Post–World War II economic expansion
The post–World War II economic expansion known as the Golden Age of Capitalism, postwar economic boom, the long boom, was a period of strong economic growth beginning after World War II and ending with the 1973–75 recession. The United States, Soviet Union, Western European and East Asian countries in particular experienced unusually high and sustained growth, together with full employment. Contrary to early predictions, this high growth included many countries, devastated by the war, such as Japan, West Germany and Austria, South Korea, France and Greece. In academic literature, the period is referred to as the post–World War II economic boom, though this term can refer to much shorter booms in particular markets, it is known as the Long Boom, though this term is generic and can refer to other periods. The Golden age of Capitalism is a common name for this period in both academic and economics books; the term is used in other contexts. In older sources and in contemporary ones, Golden age of Capitalism can refer to the period of the Second Industrial Revolution from 1870 to 1914, which saw rapid economic expansion.
Yet another name for the quarter century following the end of World War II is the Age of Marx, though the Soviet Union's economic statistics were not reliable during this period. Economist Roger Middleton states that economic historians agree on 1950 as the start date for the golden age, while Robert Skidelsky states 1951 is the most recognized start date. Both Skidelsky and Middleton have 1973 as the recognized end date, though sometimes the golden age is considered to have ended as early as 1970; this long term business cycle ended with a number of events in the early 1970s: the collapse of the Bretton Woods monetary system in 1971 the growing international trade in manufactured goods, such as automobiles and electronics the 1973 oil crisis, the 1973–1974 stock market crash, the ensuing 1973–75 recession, May Day 1975 the deregulation of fixed fees for trading stocks and market based commissionsWhile this is the global period, specific countries experienced business expansions for different periods.
OECD members enjoyed real GDP growth averaging over 4% per year in the 1950s, nearly 5% per year in the 1960s, compared with 3% in the 1970s and 2% in the 1980s. Skidelsky devotes ten pages of his 2009 book Keynes: The Return of the Master to a comparison of the golden age to what he calls the Washington Consensus period, which he dates as spanning 1980–2009: Skidelsky suggests the high global growth during the golden age was impressive as during that period Japan was the only major Asian economy enjoying high growth, it was not until that the world had the exceptional growth of China raising the global average. Skidelsky reports that inequality was decreasing during the golden age, whereas since the Washington Consensus was formed it has been increasing. Globally, the golden age was a time of unusual financial stability, with crises far less frequent and intense than before or after. Martin Wolf reports that between 1945–71 the world saw only 38 financial crises, whereas from 1973–97 there were 139.
High productivity growth from before the war continued until the early 1970s. Manufacturing was aided by automation technologies such as feedback controllers, which appeared in the late 1930s were a fast-growing area of investment following the war. Wholesale and retail trade benefited from new highway systems, distribution warehouses, material handling equipment such as forklifts and intermodal containers. Oil displaced coal in many applications in locomotives and ships. In agriculture, the post WW II period saw the widespread introduction of the following: Chemical fertilizers Tractors Combine harvesters High-yielding variety Pesticides Industries that were created or expanded during the post war period included television, commercial aviation and in the US, computer technology. Economists employing Marxian economic analysis and Crisis theory argue that the period of prosperity was a temporary phase in capitalist development fueled by a revival of capital stock, large pools of labor and raw materials, technological innovation emerging from the end of the Second World War and the scale of defeats of the international working class.
This era of prosperity helped prop up the perspective that the crises and business cycles inherent to capitalism could be solved through macroeconomic Keynesian policies, when in actuality the fundamental instabilities of capitalism had not been resolved. Keynesian economists argue that the post war expansion was caused by adoption of Keynesian economic policies. Naomi Klein has argued the high growth enjoyed by Europe and America was the result of Keynesian economic policies and in the case of rising prosperity that this post war period saw in parts of South America, by the influence of developmentalist economics led by Raúl Prebisch. One of Eisenhower's enduring achievements was championing and signing the bill that authorized the Interstate Highway System in 1956, he justified the project through the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible war, h
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
British Columbia Electric Railway
The British Columbia Electric Railway was an historic railway which operated in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. The parent company, a division, of BC Electric, the BCER assumed control of existing streetcar and interurban lines in southwestern British Columbia in 1897, operated the electric railway systems in the region until the last interurban service was discontinued in 1958. During and after the streetcar era, BC Electric ran bus and trolleybus systems in Greater Vancouver and bus service in Greater Victoria. Trolley buses still run in the City of Vancouver and one line extends into Burnaby. Streetcar and interurban services were inaugurated in southwestern British Columbia between 1890 and 1891, operated by the following companies: National Electric Tramway and Lighting Company Limited, which launched the streetcar service in Victoria on February 22, 1890. With the global depression in the 1890s, all three companies went into receivership, were amalgamated in 1895 into the Consolidated Railway and Light Company.
