsh Cup for the time after beating growing rivals Wrexham at Sealand Road in May 1933. Unfortunately, the side was to be split up by the outbreak of the Second World War, although the 1946–47 brought a third-place finish and another Welsh Cup triumph, grim times lay ahead. No top half placings would be achieved until the divisions were merged in 1958. They would still have to wait six years until they finished above halfway in a league table. Chesters fortunes began to take a turn for the better after the appointment of South African Peter Hauser as manager in 1963 who put Chester in contention for promotion from Division Four. In 1964–65 all five forwards managed 20 goals – a unique achievement – as Chester scored 119 in Football League games alone, apart from missing out on promotion by just a point in 1970–71 the next few years were largely uneventful
Weymouth Football Club is an English football club based in the town of Weymouth, who currently play in the Southern League Premier Division. The club is affiliated to the Dorset County Football Association and is a FA chartered Standard club, Weymouth Football Club were founded in 1890 and played their first game on 24 September of that year. Nicknamed The Terras due to their terracotta strip, the won the Dorset Junior Cup for the first three seasons, becoming a senior club as the team rose in stature. Founder members of the Dorset League, Weymouth joined the Western League in 1907–08, the club embraced full-time professionalism in 1923 after winning the Western League, joining the Southern League in the process. By 1928–29, with debts mounting, the club withdrew from the Southern League to become once again. They climbed back up the table and reached the Premier League and then folded for five years, the Second World War saw an end to football in Weymouth as the Recreation Ground was requisitioned for the War effort in 1939. The club reformed in 1947 on a basis, and soon achieved promotion back into the Southern League. The club suffered a tragedy on 28 February 1967 when player Dick Keith was killed in a building site accident at the age of 33. Keith had previously played in the Football League for Newcastle United and Bournemouth, Weymouth have enjoyed considerable FA Cup success since first entering in 1893–94. They first reached the stages in 1905–06 when they were thrashed 12–1 by Gainsborough Trinity. In 1949 they lost 4–0 at Maine Road to Manchester United in the Third round, in 2005, the team held former European Champions Nottingham Forest to a 1–1 draw at the City Ground, before losing 2–0 in the replay. In the 2006–07 FA Cup, Weymouth held Bury to a 2–2 draw at home, on 21 October 1987, Manchester United came to play against Weymouth on the night of the stadium unveiling by Ron Greenwood. Weymouth won 1–0 against Manchester United which included such as Remi Moses. Peter Conning scored the goal for the Terras, within a season they had turned the club around from relegation fodder to just missing out on promotion to the Conference. Gates also increased from around 500 to 1,200, Harrison sacked Claridge within a month. When the team dropped down the league, Johnson was sacked by Harrison in March 2005 with Garry Hill taking over. The club won promotion to the Conference in May 2006 but at a heavy price with large loans from Harrison to meet soaring wage bills of around £20,000 a week. At the clubs 2005 AGM, Harrison confirmed plans, pending local authority approval, to re-develop the Wessex Stadium and this now looks very unlikely with local planners opposed to such a deal
Northwich Victoria F.C.
