The river Ticino is the most important perennial left-bank tributary of the Po. It has given its name to the Swiss canton; the river rises in the Val Bedretto in Switzerland at the frontier between the cantons of Valais and Ticino, is fed by the glaciers of the Alps and flows through Lake Maggiore, before entering Italy. The Ticino joins the Po a few kilometres downstream from Pavia, it is about 248 kilometres long. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Grenzgipfel, at 4,618 metres. Beneath it flows the Anza River, a right-bank tributary of the Ticino; the river is dammed in Switzerland in order to create hydroelectricity, while in Italy it is used for irrigation. The legendary Gallic leader Bellovesus was said to have defeated the Etruscans here in circa 600 BC. Ticino was the location of the Battle of Ticinus, the first battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio in November 218 BC; the Ticino was in the territory of the Duchy of Milan during much of the medieval and early modern period, although its upper portion as far as Bellinzona in 1500 and as far as the shores of Lago Maggiore in 1513, fell to the Swiss as a result of their campaigns in the Italian Wars.
Val Bedretto, a narrow alpine valley named after the village of Bedretto, culminates in Nufenen Pass, Italian Passo della Novena, at 2,478 m located between Pizzo Gallina and Nufenstock. Through it runs the border between the cantons of Valais and Ticino. A road constructed in 1964 goes over the pass leading to the Rhone river valley on the other side. French is spoken in Valais but near the pass German is spoken; the population of Ticino speaks Italian. The road up the val is straight until it approaches the pass, where it becomes hairpin. On the slope below the first hairpin at about 2,478 m is an area of springs from which the Ticino originates. Subsequently, it becomes a mountain brook flowing straight down the val to the village of All'Acqua or All'Acqua Ospizio at 1,614 m, named for the hospice for travellers located there at the previous end of the road in former centuries, it is a base for skiing and hiking. Below it is Bedretto at 1,402 m; the val is subject to avalanches and snow can remain on the ground as late as September.
Below Bedretto the Ri di Cristallina, "Cristallina stream", comes in from the right at Ossasco, further down Fontana, still in Bedretto. The entire area is laced with hiking trails and mountain huts. Airolo in Switzerland: Bellinzona, Locarno. in Italy: Stresa, Pavia. Photo gallery about the Ticino Valley Natural Park made by a UNESCO photographer
Carl Gustaf Tessin
Carl Gustaf Tessin was a Swedish Count and politician and son of architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock. He was one of the most brilliant personages of his day, the most prominent representative of French culture in Sweden, he was a fine orator. Tessin's art collection became the original core of the collection of Sweden's Nationalmuseum. Carl Gustaf Tessin was born in Stockholm, his father's family were burghers. This genealogy led some to regard him as a social climber compared to real aristocracy. On the other hand, members of his paternal line had shown high talent artistically and aesthetically, he married Ulrika Sparre in 1727. He began his public career in 1723, at which time he was a member of the Holstein faction, which promoted the claims of the young Duke Carl Frederick of Holstein to the Swedish throne. In 1725 Tessin was appointed ambassador at Vienna, in that capacity counteracted the plans of the Swedish chancellor, Count Arvid Horn, for joining the anti-Russian Hanoverian Alliance.
During the riksdags of 1726–27 and 1731, Tessin fiercely opposed the government, his wit and imposing presence made him one of the foremost protagonists of the party subsequently known as "The Hats". From 1735 to 1736 he was again Swedish ambassador at Vienna. During the riksdag of 1738 he was elected marshal of the Riksdag of the Estates and contributed more than anyone else to the overthrow of the Horn administration the same year. Count On the division of the spoil of patronage he chose for himself the post of ambassador extraordinary at Paris, from 1739 to 1742 delighted Versailles with his brilliant qualities of grand seigneur, at the same time renewing the traditional alliance between France and Sweden, interrupted for more than sixty years, his political ability, was by no means commensurate with his splendid social qualities. It was his sanguine credulity which committed the Hats to their rash and unconsidered war with Russia in 1741–42, though in fairness it must be added that Tessin helped them out of their difficulties again by his adroitness as party leader and his stirring eloquence.
