A doughnut or donut is a manoeuvre performed while driving a vehicle. Performing this manoeuvre entails rotating the rear or front of the vehicle around the opposite set of wheels in a continuous motion, creating a circular skid-mark pattern of rubber on a carriageway and even causing the tyres to emit smoke from friction; the move was first done as a race celebration by Alex Zanardi after the 1997 Long Beach Grand Prix, where he performed the manoeuvre as a way to give back to the Long Beach fans and the atmosphere they produced for the teams and racers. He continued to use it as a form of celebration throughout his racing career; the move has now become the post-race celebration of choice for many victorious drivers. Other terms used for describing this manoeuvre include "spinning sedys / doing a sedy", "making cookies / cutting cookies", "round brownies", "cyclone", "diffing", "spinning brodies", or "whipping shitties". Doughnuts are more performed on wet and frozen surfaces, as well as on loose surfaces, such as dirt.
When performed in the snow, it is more done to have fun than it is to make an earnest attempt at creating the circular skid mark pattern. In Australia, doughnuts performed in dust or mud are colloquially referred to as "circle work". Performing the doughnut manoeuvre can be hazardous. Strain is placed on the vehicle's suspension and drivetrain, which may result in mechanical breakdown with loss of control. Tyres are subject to severe wear which may result in a sudden loss of pressure or blowout. In snow, the strain placed on the vehicle is much less. Hence, rally drivers prefer to learn car control in such situations. Drifting Burnout Modern Racer - Driving Tips - Doughnuts
The generic roller coaster vertical loop, where a section of track causes the riders to complete a 360 degree turn, is the most basic of roller coaster inversions. At the top of the loop, riders are inverted; the vertical loop is not a recent roller coaster innovation. Its origins can be traced back to the 1850s when centrifugal railways were built in France and Great Britain; the rides relied on centripetal forces to hold the car in the loop. One early looping coaster was shut down after an accident. Attempts to build a looping roller coaster were carried out during the late 19th century with the Flip Flap Railway at Sea Lion Park; the ride was designed with a circular loop, caused neck injuries due to the intense G-forces pulled with the tight radius of the loop. The next attempt at building a looping roller coaster was in 1901 when Edwin Prescott built the Loop the Loop at Coney Island; this ride used the modern teardrop-shaped loop and a steel structure, however more people wanted to watch the attraction, rather than ride.
No more roller coasters with vertical loops were built until 1976 when The New Revolution opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain. Its success depended on its clothoid-based loop; the loop became a phenomenon, many parks hastened to build roller coasters featuring them. In 2000, a modern looping wooden roller coaster was built, the Son of Beast at Kings Island. Although the ride itself was made of wood, the loop was supported with steel structure. Due to maintenance issues however, the loop was removed at the end of the 2006 season; the loop was not the cause of the ride's issues, but was removed as a precautionary measure. It is the only successful installation of a loop on a wooden roller coaster. Due to an unrelated issue in 2009, Son of Beast was closed until 2012, when King's Island announced that it would be removed. On June 22, 2013, Six Flags Magic Mountain introduced Full Throttle, a steel launch coaster with a 160-foot loop, the tallest in the world at the time of its opening. In 2002, the Swiss company Klarer Freizeitanlagen AG begun working on a safe design for a looping water slide.
Since multiple installations of the slide, named the AquaLoop and constructed by WhiteWater West, have appeared in many parks. This ride does not feature a vertical loop, instead using an inclined loop a vertical loop tilted at an angle, which puts less force on the rider. Most roller coaster loops are not circular in shape. A used shape is the clothoid loop, which resembles an inverted tear drop and allows for less intense G-forces throughout the element for the rider; the use of this shape was pioneered in 1975 on The New Revolution at Six Flags Magic Mountain, by Werner Stengel of leading coaster engineering firm Ing.-Büro Stengel GmbH. On the way up, from the bottom to the top of the loop, gravity is in opposition to the direction of the cars and will slow the train; the train is slowest at the top of the loop. Once beyond the top, gravity helps to pull the cars down around the bend. If the loop's curvature is constant, the rider is subjected to the greatest force at the bottom. If the curvature of the track changes as from level to a circular loop, the greatest force is imposed instantly.