Northwich Victoria Football Club is an English football club based in Northwich, Cheshire, playing their home games at Wincham Park, Northwich, the home of Witton Albion. The new club was a member of several leagues including the Football League Second Division. They played at the same Drill Field ground for over 125 years, at the time Drill Field was believed to be the oldest ground in the world on which football had been continuously played. The generally accepted year for the original Northwich Victoria Football Clubs founding is 1874 by Charles James Hughes and James Heyworth, however, according to club historian Ken Edwards book A Team for All Seasons, the organisation itself could have been in existence earlier in the 1870s. Northwich played their first challenge matches in the 1874 season and originally accepted both association football and rugby rules. This was shown in 1876 when they contested a match under Rugby rules at Farnworth and Appleton F. C. and then at home under association rules. The first time the club entered a competition was the 1877 Welsh Cup. Its best achievement in the competition was in the 1881–82 and 1888–89 seasons, when they reached the final in 1882, they were the first English club to do so. In 1880, the club entered the competition for the new Cheshire Football Association Challenge Cup. They went on to win the cup for the five seasons, defeating in the finals, Birkenhead, Northwich Novelty, Crewe Alexandra. In 1890, the became a founding member of the second incarnation of The Combination. In their second season in the league they finished as runners-up, a great leap forward was taken in 1892, when Northwich became one of the founding members of the English Second Division, which saw the team turn professional. In the leagues inaugural season, Northwich finished 7th, the highest finish in the clubs history and it was during the latter stages of this season that Northwich acquired the services of Billy Meredith, the Welsh International, who is widely regarded as the first football superstar. It was said by many that Finnerhan made Meredith, another notable result was holding Woolwich Arsenal to a 2–2 draw at the Drill Field. However, as a result of their position at the bottom of the league. Up to the middle of decade, Northwich played in red. However a major change in the clubs livery occurred when they adopted the colours they wear today, green. Lured by the chance of increased revenues, the joined the Manchester League in the 1900–01 season
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
England national under-16 football team
In July 2015, Dan Micciche was appointed to coach the squad with assistance from Paul Williams. Players born on or after 1 January 2001 will remain eligible until the end of the 2016–17 season, between 1925 and 2014, the England under-16 team competed in the annual Victory Shield tournament against Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Since World War II, England had won the Victory Shield outright thirty-five times and had been joint winners with Scotland eight times, with Wales twice, in 2005, the team made their debut in the annual Montaigu Tournament, held in Montaigu, France. England have won the three times, in 2008,2011, and 2015, defeating the hosts France in the final on all three occasions. In 2008 and 2011, England won in a penalty shoot-out after a 0–0 draw, while in 2015 they won the final outright by 3 –1
Football League First Division
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League. Between 1888 and 1992 it was the division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the FA Premier League it was a second-level division, in 2004 it was rebranded as the Football League Championship. The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor and it originally consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, for the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. Then, in 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League, the Football League was consequently re-organised, with the Second, Third and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First, Second and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, the First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times. After the creation of the Premier League, the new Division One title was won more than once by one club, Sunderland. The First Division initially consisted of 12 founder clubs, since then it has undergone a series of expansions as football became more popular, as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions, see List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors
Roots Hall is the home ground of the League One club Southend United. With a capacity of 12,392 Roots Hall is the largest football stadium in Essex, plans are in place for a new 22,000 seat stadium at Fossetts Farm, though work has yet to begin on the new development. The site now occupied by Roots Hall is where Southend United had originally played their games on their formation in 1906. Upon the outbreak of the First World War the area was designated for storage, after the war the club elected to move to a new ground at the Kursaal and Roots Hall first became a quarry for sand then a tipping site. By the early 1950s Southend had moved to Southend Stadium off Sutton Road, the club did not own the ground and the dog track which encircled the pitch made it unsuitable for use as a football stadium. In 1952 the wasteland at the old Roots Hall site was purchased to build a new stadium for the club. Work on the ground could not begin immediately owing to the quantities of rubbish which had been dumped on the site in the clubs absence. On 20 August 1955 Roots Hall hosted its first match, against Norwich City, the ground was declared open by the Secretary of the Football Association, Sir Stanley Rous. The ground remained the youngest in the Football League until the opening of Scunthorpe Uniteds Glanford Park in 1988. Roots Halls construction had not been completed when the ground was opened, with some stands only running for a distance along the touchline. In addition to problems, the pitchs drainage was unsuitable. With the pitch issue dealt with, Southend could concentrate on the matter at hand, the west bank roof, originally set back from the pitch, was extended forwards to the touchline creating a double-barrel effect, while work also commenced on finishing the terracing. The job was finished in 1964, after all 72 steps of the giant south bank had been concreted. The east stand was extended in both directions so it ran the length of the touchline in 1966, and around the same time the club installed floodlighting. Finally the ground was finished, and had its finest day in 1979, by the mid-1980s, however, the club were struggling financially. All this came after the west and east stands saw work in 1992, when the west bank was turned into an all-seated stand, a new digital scoreboard was also added to the north stand roof in November 2012. In the 1990s Southend United started planning to leave Roots Hall for a new ground at Fossetts Farm. The Department for Communities and Local Government gave broad approval to the plans in March 2008, Roots Hall has been sold to Sainsburys, which has received planning permission to build a new supermarket on the site
Luton Town F.C.