The newly founded company was forced into receivership again after a streetcar accident in Victoria resulted in 55 deaths, was reorganized as the British Columbia Electric Railway Company Limited in April 1897. Power was supplied by then-innovative diversion projects at Buntzen Lake and on the Stave River system farther east, all of which were built to supply power for the interurbans and street railway. Vancouver-Marpole BCER began the Vancouver-Steveston interurban and freight service in 1905 after leasing the line from Canadian Pacific Railway and electrifying it; the Vancouver-Marpole line's right-of-way remained under the ownership of the CPR, which continued running freight trains on the corridor until June 2001. With the end of freight operations on the line in sight, Vancouver City Council adopted the Arbutus Corridor Official Development Plan in 2000, designating the corridor as a transportation/greenway public thoroughfare to prevent other types of development from taking place along the right-of-way.
Marpole-Steveston The Steveston line's alignment on Lulu Island can be traced by Railway Avenue, Granville Avenue, Garden City Road, Great Canadian Way. After the end of passenger service in 1958 the Granville and Garden City section of the line was relocated parallel to River Road north of Westminster Highway. Marpole-New Westminster Interurban service between Marpole and New Westminster along the North Arm of the Fraser River was started in 1909. Still in operation today, as part of the Southern Railway of British Columbia. New Westminster to Chilliwack Opened October 4, 1910 and still in operation today, as part of the Southern Railway of British Columbia; this line made use of the New Westminster Bridge, opened in 1904. Burnaby Lake Line The Burnaby Lake line's right-of-way is taken up by the Trans-Canada Highway, but sections of it survive as walking and biking trails. Central Park Line Following the cessation of interurban services on the Central Park Line, the right-of-way remained under the control of BC Hydro.
By 1975, the Greater Vancouver Regional District proposed incorporating the right-of-way into a light rail line linking Vancouver and New Westminster, thereby reinstating passenger rail service on the corridor. The provincial government took over the project, which evolved into the Vancouver SkyTrain's Expo Line. New Westminster to Queensborough The tracks from New Westminster to Queensborough and the'Railway Bridge' across the north arm of the Fraser River are still in operation today, as part of the Southern Railway of British Columbia. New Westminster to Fraser Mills Opened in 1912, construction of ramps leading to and from the new Pattullo Bridge resulted in the closure of the Queensborough and Fraser Mills lines in 1937, as well as the truncation of the Burnaby Lake line to Sapperton. Victoria to Deep Bay Now called Deep Cove, the Victoria to Deep Cove line, was one of three passenger railways to serve the Saanich Peninsula, was closed on November 1, 1924 due to low ridership; the Victoria-Deep Cove interurban's alignment can be traced by Burnside Road, Interurban Road and the Interurban Rail Trail, West Saanich Road, Wallace Drive, Aldous Terrace, Mainwaring Road, one of Victoria International Airport's runways, Tatlow Road to Deep Cove.
Besides the stretch through the airport, the stretch at the Experimental Farm has been blocked. Stave Lake A 6-mile steam train branch line, the Stave Falls Branch, was isolated from the main interurban network, linked the power plant and community at Stave Falls to the Canadian Pacific Railway station at Ruskin; the route of the Stave Falls Branch along Hayward Lake is now a walking trail managed by BC Hydro and the District of Mission, with sections of it south of Ruskin Dam used as local powerline and neighbourhood walking trails. Port Moody-Coquitlam The Port Moody-Coquitlam Railway connected the Port Moody-Ioco spur of the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Coquitlam Dam in order to haul supplies and materials to the dam. Alouette Lake
The Bridge River is an 120 kilometres long river in southern British Columbia. It flows south-east from the Coast Mountains. Up until 1961, it was a major tributary of the Fraser River, entering that stream about six miles upstream from the town of Lillooet; the Bridge River hydroelectric complex, operated by BC Hydro, consists of three successive dams, providing water for four hydro power plants with the total rated power of total 492 megawatts. Its name in the Lillooet language is Xwisten, sometimes spelled Nxwisten or Nxo-isten). Dubbed Riviere du Font by Simon Fraser's exploring party in 1808, it was for a while known by the English version of that name, Fountain River, some old maps show it as Shaw's River, after the name of one of Fraser's men; the Bridge River Ocean, an ancient takes its name from the Bridge River. Upstream from Moha the now-dry riverbed runs through the immense gorge of the Bridge River Canyon, which lies downstream from Terzaghi Dam, the principal dam of the Bridge River Power Project.
