Atlin Lake is the largest natural lake in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The northern tip of the lake is in Yukon. However, most of the lake lies within the Atlin District of British Columbia. Atlin Lake is believed to be the source of the Yukon River although it is drained via the short Atlin River into Tagish Lake; the name comes from Áa Tlein, the Tlingit name meaning "big lake". The community of Atlin, British Columbia, is located on the eastern shore of the lake; the southern part of the lake is in the Atlin Provincial Recreation Area. Atlin Mountain
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada, the United States, parts of Europe including Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany; the company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay referred to as The Bay. Other divisions include Home Outfitters, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue. HBC's head office is located in Brampton, Ontario; the company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "HBC". After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender. During its peak, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English- and British-controlled North America. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a mercantile business selling a wide variety of products from furs to fine homeware in a small number of sales shops across Canada.
These shops were the first step towards the department stores. In 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor. From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson's Bay Trading Company, dissolved in early 2012. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters, in addition to the operations of Lord & Taylor in the United States; the Hudson's Bay Company bought Saks, Inc. in 2013, German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof in 2015, online shopping site Gilt Groupe in 2015, 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites in the Netherlands in 2015. Gilt Groupe was sold to online fashion store Rue La La in 2018. In the 17th century the French had a de facto monopoly on the Canadian fur trade with their colony of New France. Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers, Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
Assuming this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, to reduce the cost of moving furs overland. According to Peter C. Newman, "concerned that exploration of the Hudson Bay route might shift the focus of the fur trade away from the St. Lawrence River, the French governor", Marquis d'Argenson, "refused to grant the coureurs de bois permission to scout the distant territory". Despite this refusal, in 1659 Radisson and Groseilliers set out for the upper Great Lakes basin. A year they returned with premium furs, evidence of the potential of the Hudson Bay region. Subsequently, they were arrested for trading without a licence and fined, their furs were confiscated by the government. Determined to establish trade in the Hudson Bay and Groseilliers approached a group of English colonial businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts to help finance their explorations; the Bostonians agreed on the plan's merits but their speculative voyage in 1663 failed when their ship ran into pack ice in Hudson Strait.
Boston-based English commissioner Colonel George Cartwright learned of the expedition and brought the two to England to raise financing. Radisson and Groseilliers arrived in London in 1665 at the height of the Great Plague; the two met and gained the sponsorship of Prince Rupert. Prince Rupert introduced the two to his cousin, King Charles II. In 1668 the English expedition acquired two ships, the Nonsuch and the Eaglet, to explore possible trade into Hudson Bay. Groseilliers sailed on the Nonsuch, commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson. On 5 June 1668, both ships left port at Deptford, but the Eaglet was forced to turn back off the coast of Ireland; the Nonsuch continued to James Bay, the southern portion of Hudson Bay, where its explorers founded, in 1668, the first fort on Hudson Bay, Charles Fort at the mouth of the Rupert River. Both the fort and the river were named after the sponsor of the expedition, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, one of the major investors and soon to be the new company's first governor.
After a successful trading expedition over the winter of 1668–69, Nonsuch returned to England on 9 October 1669 with the first cargo of fur resulting from trade in Hudson Bay. The bulk of the fur – worth £1,233 – was sold to Thomas Glover, one of London's most prominent furriers; this and subsequent purchases by Glover made. The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson's Bay was incorporated on 2 May 1670, with a royal charter from King Charles II; the charter granted the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay in northern Canada. The area was named "Rupert's Land" after Prince Rupert, the first governor of the company appointed by the King; this drainage basin of Hudson Bay constitutes 1.5 million square miles, comprising over one-third of the area of modern-day Canada and stretches into the present-day north-central United States. The specific boundaries were unknown at the time. Rupert's Land would become Canada's largest land "purchase" in the 19th century.
The HBC established six posts between 1668 and 171
Harrison Lake is the largest lake in the southern Coast Mountains of Canada, being about 250 square kilometres in area. It is about 60 km in length and at its widest 9 km across, its southern end, at the resort community of Harrison Hot Springs, is c. 95 km east of downtown Vancouver. East of the lake are the Lillooet Ranges while to the west; the lake is the last of a series of large north-south glacial valleys tributary to the Fraser along its north bank east of Vancouver, British Columbia. The others to the west are the Chehalis, Alouette and Coquitlam Rivers. At the north end of the lake is a small First Nations community of the In-SHUCK-ch Nation, Port Douglas, known in the St'at'imcets language as Xa'xtsa. There are three hot springs along the shores of the lake or near it, including near Port Douglas, at Clear Creek, a tributary of Silver River, at Harrison Hot Springs. Doctors Point on the lake's northwest shore was a village and Transformer site, with a large rock painting depicting either the spirit of the winds that rule travel on the lake, or a medicine man turned to stone by the Transformer.