Luton Town Football Club /ˈluːtən ˈtaʊn/ is a professional association football club based at Kenilworth Road, Luton, Bedfordshire since 1905. Founded in 1885, it is nicknamed the Hatters and affiliated to the Bedfordshire County Football Association and its first-team is contesting the fourth tier of English football, League Two, during the 2016–17 season. The clubs history includes major trophy wins, several financial crises, numerous promotions and relegations, the club was the first in southern England to turn professional, making payments to players as early as 1890 and turning fully professional a year later. It joined the Football League before the 1897–98 season, left in 1900 because of financial problems, Luton reached the First Division in 1955–56 and contested a major final for the first time when playing Nottingham Forest in the 1959 FA Cup Final. The team was relegated from the top division in 1959–60. However, it was promoted back to the top level by 1974–75, Luton Towns most recent successful period began in 1981–82, when the club won the Second Division, and thereby gained promotion to the First. Luton defeated Arsenal 3–2 in the 1988 Football League Cup Final, between 2007 and 2009, financial difficulties caused the club to fall from the second tier of English football to the fifth in successive seasons. The last of these came during the 2008–09 season, when 30 points were docked from Lutons record for various financial irregularities. Luton thereafter spent five seasons in non-League football before winning the Conference Premier in 2013–14, Luton Town Football Club was formed on 11 April 1885, the product of a merger of the two leading local teams, Luton Town Wanderers and Excelsior. Initially based at Excelsiors Dallow Lane ground, the club began making payments to individual players in 1890. The following year, Luton became the first club in southern England to be fully professional, the club was a founder member of the Southern Football League in the 1894–95 season and finished as runners-up in its first two seasons. It then left to form the United League and came second in that leagues inaugural season before joining the Football League for 1897–98. The club continued to enter a team to the United League for two seasons, and won the title in 1897–98. A return to the Southern League was therefore arranged for the 1900–01 season, eight years after arriving at Dunstable Road, Luton moved again, settling at their current ground, Kenilworth Road, in 1905. Captain and left winger Bob Hawkes became Lutons first international player when he was picked to play for England against Ireland on 16 February 1907, a poor 1911–12 season saw Luton relegated to the Southern Leagues Second Division, the club won promotion back two years later. After the First World War broke out, Luton took part in The London Combination during 1915–16, a key player of the period was Ernie Simms, a forward. Simms was invalided back to England after being wounded on the Italian front, however, after Luton finished fourth in the division, the squad was broken up as Simms, Bookman and Mathieson joined South Shields, Port Vale and Exeter City respectively. Luton stayed in the Third Division South until 1936–37, when the team finished top and won promotion to the Second Division, during the early 1950s, one of Lutons greatest sides emerged under manager Dally Duncan
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, in 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts Farm at Coton in the Elms as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain. The city of Derby is a unitary authority area, but remains part of the county of Derbyshire. The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 10,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, there is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland, 75% of the population live in 25% of the area. Further occupation came with the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra, evidence of these nomadic tribes has been found in limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Deposits left in the date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE. Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are also situated throughout the county and these chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are mostly located in the central Derbyshire region. There are tombs at Minninglow and Five Wells that date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE, three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, which has been dated to 2500 BCE. It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture, in the moors of the Peak District signs of clearance, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archaeological investigation. However this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all that have been found, during the Roman invasion the invaders were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area. They settled throughout the county with forts built near Brough in the Hope Valley, later they settled around Buxton, famed for its warm springs, and set up a fort near modern-day Derby in an area now known as Little Chester. Several kings of Mercia are buried in the Repton area, following the Norman Conquest, much of the county was subject to the forest laws. To the northwest was the Forest of High Peak under the custodianship of William Peverel, the rest of the county was bestowed upon Henry de Ferrers, a part of it becoming Duffield Frith. In time the area was given to the Duchy of Lancaster. Meanwhile, the Forest of East Derbyshire covered the county to the east of the River Derwent from the reign of Henry II to that of Edward I. The main rivers in the county are the River Derwent and the River Dove which both join the River Trent in the south. The varied landscapes within Derbyshires have been formed mainly as a consequence of the underlying geology, the oldest rocks occur in the northern, more upland half of the county, and are mostly of Carboniferous age, comprising limestones, gritstones, sandstones and shales. In its north-east corner to the east of Bolsover there are also Magnesian Limestone rocks of Permian age, across both regions can be found drift deposits of Quaternary age – mainly terrace and river gravel deposits and boulder clays