Terzaghi Dam forms Carpenter Lake, the longest and largest of the power project's reservoirs at about 40 kilometres. Just upstream from Gold Bridge, at the upper end of Carpenter Lake, is Lajoie Dam, which forms Downton Lake, its confluence with the Fraser occurs at a double gorge formed by the two rivers, which are forced through narrow banks at this point and so reminiscent of a fountain (in another version of the name, the surname of one of Fraser's men was du Font, giving the location its name of the Lower Fountains (the Upper Fountains being another few miles upstream on the Fraser, today's community of Fountain The river came to be called the Bridge River due to the location of a bridge across the Fraser at this point a pole-structure built by the native St'at'imc people but replaced at the time of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in 1858 by a white-run tollbridge. Because of the diversion of the river to Seton Lake by Terzaghi Dam and tunnels through Mission Mountain, in that area the south flank of the Bridge, what Bridge River water enters the Fraser now is the flow of one of the Bridge's tributaries, the Yalakom River.
The Yalakom, whose name means'the ewe of the mountain sheep' in the Chilcotin language, was in old times known as the North Fork of the Bridge. The South Fork of the Bridge River is many miles upstream, at the community of Gold Bridge, is today known as the Hurley River. Several other large feeder streams contribute to the diverted flow of the Bridge, including Gun Creek, Tyaughton Creek, Marshall Creek, Cadwallader Creek. Bridge River Power Project harnesses the power of the Bridge River, by diverting it through a mountainside to the separate drainage basin of Seton Lake, utilizing a system of three dams, four powerhouses and a canal; the powerhouses have a maximum generating capacity of 480 MW and an average annual production of 2670 GWh. Development of the system began in 1927 and was completed in 1960; the waters pass through the Lajoie Dam and powerhouse and are diverted through tunnels and penstocks from Carpenter Reservoir to the two powerhouses on Seton Lake Reservoir. Due to the force of the rivers at the Bridge's original confluence into the Fraser, the area has been for millennia the most important inland salmon-fishing site on the Fraser.
The flow of the Bridge River, was near-completely diverted into Seton Lake with the completion of the Bridge River Power Project in 1961, with the water now entering the Fraser River just south of Lillooet as a result. The salmon fishery of the Bridge River was near-entirely destroyed by this diversion, it is along Cadwallader Creek that the major mines of the Bridge River goldfields are located at Bralorne and Pioneer Mine. Other mining towns and camps built around mines in the Bridge River goldfields were Minto City, Congress, Lajoie and Brexton. Around Bralorne other localities such as Ogden grew up along road right-of-ways and slips of land between the mineral claims which dominate the northwestern flank of the Bendor Range in this area, providing services not approved of by company towns, including "sporting houses", some of which were in Gold Bridge until forced to move to Minto as Gold Bridge became larger. Other gold-mining activity is found throughout the river's basin. During the 19th Century, large hydraulic mining operations lined the banks of the river for the thirty kilometres between the community of Moha, at the confluence of the Yalakom and the Bridge.