Gradual changes in curvature, as in the clothoid, reduce the force maximum and allow the rider time to cope safely with the changing force. This "gentling" runs somewhat contrary to the coaster's raison d'être. Schwarzkopf-designed roller coasters feature near-circular loops resulting in intense rides—a trademark for the designer, it is rare for a roller coaster to stall in a vertical loop. The Psyké Underground coaster at Walibi Belgium once stranded riders upside-down for several hours; the design of the trains and the rider restraint system prevented any injuries from occurring, the riders were removed with the use of a cherry picker. A similar incident occurred on Demon at Six Flags Great America. Vertical loop simulator Ing.-Buero Stengel GmbH Loop Shapes in Roller Coasters
A world record is the best global and most important performance, recorded and verified in a specific skill or sport. The book Guinness World Records collates and publishes notable records of all types, from first and best to worst human achievements, to extremes in the natural world and beyond. In the United States the form World's Record was more common; the term The World's Best was briefly in use. The latter term is still used in athletics events, including track and field and road running to describe good and bad performances not recognized as an official world record: either because it is not an event where the IAAF tracks the record, or because it does not fulfil other rigorous criteria of an otherwise qualifying event; the term is used in video game speedrunning when someone achieves the fastest possible time for the game and category. Malaysia is one country. In India, the setting and breaking of records is popular: world record registrars based in India are Limca Book of Records, World Records India, Unique World Records, India Book of Records and Asia Book of Records.
Some sports have world records recognised by their respective sports governing bodies: Lists of extreme points
A stunt is an unusual and difficult physical feat or an act requiring a special skill, performed for artistic purposes on television, theatre, or cinema. Stunts are a feature of many action films. Before computer generated imagery special effects, these effects were limited to the use of models, false perspective and other in-camera effects, unless the creator could find someone willing to jump from car to car or hang from the edge of a skyscraper: the stunt performer or stunt double. One of the most-frequently used. Although contact is avoided, many elements of stage combat, such as sword fighting, martial arts, acrobatics required contact between performers in order to facilitate the creation of a particular effect, such as noise or physical interaction. Stunt performances are choreographed and may be rigorously rehearsed for hours and sometimes weeks before a performance. Seasoned professionals will treat a performance as if they have never done it before, since the risks in stunt work are high, every move and position must be correct to reduce risk of injury from accidents.
Examples of practical effects include tripping and falling down, high jumps, extreme sporting moves and high diving, gainer falls, "suicide backflips," and other martial arts stunts. Stunt airbags, large deep airbags that may be the size of a small swimming pool, are used by professional stunt performers to cushion their landings from staged falls from heights. A physical stunt is performed with help of mechanics. For example, if the plot requires the hero to jump to a high place, the film crew could put the actor in a special harness, use aircraft high tension wire to pull him up. Piano wire is sometimes used to fly objects, but an actor is never suspended from it as it is brittle and can break under shock impacts. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon is a kung-fu film, reliant on wire stunts. Performers of vehicular stunts may employ specially adapted vehicles. Stunts can be as simple as a handbrake turn known as the bootleg turn, or as advanced as car chases and crashes involving dozens of vehicles.
Rémy Julienne is coordinator. Another well known vehicular stunt specialist is Englishman Ian Walton, the helicopter stunt pilot and stunt designer for many 1980s films, notably the Bond film Never Say Never Again. A Guinness Book of World Records holder stunt driver, Bobby Ore, performed in numerous movies and events and holds a World Record for longest distance driven on two wheels in a London double decker bus. Streetbike stunts known as "stunting" gained widespread popularity in the early 2000s and continues to grow, it now goes much further than that. In the late 20th century stunt men were placed in dangerous situations less and less as filmmakers turned to inexpensive computer graphics effects using harnesses, blue- or green screens, a huge array of other devices and digital effects; the Matrix is an example for a film that extensively "enhanced" real stunts through CGI post production. The Lord of the Rings film series and the Star Wars prequel films display stunts that are computer generated.
Examples of computer-generated effects include face wire removal. In 1982, Jackie Chan began experimenting with elaborate stunt action sequences in Dragon Lord, which featured a pyramid fight scene that holds the record for the most takes required for a single scene, with 2900 takes, the final fight scene where he performs various stunts, including one where he does a back flip off a loft and falls to the lower ground. In 1983, Project A saw the official formation of the Jackie Chan Stunt Team and added elaborate, dangerous stunts to the fights and typical slapstick humor. Police Story contained many large-scale action scenes, including an opening sequence featuring a car chase through a shanty town, Chan stopping a double-decker bus with his service revolver and a climactic fight scene in a shopping mall; this final scene earned the film the nickname "Glass Story" by the crew, due to the huge number of panes of sugar glass that were broken. During a stunt in this last scene, in which Chan slides down a pole from several stories up, the lights covering the pole had heated it resulting in Chan suffering second-degree burns to his hands, as well as a back injury and dislocation of his pelvis upon landing.