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the worlds largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013, the departments annual budget is in excess of £350 million, it has 3,500 staff,2,000 of whom are journalists. BBC News domestic, global and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC also has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, Scotland, all nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes. As with all media outlets, though, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum. The British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO on 14 November 1922, on Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report. The BBC gradually gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, however, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II. Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, a weekly Childrens Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers. The network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London. The publics interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953 and it is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radios audience of 12 million for the first time. Those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission and that year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, and four and a half million by 1955. This was then followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a commentary by John Snagge. It was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were finally introduced a year later in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – mainly at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherds Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it. It was from here that the first Panorama, a new programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of News and Current Affairs and he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole
Roy Clarke (footballer)
Royston James Clarke was a Welsh footballer who played for Cardiff City, Manchester City, Stockport County and Wales as a winger. An outstanding schoolboy sportsman, Clarke became a miner during the Second World War and he signed amateur forms with Cardiff City in 1942, becoming a professional when league football resumed after the war. Part of the Cardiff side which won promotion from Division Three in 1946–47, he signed for Second Division Manchester City in May 1947, Cardiff receiving £12,000 for the player. Manchester City had just secured promotion with matches to spare, resulting in Clarke achieving an unusual feat of playing in three different divisions in consecutive matches, Clarke was a Manchester City regular for the next decade, making 349 league appearances. He was part of the Manchester City team which reached consecutive FA Cup finals in the 1950s, in 1958 Clarke moved to Stockport County, and later had a spell as manager of Northwich Victoria. After retiring from football he ran a shop, and subsequently returned to Manchester City. He died in 2006, after an illness with Alzheimers disease. Roy Clarke was born in Newport, Monmouthshire, to a mining family, at school he excelled at sports, representing Wales in a schoolboy baseball international, and winning a local table tennis championship. Upon leaving school Clarke followed his fathers path and became a miner. In his free time he played for an amateur football team. Here he was spotted by Cardiff City, who signed him as an amateur in December 1942, in 1945 he received his first taste of playing against top-class opposition, a touring Dynamo Moscow. His team suffered a defeat, the match finished 10–1 to the Soviets. The following year he represented the Welsh national team for the first time, Clarke played as an outside-left for Cardiff City in 39 league matches, scoring 11 goals. When league football resumed after the war, Clarke was a part of the Cardiff City team which gained promotion from the Third Division in 1946–47. In May 1947 he transferred to newly crowned Second Division champions Manchester City and he made his debut in Manchester Citys final match of the season, against Newport County, his home town club. Clarke made his appearance in the First Division against Wolverhampton Wanderers on the opening day of the 1947–48 season. This meant he had completed the feat of playing three different divisions of the Football League in three consecutive matches. In the 1954–55 season Manchester City had success using a system known as the Revie Plan