Gun Creek and Tyaughton Creek jointly drain the south flank of the protected wilderness area known as the Spruce Lake Protected Area, popularly known as the South Chilcotin although the area is not in the Chilcotin, which lies north of it, but in the Chilcotin Ranges. The official designation for the area has changed since it was first proposed for a park in the 1930s, due to the efforts of the prospecting and mining community in the goldfield towns; the protectionist vs. resource extraction battle over that area has raged since that time, names used in debates for the area have included the Charlie Cunningham Wilderness, the Spruce Lake-Eldorado Study Area, the Spruce Lake-Eldorado Management Planning Unit, Southern Chilcotin Mountains Provincial Park, South Chilcotin Provincial Park. In 2007 the name was changed again to the Spruce Lake Protected Area, reflective of the government's downgrading
Karl von Terzaghi
Karl von Terzaghi was an Austrian Mechanical Engineer, geotechnical engineer and geologist known as the "father of soil mechanics". In 1883, he was born the first child of Army Lieutenant-Colonel Anton von Terzaghi, of Italian origin, Amalia Eberle in Prague, in what is now the Czech Republic. Upon his father's retirement from the army, the family moved to Austria. At 10, Terzaghi was sent to a military boarding school, where he developed an interest in astronomy and geography. At age fourteen, Terzaghi entered a different military school, in Hranice, the Crown of Bohemia, he was an excellent student in geometry and mathematics, graduated with honors at 17. In 1900, Terzaghi entered the Technical University in Graz to study mechanical engineering, where he developed an interest in theoretical mechanics, he was nearly expelled at one point but ended up graduating with honors in 1904. Terzaghi fulfilled his compulsory one-year military service. While fulfilling his military obligations, Terzaghi translated and expanded a popular English geology field manual to German.
He returned to the university for one year and combined the study of geology with courses on subjects such as highway and railway engineering. Shortly afterward, he published his first academic paper on the geology of terraces in southern Styria, his first job was as a junior design engineer for Vienna. The firm was becoming more involved in the new field of hydroelectric power generation, Karl became involved in the geological problems the firm faced, his responsibilities increased, by 1908, he was managing a construction site and the design and construction of steel-reinforced structures. He embarked on an challenging project to construct a hydroelectric dam in Croatia, he went on with great success to an more chaotic project in St. Petersburg. For six months in Russia, he developed some novel graphical methods for the design of industrial tanks, which he submitted as a thesis for his PhD at the university, his growing list of achievements began to open more opportunity to him. He resolved to go to the United States, which he did in 1912.
In the United States, on his own, he undertook an engineering tour of major dam construction sites in the West. It was no ordinary tour but his opportunity to gather reports and firsthand knowledge of the problems of many different projects, he used it to the fullest before returning to Austria in December 1913; when World War I broke out, he found himself drafted into the army as an officer directing a 250-man engineering battalion. His responsibilities further increased, to leading 1,000 men, he faced combat in Serbia and witnessed the fall of Belgrade. After a short stint managing an airfield, he became a professor at the Royal Ottoman College of Engineering in Istanbul. There, he began a productive and contented period during which he began his lifelong work of bringing true engineering understanding to soil as an engineering material whose properties could be measured in standardized ways, he set up a laboratory, using only the most rudimentary of equipment, began his revolution. Both his measurements and his analysis of the force on retaining walls were first published in English in 1919, they were recognized as an important new contribution to the scientific understanding of the fundamental behavior of soils.
After the war, he was forced to resign his post at the University but managed to find a new post at Robert College in Istanbul, where he switched his teaching language from French to English and again constructed a laboratory out of the most simple equipment. Now, he studied various experimental and quantitative aspects of the permeability of soils to water and was able to work out some theories to explain the observations, he invented new apparatus for the measurements and put in many long days of work to carry out the measurements himself. In 1924 he published much of it in his Magnum Opus, which revolutionized the field to great acclaim; that resulted in a job offer from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which he accepted. One of his first tasks in the United States was to bring his work to the attention of engineers, he proceeded to do by writing a series of articles for the Engineering News Record, which were published in winter 1925 as a small book in 1926. He had to deal with obstruction from the administration.