As with any large body of water, safe swimming practices should be employed during recreational use at Harrison Lake. The lake may impose a higher risk to recreational users than other BC lakes as it is colder than many of the lakes in the surrounding areas. Harrison Lake was implicated in the deaths of three people in 2015, five total since 2008. There is an initiative underway to post warning signs about the lake's colder water that can impose a hypothermic risk to swimmers who attempt swimming far distances away from the safety of the shore; the main waterflow coming into the lake is the Lillooet River, where there is a small bay named Little Harrison Lake. At the head of this bay was one of British Columbia's main ghost towns, Port Douglas. Halfway down Harrison Lake on its eastern shore is the valley of the Silver River known as the Big Silver River, one of its tributaries being the Little Silver. Opposite Silver River on the west shore of Harrison Lake is Twenty-Mile Bay. Mid-lake between the Silver River and Twenty-Mile Bay is the northern end of the lake's longest and largest island, aptly named Long Island, 9.5 km long, 2.6 km wide.
The other main island of any size in the lake is 2.2 km wide. It is offshore from Harrison Hot Springs, is east of the forested canyon of the Harrison River at the lake's outflow; the Harrison enters the Fraser near the community of Chehalis. Harrison Lake was important in the early history of British Columbia as one of the water links on the Douglas Road, which accessed the goldfields of the upper Fraser during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858-60
Okanagan Lake is a large, deep lake in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The lake is 135 km long, between 4 and 5 km wide, has a surface area of 348 km2. Okanagan Lake is called a fjord lake. Although the lake contains numerous lacustrine terraces, it is not uncommon for the lake to be 100 m deep only 10 m offshore. Major inflows include Mission, Trout, Equesis, Kelowna and Powers Creeks; the lake is drained by the Okanagan River, which exits the lake's south end via a canal through the city of Penticton to Skaha Lake, whence the river continues southwards into the rest of the South Okanagan and through Okanogan County, Washington to its confluence with the Columbia. The lake's maximum depth is 232 metres near Grant Island. There is one other island known as Rattlesnake Island, much farther south by Squally Point; some areas of the lake have up to 750 metres of glacial and post-glacial sediment fill which were deposited during the Pleistocene Epoch. Notable features of the Okanagan Valley include terraces which were formed due to the periodic lowering of the lake's predecessor, glacial Lake Penticton.
These terraces are now used extensively for agriculture such as fruit cultivation. Cities bordering the lake include Vernon in the north, Penticton in the south, Kelowna, as well as the municipalities of Lake Country, West Kelowna and Summerland. Unincorporated communities include Naramata. Various lake features include Squally Point & Fintry Delta on the west side; the five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge, a floating bridge with a high boat passage arch connects Kelowna to the city of West Kelowna and the community of Westbank; this bridge replaced the three-lane floating Okanagan Lake Bridge on May 30, 2008, which had a lift span for passage of large boats. During the early days of settlement and development of the Okanagan region, the lack of roads in the region made the lake a natural corridor for passenger travel and freight; the Canadian Pacific Railway Lake and River Service was the main carrier on the lakes, providing freight and passenger connections between Penticton, on the Kettle Valley Railway and Okanagan Landing for connections to the CPR Mainline at Sicamous via the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway.