John Knight Mudie was a Scottish international footballer who played as a forward. He won seventeen caps for his country, helping the Scotland national team to qualify for the 1958 FIFA World Cup, in all he scored 144 league goals for the club. He then spent 1961 to 1963 at Stoke City, helping them to the Second Division title in 1962–63, after signing with Port Vale in 1963, he spent 1965 to 1967 as the clubs joint-manager, along with his long-time friend and teammate Stanley Matthews. He became a coach after he finished his career with Oswestry Town in 1967, though he later managed Northwich Victoria in 1973, born in Dundee, Jackie Mudie started his footballing career with local junior sides Lochee Harp and Stobswell Juniors. Mudie joined Blackpool in September 1946, signing professional terms in May 1947 and he was at the club throughout the 1950s, which are the most successful decade in the clubs history. After three years developing in the reserves, he made his debut on 8 March 1950, against Liverpool, the following season he featured regularly as Blackpool challenged in the league and reached the 1951 FA Cup Final. Newcastle United proved too strong at Wembley, however, and two goals from Jackie Milburn took the trophy to the North-East, after the loss, Blackpool signed Ernie Taylor, and Mudie lost his place. Eventually, though, he worked his way back into the team and this match is universally remembered as the Matthews Final, due to the veteran wingers dazzling skills helping to turn a 3–1 deficit into a 4–3 win for Blackpool. This change of position, combined his scoring 22 and 38 goals in consecutive seasons, enabled him to international recognition. His hat-trick in a 4–2 win against Spain in 1957 helped Scotland qualify for the following years World Cup, Stoke City signed Mudie, in March 1961 for £8,500, and he scored just five minutes into his debut against Scunthorpe United. He ended the 1960–61 season with three goals from 13 matches as Stoke flirted precariously with relegation, in the summer of 1961 Mudie spent the summer months playing for Canadian side Toronto City along with Stanley Matthews, Danny Blanchflower and Johnny Haynes. After a poor start to the 1961–62 campaign, Stokes attendances at the Victoria Ground dropped alarmingly below the 10,000 mark. To address the situation manager Tony Waddington brought back Stanley Matthews to the club, Mudie moved to Stokes local rivals Port Vale in November 1963 along with Ron Wilson in a package deal of between £12,000 and £15,000. Initially a regular, the ageing Mudie could not play on hard surfaces due to the risk of muscle jarring and we can fight our way out of this crisis, Mudie said at the time. Although we are down at the bottom of the table, we are not out and his strategy was to spend money to bring in players from the North East, though this would ultimately prove to be an unsuccessful strategy. He resigned in May 1967, citing personal reasons, after his playing retirement, Mudie continued to live in Stoke-on-Trent, his adopted hometown, setting up a painting and decorating business. He had brief spells coaching at Oswestry Town, Crewe Alexandra, Northwich Victoria and Eastwood Town and also spent one summer in America and he also spent time in South Africa, as a scout for Johannesburg Rangers. He later set up a painting and decorating business, Mudie died in Stoke in 1992, aged 61, two years after being diagnosed with cancer
George Heslop was an English footballer. He was an member of the team that won the Second Division title, League Championship, League Cup. He later played in Cape Town and for Bury, in retirement, he managed Northwich Victoria for a spell, before becoming landlord of the City Gates public house on Hyde Road. The City Gates was the original Hyde Road Hotel, the location where Ardwick became Manchester City F. C, the venture failed and closed in 1988. Stones from the building form part of Citys memorial garden at the City of Manchester Stadium. He died in September 2006 following a short illness, george Heslop, Post War English & Scottish Football League A – Z Players Database Manchester City website
Samuel Baxter Sammy McIlroy is a former Northern Ireland international footballer who played for Manchester United, Stoke City, Manchester City, Örgryte, Bury, Admira Wacker, Preston North End. After playing, he managed several English football teams and the Northern Ireland national team and he was most recently the manager of Football League Two side Morecambe. McIlroy was born in Belfast and moved to English club Manchester United in 1969 becoming Matt Busbys final signing and he made his debut on 6 November 1971 in the Manchester derby against Manchester City scoring in a 3–3 draw. He drifted in and out of the side and played in 31 matches in 1973–74 as Manchester United suffered a rare relegation and he was an ever-present in 1974–75 playing in all of the clubs 51 fixtures as they gained an instant return to the First Division. On their return they finished in place and also reached the 1976 FA Cup Final where they lost 1–0 to Southampton. A year later, McIlroy picked up a medal as United triumphed 2–1 against Liverpool. After spending ten seasons at Old Trafford making 419 appearances scoring 71 goals he left for Stoke City in February 1982, Stoke City paid Manchester United a club record fee of £350,000 for McIlroy on 2 February 1982. He arrived at Stoke with the club in relegation trouble in 1981–82. However the 1983–84 season saw Stoke struggle again and McIlroy and the returning Alan Hudson helped Stoke stage a revival which saw they stay up by two points. In 1984–85 Stoke suffered an embarrassing relegation going down with a record low points tally of 17 with McIlroy winning the player of the year award. McIlroys last club as a player was with Northwich Victoria from 1991 to 1993, as a player for Northern Ireland McIlroy won 88 caps and scored 5 goals. He was also part of the Northern Ireland side which won the final Home Internationals Championship, scores and results list Northern Irelands goal tally first McIlroy began his managerial career as player-coach under John McGrath at Preston North End in 1991. McIlroy arrived at the Moss Rose in 1993 replacing Peter Wragg who had avoided relegation the previous season. McIlroys first season at the Moss Rose saw a very creditable seventh-place finish plus silverware in the shape of the Bob Lord Trophy, the following season brought more silver to the club as the Silkmen beat Northwich Victoria 3–1 at Wembley to win the clubs second FA Trophy. But the ultimate prize of League football was still elusive as the finished fourth in the pre-play-off Conference. 