Brushing the obstacles aside, he once more set up a new laboratory geared towards making measurements on soils with instruments of his own devising. He entered a new phase of prolific publication and a growing and lucrative involvement as an engineering consultant on many large-scale projects. In 1927, Aurelia Schober Plath, who would become the mother of the poet Sylvia Plath, worked as a secretary for Terzaghi, she was of Austrian descent and worked for him by translating a handwritten manuscript in German, dealing with new principles of soil mechanics. After work, they would have dinner together when Terzaghi's conversation led her to Greek drama, Russian literature, the works of Hermann Hesse, the poems of Rainer Maria Rilke as well as the writings of great world philosophers, she claims the experience affected her for the rest of her life and that she "realized how narrow my world had been and that self-education could be and should be an exciting lifelong adventure. It was the beginning of my dream for the ideal education of the children I hoped some day to have."From 1926 to 1932, Arthur Casagrande, another pioneer of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, worked as Terzaghi's private assistan
Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils. It differs from fluid mechanics and solid mechanics in the sense that soils consist of a heterogeneous mixture of fluids and particles but soil may contain organic solids and other matter. Along with rock mechanics, soil mechanics provides the theoretical basis for analysis in geotechnical engineering, a subdiscipline of civil engineering, engineering geology, a subdiscipline of geology. Soil mechanics is used to analyze the deformations of and flow of fluids within natural and man-made structures that are supported on or made of soil, or structures that are buried in soils. Example applications are building and bridge foundations, retaining walls and buried pipeline systems. Principles of soil mechanics are used in related disciplines such as engineering geology, geophysical engineering, coastal engineering, agricultural engineering and soil physics; this article describes the genesis and composition of soil, the distinction between pore water pressure and inter-granular effective stress, capillary action of fluids in the soil pore spaces, soil classification and permeability, time dependent change of volume due to squeezing water out of tiny pore spaces known as consolidation, shear strength and stiffness of soils.
The shear strength of soils is derived from friction between the particles and interlocking, which are sensitive to the effective stress. The article concludes with some examples of applications of the principles of soil mechanics such as slope stability, lateral earth pressure on retaining walls, bearing capacity of foundations; the primary mechanism of soil creation is the weathering of rock. All rock types may be broken down into small particles to create soil. Weathering mechanisms are physical weathering, chemical weathering, biological weathering Human activities such as excavation and waste disposal, may create soil. Over geologic time buried soils may be altered by pressure and temperature to become metamorphic or sedimentary rock, if melted and solidified again, they would complete the geologic cycle by becoming igneous rock. Physical weathering includes temperature effects and thaw of water in cracks, wind and other mechanisms. Chemical weathering includes dissolution of matter composing a rock and precipitation in the form of another mineral.
Clay minerals, for example can be formed by weathering of feldspar, the most common mineral present in igneous rock. The most common mineral constituent of silt and sand is quartz called silica, which has the chemical name silicon dioxide; the reason that feldspar is most common in rocks but silica is more prevalent in soils is that feldspar is much more soluble than silica. Silt and Gravel are little pieces of broken rocks. According to the Unified Soil Classification System, silt particle sizes are in the range of 0.002 mm to 0.075 mm and sand particles have sizes in the range of 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm. Gravel particles are broken pieces of rock in the size range 4.75 mm to 100 mm. Particles larger than gravel are called boulders. Soil deposits are affected by the mechanism of deposition to their location. Soils that are not transported are called residual soils—they exist at the same location as the rock from which they were generated. Decomposed granite is a common example of a residual soil.
The common mechanisms of transport are the actions of gravity, ice and wind. Wind blown soils include dune loess. Water carries particles of different size depending on the speed of the water, thus soils transported by water are graded according to their size. Silt and clay may settle out in a lake, gravel and sand collect at the bottom of a river bed. Wind blown soil deposits tend to be sorted according to their grain size. Erosion at the base of glaciers is powerful enough to pick up large rocks and boulders as well as soil. Gravity on its own may carry particles down from the top of a mountain to make a pile of soil and boulders at the base; the mechanism of transport has a major effect on the particle shape. For example, low velocity grinding in a river bed will produce rounded particles. Freshly fractured colluvium particles have a angular shape. Silts and gravels are classified by their size, hence they may consist of a variety of minerals. Owing to the stability of quartz compared to other rock minerals, quartz is the most common constituent of sand and silt.
Mica, feldspar are other common minerals present in sands and silts. The mineral constituents of gravel may be more similar to that of the parent rock; the common clay minerals are montmorillonite or smectite and kaolinite or kaolin. These minerals tend to form in sheet or plate like structures, with length ranging between 10−7 m and 4x10−6 m and thickness ranging between 10−9 m and 2x10−6 m, they have a large specific surface area; the specific surface area is defined as the ratio of the surface area of particles to the mass of the particles. Clay minerals have specific surface areas in the range of 10 to 1,000 square meters per gram of solid. Due to the large surface area available for chemical and van der Waals interaction, the mechanical behavior of clay minerals is sensitive to the amount of pore fluid available and the type and amount of dissolved ions in the pore fluid. To