Smaller vessels such as the SS Naramata provided passenger service to smaller settlements around the lake, as well as excursions for tourists. SS York SS Okanagan SS Aberdeen SS Sicamous SS Fairview SS Naramata MV Lequime MV Lloyd-Jones - 1950-1960 MV Pendozi SS Kelowna SS Castlegar MV Aricia SS Clovelly MV Grace Darling MV Grace Darling Canadian National Tug no. 6 Canadian National Tug no. 5 MV Kelowna-Westbank MV Skookum MV Skookum MV Rattlesnake MV Trepanier Colleen SS Maude-Moore MV Mallard MV Cygnet SS Red Star SS Jubilee Ruth Shorts SS Mary Victoria Greenhow SS Wanderer Penticton Naramata Peachland Summerland Okanagan Mission Kelowna Okanagan Landing Fintry Carr's Landing Ewing Killiney Beach Many parks and beaches are found along the shores of the lake, which make boating and swimming popular activities. The lake is home to several species including rainbow trout and kokanee, it is said by some to be home to its own lake monster – a giant serpent-like creature named Ogopogo. Okanagan Falls Okanagan people Okanagan Trail List of tributaries of the Columbia River Kelowna Hydrofest Skaha Lake Summerhill Pyramid Winery Bacon Magazine: The Ogo Pogo Okanagan Lake History website Gallery of Okanagan Lake steamboats Media related to Okanagan Lake at Wikimedia Commons
The Stikine River is a river also the Stickeen River 610 km long, in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and in southeast Alaska in the United States. Its Grand Canyon represents, at the top grade in difficulty for a kayak descent. Considered one of the last wild major rivers in British Columbia, it drains a rugged pristine, area east of the Coast Mountains, cutting a fast-flowing course through the mountains in deep glacier-lined gorges to empty into Eastern Passage, just north of the city of Wrangell, situated at the north end of Wrangell Island in the Alexander Archipelago; the meaning is in Smalgyax-Tsimshian and is "Stik'iin" and is a name for the Tahltan people who live up in the rivers interior. They, Tsimshian-Nisga, named the river after the people; the BC Names branch, say its Tlingit meaning is "great river" or "the definitive, or great river" as reported by Captain Rowan of the Boston trader Eliza in 1799. Its Russian name, first reported in Russian was Ryka Stahkin, in 1848, changed to its current form in 1869 after the Alaska Purchase in 1869.
In the wording of that a letter to Secretary Seward, "Purchase of the Russian Possessions in North America by the U. S. A.", a letter from a Mr. Collins, dated 4 April 1867, New York, was St. Francis River, it has been known as Pelly's River, variously spelled Shikene, Stachin, Stah-Keena, Stakeen, Stickienes, Stikin, Sucheen. The Stikine watershed encompasses 52,000 square kilometres; the glacier-laden lower Stikine was compared by naturalist John Muir to Yosemite. The Stikine River arises in the Spatsizi Plateau, the southeasternmost subplateau of the Stikine Plateau, a large and mountainous plateau lying between the Stikine Ranges of the Cassiar Mountains and the Boundary Ranges in northern British Columbia. From there the river flows in a large northward arc turning to the west and southwest, past the gold rush and Tahltan community of Telegraph Creek. Above Telegraph Creek is the spectacular 45-mile -long and 300 m -deep Grand Canyon of the Stikine, the upper end of, in the area of the 130th Line of Longitude.
Below Telegraph Creek, at the head of river navigation during the Stikine and Cassiar Gold Rushes, the river cuts through the Tahltan Highland and in this region are the confluences of the Tuya and Tahltan Rivers. Much farther down, nearer the U. S. border, is the confluence of the Iskut and several other notably large rivers such as the Porcupine and Chutine. After passing Great Glacier and Choquette Hot Springs Provincial Parks and the old border-station at Stikine, British Columbia, it passes through a steeply cut gorge in the Boundary Ranges along the Canada–U. S. Border, above that Grand Canyon of the Stikine, it enters southeast Alaska for its lower 64 km to form a delta opposite Mitkof Island 40 km north of Wrangell. The Stikine's north arm empties into Frederick Sound while its main arm and southern distributaries empty into Sumner Strait and Stikine Strait. Other oceanic bodies of water that are influenced by the Stikine's estuary include the fjord-channel Eastern Passage separating Wrangell Island from the mainland and the shallow tidal Dry Strait separating Mitkof Island from the mainland.
The outlet of the river is now in Alaska, but at the time of the boundary survey in 1901–03 it had been at the boundary. According to the terms of the treaty, as per prior usage by mining and commercial traffic in the Stikine, Canadian marine traffic technically has the right of navigation of this river from the sea, independent of U. S. border controls, but this is no longer in practical effect through disuse and because of the relocation of the river's mouth. The Stikine's main tributaries are, in descending order from its source: Duti River Chukachida River Spatsizi River Pitman River McBride River Klappan River Little Klappan River Tanzilla River Klastline River Tuya River Little Tuya River Tahltan River Little Tahltan River Chutine River Porcupine River Choquette River Scud River Iskut River Little Iskut River Tasakili River The river is navigable for 210 km upstream from its mouth, it was used by the coastal Tlingit as a transportation route to the interior region. The first European to explore the river was Samuel Black, who visited the headwaters during his Finlay River expedition in 1824.