1996–97 was a red letter season for the Silkmen as a final day, the success continued the following year and 1997–98 began well with a home win over Torquay. The Silkmen finished the season unbeaten at home and were promoted into the Football League Second Division in second place, but that promotion was a bridge too far for the rapidly rising club. Facing the might of Manchester City, Fulham, Wigan, Stoke, Reading, Preston and the like, the Silkmen eventually finished bottom of the division, McIlroy left the Moss Rose in 1999 to take up the position at his own national team
Keith Alexander (footballer)
Keith Alexander was a footballer and manager. Born in Nottingham, England, he was the manager of League Two side Macclesfield Town at the time of his death, Alexander played for a large number of lower league football teams. His main success, however, came from football management – managing in both non-league and the Football League and he took League Two side Lincoln City to four consecutive play-offs, taking them to two finals at the Millennium Stadium. His eldest son, Matthew Alexander, is a FIFA licensed Football agent, Alexander began his career in non-league football, joining Arnold as a nineteen-year-old. In total he made 94 appearances for the Daniels, scoring 24 goals, in the middle of 1986, Barry Fry secured the signing of Alexander at Barnet, who were playing in the Football Conference at the time. He scored 22 goals in 72 games in his two years at the club as the club missed out on promotion. After many years in non-league, Alexander ended his career in league football. He earned his move from non-league to the Football League when then-Grimsby manager Alan Buckley saw Alexander playing for Barnet, the following season, Alexander scored a further 12 goals in 38 games, including the two goals that ensured Grimsbys promotion in a 2–0 win over Southend United. He then joined Stockport County, before linking up with Lincoln City for the 1992–93 season, after a short spell as Lincoln City manager, he played a couple more games for Mansfield Town, before joining Northern Ireland outfit Cliftonville on loan. During his brief spell at Cliftonville during the 1994–95 season, Alexander scored on his debut in a 4–3 victory over Portadown and he also scored twice for Cliftonville as they eliminated Linfield in the League Cup quarter final at Windsor Park. He returned to his parent club, Mansfield, at the end of the season and made one appearance the following year. It was to signal the end of Alexanders playing days, as he broke his leg in injury-time and he did, however, remain registered as a player in the first season of managing Ilkeston Town, although he did not make any first-team appearances. Alexander won the FA Vase in 1980 with Stamford, scoring one of the goals in a 2–0 win at Wembley, while he was playing for Grimsby Town, Alexander played international football for St. Lucia, earning three international caps in 1990. Alexander also became Mansfield Towns oldest ever goal scorer when he came off the bench to score twice against Crewe Alexandra at the age of 37. With his playing career winding down, Alexander was appointed youth coach for Lincoln City, during which time he developed the likes of Darren Huckerby. He lasted only a season in charge before Sam Ellis succeeded him in the hot seat, for the best part of a decade, Alexander then managed two semi-professional teams, Ilkeston Town during 1996–2000 and Northwich Victoria during 2000–01. He is believed to be the most successful manager in Ilkeston Towns history and he subsequently took charge of Northwich Victoria during the 2000–01 season, with Northwich in the relegation zone five points adrift from safety. Alexander orchestrated an escape to steer Victoria away from relegation
Steve Davis (footballer, born 1965)
Steven Peter Steve Davis is an English former professional footballer who played as a defender. He was manager at League Two club Crewe Alexandra from November 2011 until January 2017, at the time of his sacking by Crewe, he was the fourth longest serving manager in the top four divisions of English football. Born in Birmingham, Davis started his career with Stoke City as an apprentice in 1982, however, he played more than 140 matches for both Crewe Alexandra and Burnley, making his Crewe debut at the age of 18, and captaining the side aged 19. He was also a key figure in the time he was at Burnley and he then played over 100 games for Barnsley in Division 1, in which they won promotion to the Premier League. He had loan spells at York City and Oxford United, eventually being signed by Division 1 outfit, the final years of his playing career saw him in Cheshire with Macclesfield Town, and with Northwich Victoria and Nantwich Town – where he was player-manager of