He gained his seat in the senate as a reward for his services on this occasion. In 1743 Tessin attempted to reconcile the long outstanding differences between Sweden and Denmark in a special mission to Copenhagen. In 1744 he was sent at the head of an extraordinary embassade to Berlin to escort to Stockholm Frederick the Great's sister, Louisa Ulrika, the chosen bride of the Swedish crown prince, Adolphus Frederick; as överhovmarskalk of the young court, Tessin speedily captivated the royal pair. He succeeded in extricating the crown prince from the influence of the Russian Empress Elizabeth of Russia, to whom Adolphus Frederick owed his throne when he became king of Sweden in 1751, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the independence of Sweden, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1741. From 1746 to 1752 Tessin was president of the chancellery, as the Swedish prime minister was called in those days, his system aimed at a rapprochement with Denmark with the view of counterbalancing the influence of Russia in the north.
It was a dignified and prudent policy, but his endeavour to consolidate it by promoting a matrimonial alliance between the two courts alienated the Swedish crown prince, who, as a Holsteiner, nourished an ineradicable hatred of everything Danish. As, moreover, on the accession of Adolphus Frederick in 1751, Tessin refused to countenance any extension of the royal prerogative, the rupture between him and the court became final. On the occasion of the coronation he resigned the premiership, in 1754 the governorship of the young crown prince Gustavus spending the rest of his days at his estate at Åkerö Manor, where he died, he was given the L’Ordre de l’Harmonie. Carl Gustaf Tessin was an art collector. During his mission in Paris he bought many paintings and drawings, including 2000 drawings from the famous 1741 auction of the former Pierre Crozat collection. Being in debt on his return to Sweden, he was obliged to sell part of his collection to the King Fredrik I, who gave them to Queen Louisa Ulrika.
Part of his art collection is now in the Swedish Nationalmuseum. The collection was on display in New York at the Morgan Library & Museum, "Treasures from the Nationalmuseum of Sweden: The Collections of Count Tessin." Tessin och Tessiniana, autobiographical extracts from Tessin's voluminous manuscript Memoirs in 29 volumes. K. G. Tessins Dagbok, further extracts from the same. En gammal mans bref til en ung Prins, addressed to his pupil, afterwards Gustavus III. Exhibition catalogue, Un Suédois à Paris au XVIIIe siècle - La collection Tessin, Paris, coédition Liénart/Musée du Louvre, 2016. Bellamy Charlotte, Carl Gustav Tessin and Culinary Considerations, Le Monde français du dix-huitième siècle: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, 2016. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Robert Nisbet. "Tessin, Carl Gustaf, Count". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: Robert Nisbet Bain, Gustavus III and his Contemporaries, vol. I. Bernhard von Beskow.
Minne af Grefve K. G. Tessin. Malmström, Bernhard Elis. Sveriges politiska historia från Konung Karl XIIs död till statshvälfningen 1772. "The Art Collection of Carl Gustaf Tessin", Nationalm
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder was an important Swedish architect. Nicodemus Tessin came to Sweden as a young man. There he worked with the architect Simon de la Vallée, he worked for the Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna before he travelled for further studies to Germany, France and in the Netherlands, where he got to know the new Baroque style in architecture. Back in Sweden he rebuilt Borgholm Castle built Skokloster Castle and the Wrangel Palace in Stockholm, his most important work was Drottningholm Palace, now a world heritage site. Upon his death his son Nicodemus Tessin. Borgholm Castle Drottningholm Palace Bonde Palace Skokloster Castle Strömsholm Palace Näsby castle Stenbock Palace Wrangel Palace Bååt Palace Kalmar Cathedral K. Neville, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. Architecture in Sweden in the Age of Greatness, Brepols Publishers, 2009, ISBN 978-2-503-52826-7 Halltorps
Canton of Ticino
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland. Ticino borders the canton of Uri to the north, the canton of Valais to the west, the canton of Graubünden to the northeast, Italy's regions of Piedmont and Lombardy to the south and it surrounds the small Italian enclave of Campione d'Italia. Named after the river Ticino, it is the only canton where Italian is the sole official language and represents the bulk of the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland along with the southern parts of Graubünden; the land now occupied by the canton was annexed from Italian cities in the 15th century by various Swiss forces in the last transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In the Helvetic Republic, established 1798, it was divided between the two new cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano; the creation of the Swiss Confederation in 1803 saw these two cantons combine to form the modern canton of Ticino. The name Ticino was chosen for the newly established canton in 1803, after the Ticino river which flows through it from the Novena Pass to Lake Maggiore.