It was more extensively explored in 1838 by Robert Campbell, of the Hudson's Bay Company, completing the last link in the company's transcontinental canoe route. In 1879 the lower third was travelled by John Muir who likened it to "a Yosemite, a hundred miles long". Muir recorded over 300 glaciers along the river's course; the Grand Canyon of the Stikine has been navigated by less than 50 expert whitewater kayakers. It is considered one of the world's most difficult whitewater rivers in that particular section. From 1897 to 1898 it was one of the laborious routes to the Klondike Gold Rush in the Yukon Territory. Several railway schemes were floated to provide an "All Canadian" route to the Dawson goldfields—A Teslin Railway, Omineca Railway, the Canadian Yukon Railway promoted by the CPR. Railway contractors were hired and ready to build the route, though the Federal Senate and American government prevented the 500-mile project from proceeding. Several river steamers were built to haul materials to Glenora to aid the project.
The first road bridge was built across the river in the 1970s as part of the Stewart-Cassiar Highway. In 1978, BC Hydro began to study the feasibility of building a two-dam project on the S
English Bay (Vancouver)
English Bay is located in Vancouver, British Columbia, west of the downtown peninsula and False Creek. It consists of the south side of the Burrard Inlet, extending from Point Grey in the southwest to Prospect Point in the northeast. English Bay Beach, near the city's West End residential neighbourhood, is the most popular sunbathing and sunset-watching beach in the downtown Vancouver area. Other downtown beaches facing English Bay include Sunset Beach, Second Beach, Third Beach. Along the south shore of the bay lie Kitsilano Beach, Jericho Beach, the Spanish Banks beaches, Locarno Beach, while on the North Shore are Ambleside Beach and various smaller cove-beaches in the city of West Vancouver. English Bay beaches are all major tourist attraction to visitors all year long, with the peak season being late summer; the Vancouver Seawall runs all the way around English Bay from Stanley Park in the northeast around False Creek at Point Grey facing the Strait of Georgia in the southwest. This is a favourite destination for walkers, runners and roller-bladers.
English Bay Beach is host to a number of public events. The Celebration of Light is a fireworks competition, held for two weeks every summer. While this competition struggles to secure funding, it has run since 1990 and is the largest off-shore fireworks display in the world; each winter it is the host of Vancouvers' annual Polar Bear Swim and each summer the Vancouver Pride Parade and Festival is held on English Bay Beach. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, English Bay Beach was home to Vancouver's first official lifeguard, the legendary Joe Fortes, who taught hundreds of the city's early residents how to swim, patrolled the beach from his cabin on its shore. Today, the waters of the bay are dotted with hundreds of small pleasure boats, as well as huge freighters waiting at anchor to load cargoes at Vancouver's port; the beach was the site of an oil spill in Vancouver on April 8, 2015. The official cause of the spill has not been confirmed, but at least 2700 litres of "bunker fuel" are known to have escaped from a cargo ship into the bay.
The toxic oil washed up on nearby beaches, creating a slick 15–20 cm thick. At least twenty seabirds were injured or affected by the spill, but the full extent of any environmental and economic damage is unknown at this early stage; the federal government was criticized for its response to the spill, including the delay in notifying the public of the health hazard, by the mayor and premier, environmental scientists, an international shipping expert. Coast Guard officials defended the response, with regional director Assistant Commissioner Roger Girouard saying, "it was exceptional"; the beaches were tested and most were reopened following a ten-day closure. While the water and soil at most of the beaches tested was found not to have harmful levels of oil present, the government cautioned that "small amounts" of oil may remain, urged people to be aware of the possible hazard and avoid contact with any oil; the reopened beaches will continue to be tested and the need for further cleanup assessed as needed.