both clubs. Davis was capped by the England national youth team and he was appointed as player-manager of Northwich Victoria in June 2003. He resigned in September 2003, after the side were second bottom of the Conference National in the 2003–04 season. He led Nantwich to two promotions in three seasons and a FA Vase victory, just missing out on promotion to the Conference North at the end of the 2008–09 season and his abilities attracted the attention of Crewe Alexandra, where he had spent four seasons as a player. On 17 May 2009, it was announced that he would become assistant manager to Gudjon Thordarson at Crewe, Davis remained as Thordarsons assistant through the Icelandics short lived tenure at Gresty Road before the former Stoke City manager was relieved of his role in October 2009. Taking up the vacant managers role was Dario Gradi, now in his stint as Crewe manager kept Davis as his assistant manager. Although Gradi was still manager of the club, Davis took charge of the game against Oldham in the Football League Trophy after the Crewe manager could not attend after feeling unwell. Promoting coach Neil Baker as his assistant manager, Davis first match, officially, although the railwaymen lost the tie 4–1, Davis brief for the remainder season was specific, keep Crewe in the football league. Following a 3–2 win over two legs with Southend United and a 2–0 win over Cheltenham Town at Wembley, Davis side were promoted to League One. Davis successfully secured safety in League One in his first season, the Railwaymen won the tie 2–0 with goals from Luke Murphy and Max Clayton. As with the summer, Davis lost a key member of his midfield this time in the form of Luke Murphy who left the club for Championship side Leeds United in 2013 for a million pounds. Despite a brief period linking him with the vacant Wolves managerial position, the players were cleared of all charges in November, a few months into the new campaign. Davis described the decision as a noose being removed from our necks citing the case as one of the reasons for the poor start to the campaign. The 2014–15 season was no better in terms of Crewes performance, Crewes relegation to League Two was confirmed following a 3–0 defeat at Port Vale on 9 April 2016, with five games remaining
Steve Burr is a Scottish former footballer and is the first team manager at Stalybridge Celtic. Steve Burr began his career as a player with Stafford Rangers. Burr is still thought of at Macclesfield, where he was part of one of their most successful periods as a club. His spell went on to include two FA Trophy Final appearances, in 1990 Sir Alex Ferguson brought a Manchester United team to Moss Rose to celebrate Burrs testimonial year. He began his career at Nuneaton Borough, where he was originally assistant to Brendan Phillips before taking over as manager when Phillips was sacked in 2000. He left Nuneaton after their relegation from the Football Conference at the end of the 2002–03 season and he achieved virtually instant success, cruising to the Northern Premier League Premier Division title in his sole season at the club in 2003/04. The lure of management higher up the pyramid took Burr into the Conference with Northwich Victoria at that stage, almost immediately, he was dealt a huge blow with a ten-point deduction, which threatened the Vics survival. Against all odds, the side achieved what was considered the impossible by battling to survival on the pitch - only for non football issues to heartbreakingly see them relegated once again. Along the way, he took his side to the Third Round of the FA Cup and a date with Premier League side Sunderland A. F. C. In November 2005, Burr was appointed Assistant Manager to Paul Fairclough as part of the England C managerial team and his first game resulted in a 2-0 victory over Belgium. Since 2006, under Faircloughs and Burrs guidance, England C have recorded 19 wins,7 draws and have only suffered 4 defeats. Burr finally left troubled Vics that summer, but understandably he was not out of work for long and his appointment as Kidderminster Harriers manager on a two-and-a-half year contract in January 2010 saw him once again have the opportunity to have a crack at management in the Conference National. He had a magnificent start at Aggborough with a 4-1 thrashing of Grays Athletic on his home début and this was the first game of an 8-game unbeaten streak as his side made an unlikely bid for the play-offs and progressed to the semi-finals of the FA Trophy. In March 2011 Kidderminster refused fellow Conference side Grimsby Town permission to talk to Burr about the possibility of him becoming the next Mariners manager, Burr followed this up by stating that he was happy to stay at Kidderminster. This was clarified when Burr and assistant Gary Whild both signed contract extensions to the end of the 2013-14 season, in 2013, Burr received the Conference Premier Manager of the Month award for February after steering his side to five straight wins in five matches. Kidderminster conceded just three goals in the month and found the net no less than 12 times, the award was Burrs second of the season having previously been named the Manager of the Month for December 2012. Februarys award was the culmination of a run 15 wins in 17 league games, after a thrilling last day of the season that saw Kiddy miss out on automatic promotion by two points the club failed to get past Wrexham in the Play-offs. Despite this Burr was named the Conference Premier Manager of the Season after recording a better record than title-winning manager Mansfields Paul Cox