Chan performed elaborate stunts in numerous other films, such as several Police Story sequels, Project A Part II, the Armor of God series, Dragons Forever, Drunken Master II, Rumble in the Bronx, the Rush Hour series, among others. Other Hong Kong action movie stars who became known for performing elaborate stunts include Chan's Peking Opera School friends Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao, as well as "girls with guns" stars such as Michelle Yeoh and Moon Lee. Other Asian cinema stars known for performing elaborate stunts including Thai actor Tony Jaa, Indonesian actors Iko Uwais and Yayan Ruhian, Indian actors Jayan, Akshay Kumar, Vidyut Jammwal and Tiger Shroff. Reality competition television shows such as Fear Factor and Going Straight have required contestants to complete stunts to win prize money. Films such as Hooper and The Stunt Man and the 1980s television show The Fall Guy sought to raise the profile of the stunt performer and debunk the myth that film stars perform all their own stunts. Noted stunt coordinators Hal Needham, Craig R. Baxley, Vic Armstrong went on to direct the action f
A barrel roll is an aerial maneuver in which an airplane makes a complete rotation on both its longitudinal and lateral axes, causing it to follow a helical path maintaining its original direction. It is sometimes described as a "combination of a loop and a roll." The g-force is kept positive on the object throughout the maneuver between 2–3 g, no less than 0.5 g. The barrel roll is confused with an aileron roll; the barrel roll is so named because an aircraft executing this maneuver looks as though it were flying with its wheels running around the inside wall of a cylinder, or an imaginary barrel lying on its side. A more common modern visualization is to imagine an airplane trying to fly in a horizontal corkscrew around the line of the direction of travel. Although the maneuver predates the name, the term was first used in 1917, gaining popularity during the early 1930s. In aviation, the barrel roll is an aerobatic maneuver in which an aircraft performs a helical roll around its relative forward motion, with the nose ending up pointed along the original flightpath.
It is performed by doing a combination of a loop. The maneuver includes a constant variation of aircraft attitude in two or all three axes, it consists of a rotation along the pitch axis through the application of elevator input, followed by aileron input to rotate the aircraft along its roll axis. Sometimes rudder input is applied to help assist the roll through the yaw axis, by swinging the tail over the top. At the midpoint of the roll, the aircraft should be flying inverted, with the nose pointing at a right angle to the general flightpath; the aircraft will have gained altitude and travelled a short distance from the original flightpath. Flying inverted, the plane continues through the roll, descending in altitude and returning to the original flightpath. Upon completing the roll, the airplane should end up flying along the same flightpath, at the same altitude at which the maneuver began; the term "barrel roll" is used, incorrectly, to refer to any roll by an airplane. The barrel roll was called a "side somersault."
It was first performed in 1905 by Daniel Maloney. He was flying a glider owned by John Joseph Montgomery during an exhibition show, lifted by balloon and released. During this particular show, Maloney did a hard turn, causing the wings to warp, performing the maneuver quite by accident, but was followed by his companion flyer, David Wilke, who did two barrel rolls in a row. Outside of aerobatic competition, the Boeing 367-80 and Concorde prototype were barrel rolled during testing; the Boeing 367-80 was rolled twice by Tex Johnston in an unauthorized maneuver while demonstrating the aircraft to the International Air Transport Association over Lake Washington, Seattle. The Concorde was rolled multiple times including Jean Franchi and Brian Walpole. Avro test pilot Roly Falk rolled the Avro Vulcan during a display at the 1955 Farnborough airshow, gaining height during the maneuver. To do a barrel roll in its purest form, from the pilot's perspective, it may best be thought of as a roll around a point on the horizon, 45 degrees off the flightpath.
Starting from a level flight, the pilot will pick such a point on the horizon as a reference, between the nose and the wing-tip, out the side window. This point can be anything in that area, like mountain peak, or cloud; the pilot will pull back on the stick, bringing the plane up into a brief climb. As the nose passes through the horizon, the pilot begins to apply aileron input, accomplished by easing the stick to either the right or the left; as the airplane rolls it will continue to pitch in the direction of the lift vector. The pilot will need to control the roll rate, keeping the nose 45 degrees off the reference point on the horizon as the nose traces a circle around this spot; some planes may require rudder input, while most high powered planes will only need to be guided by aileron and elevator control. When the aircraft has rolled 90 degrees, the wings are vertical, the nose should be angled about 45 degrees directly above the reference point; as the plane continues to roll upside-down it will begin to level out, the horizon will appear to rise to meet the nose.
When in the inverted position, the aircraft should be level and the nose should still be 45 degrees to the side of the reference point, putting it 90 degrees off the original flightpath. As the nose drops through the horizon, the pilot may need to reduce the elevator pressure, to avoid altitude loss by counteracting the force of gravity and the loss of lift. Still keeping the nose 45 degrees off the reference point, the plane should roll into level flight along the same flightpath and at the same altitude at which the maneuver began. If properly performed, the reference point should appear to remain in a stationary position, relative to the plane, while the horizon spins around it. In air combat maneuvering known as dogfighting, the term "barrel roll" may refer to one of many maneuvers; these maneuvers are simply called barrel rolls, but many fall into the category of "displacement rolls." The term barrel roll, by itself, most refers to a helical roll around a straight flightpath, the purpose of, to slow the relative forward motion of the aircraft.
This can help a defender to force an attacker, behind the defender, to fly out in front, cal