English Bay Beach Vancouver Polar Bear Swim Club "English Bay". BC Geographical Names
British Columbia Coast
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean. The usage is synonymous with the term West Coast of Canada. In a sense excluding the urban Lower Mainland area adjacent to the Canada–United States border, considered "The Coast," the British Columbia Coast refers to one of British Columbia's three main regions, the others being the Lower Mainland and The Interior; the aerial distance from Victoria on the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Stewart, British Columbia on the Alaska border at the head of the Portland Canal is 965 kilometres in length. However, because of its many deep inlets and complicated island shorelines—and 40,000 islands of varying sizes, including Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii —the total length of the British Columbia Coast is over 25,725 kilometres, making up about 10% of the Canadian coastline at 243,042 kilometres; the coastline's geography, shared with Southeast Alaska and adjoining parts of northwest Washington, is most comparable to that of Norway and its indented coastline of fjords, a landscape found in southern Chile.
The dominant landforms of the BC Coast are the Insular Mountains, comprising most of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, the Coast Mountains, which extend beyond into Alaska and the Yukon. The British Columbia Coast is part of the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. In the system used by Environment Canada, established by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the area is defined as the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. In the geoclimatic zones system used by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests the bulk of the region comprises the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone, although small areas flanking the Strait of Georgia at the coast's southern extremity are classed in the Coastal Douglas-fir zone; the great fjords of the British Columbia Coast rival those of Norway in length and depth but have higher mountain scenery with a more alpine flavour. Many of the islands offshore are much larger than those along the Norwegian coast, many large enough to have major fjords of their own, as well as their own mountain ranges.
This is of course more true of the large islands farther offshore, Vancouver Island and Graham and Moresby Islands in Haida Gwaii, which together form the Insular Mountains, distinct from the Coast Mountains of the mainland. Here are the most important fjords, inlets and sounds, including those important for reasons other than their size, listed south to north: The many fjord-like waterways between the coast and the islands, within the archipelago, cannot be listed here, there are many more others that are not so much fjord-like as flooded valleys between what had been mountain peaks many thousands of years ago, when the shoreline was lower; the waterway route through these islands between Vancouver and Prince Rupert, between Seattle and Alaska, is known as the Inside Passage. It has played a role in U. S.-Canada relations more than once, from the Klondike Gold Rush to the Salmon War of the 1990s. Major and important waterways are: Vancouver Island Haida Gwaii Graham Island Moresby Island Louise Island Lyell Island Kunghit Island Porcher Island Pitt Island McCauley Island Banks Island Gil Island Gribbell Island Hawkesbury Island Princess Royal Island Aristazabal Island Price Island Swindle Island Campbell Island Denny Island Hunter Island King Island Calvert Island Caamano Island Malcolm Island Broughton Archipelago Broughton Island Gilford Island Knight Inlet West/East Cracroft Islands Knight Inlet Hardwicke Island Johnstone Strait Discovery Islands East Thurlow Island West Thurlow Island Sonora Island Maurelle Island Read Island Raza Island Quadra Island Cortes Island East Redonda Island West Redonda Island Hernando Island Stuart Island Rendezvous Islands Nelson Island Northern Gulf Islands: Savary Island Texada Island Lasqueti Island Hornby Island Denman Island The above list ends at the northern Strait of Georgia, the last several forming a group known as the northern Gulf Islands.
The southern Gulf Islands are as follows: Gabriola Island Valdes Island Thetis Island Kuiper Island Saltspring Island Prevost Island Galiano Island Mayne Island North Pender Island South Pender Island Saturna Island Sidney Island James IslandThe Gulf Islands continue southeast across the Haro Straits as the San Juan Islands. The islands of Howe Sound are classed among the southern Gulf Islands, but they adjoin the mainland rather than Vancouver Island and are considered separately, they are: Bowen Island Gambier Island Anvil Island Keats island Bowyer IslandThe islands of the Fraser River estuary are: Barnston Island Lulu Island Sea Island Westham Island Iona Island Deas Island Annacis Island Research from the 1990s has indicated that the Ice Age-era coastline of the British Columbia Coast was lower by about 100 metres. The effect of the waterlevel on the coastline was such that the Queen Charlotte Strait, between Haida Gwaii and the northern end of Vancouver Island, was a coastal plain, as were all the straits inland from it, except for those that were mountain valleys.
Underwater archaeology has shown the presence of permanent human habitations and other activity at the 100-metre contour, the Ice Age existence of such a coastal plain has put a new light on Ice Age populations in North America as well as on the strong likeli