Known as Ticinus in Roman times, the river appears on the Tabula Peutingeriana as Ticenum. Johann Kaspar Zeuss attributed Celtic origins to the name, tracing it to the Celtic tek, itself from an Indo-European root tak, meaning "melting, flowing". In ancient times, the area of what is today Ticino was settled by a Celtic tribe. Around the rule of Augustus, it became part of the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Western Empire, it was ruled by the Lombards and the Franks. Around 1100 it was the centre of struggle between the free communes of Milan and Como: in the 14th century it was acquired by the Visconti, Dukes of Milan. In the fifteenth century the Swiss Confederates conquered the valleys south of the Alps in three separate conquests. Between 1403 and 1422 some of these lands were annexed by forces from the Canton of Uri, but subsequently lost. Uri conquered the Leventina Valley in 1440. In a second conquest Uri and Nidwalden gained the town of Bellinzona and the Riviera in 1500; some of the land and Bellinzona itself were annexed by Uri in 1419 but lost again in 1422.
The third conquest was fought by troops from the entire Confederation. In 1512 Locarno, the Maggia Valley and Mendrisio were annexed. Subsequently, the upper valley of the Ticino River, from the St. Gotthard to the town of Biasca was part of Uri; the remaining territory was administered by the Twelve Cantons. These districts were governed by bailiffs holding office for two years and purchasing it from the members of the League; the lands of the canton of Ticino are the last lands to be conquered by the Swiss Confederation. The Confederation gave up any further conquests after their defeat at the battle of Marignano in 1515 by Francis I of France; the Val Leventina revolted unsuccessfully against Uri in 1755. In February 1798 an attempt of annexation by the Cisalpine Republic was repelled by a volunteer militia in Lugano. Between 1798 and 1803, during the Helvetic Republic, two cantons were created but in 1803 the two were unified to form the canton of Ticino that joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member in the same year under the Act of Mediation.
During the Napoleonic Wars, many Ticinesi served in Swiss military units allied with the French. The canton minted its own currency, the Ticinese franco, between 1813 and 1850, when it began use of the Swiss franc. In the early 19th century, the contemporary Franco-Danish scholar Conrad Malte-Brun stated that: “The canton of Tesino is the poorest, the people the most ignorant of any in Switzerland; until 1878 the three largest cities, Bellinzona and Locarno, alternated as capital of the canton. In 1878, Bellinzona became the only and permanent capital; the 1870–1891 period saw a surge of political turbulence in Ticino, the authorities needed the assistance of the federal government to restore order in several instances, in 1870, 1876, 1889 and 1890–1891. The current cantonal constitution dates from 1997; the previous constitution modified, was codified in 1830, nearly 20 years before the constitution of the Swiss Confederation. The canton of Ticino is in the south of Switzerland entirely surrounded by Italy.
To the north are the cantons of Valais and Uri, to the northeast the canton of Graubünden. Its area is 2,812 square kilometres, of which about three quarters are considered productive to trees or crops. Forests cover about a third of the area, but the lakes Maggiore and Lugano make up a considerable minority. Lying in the south of the Alps, the canton can be split into two at the Monte Ceneri pass; the northern, highest part, the Sopraceneri, is formed by the two major Swiss valleys around Lake Maggiore: Ticino valley and Maggia valley. The southern part, the Sottoceneri, is the region around Lake Lugano; the Ticino river is the largest river in the canton. It drains most of the canton, flowing from the northwest through the Bedretto valley and the Leventina valley to enter Lake Maggiore near Locarno, its main tributaries are the Brenno in the Blenio valley and the Moesa in the Mesolcina valley in Graubünden. The lands of most of the canton are shaped by the river, which in its mid portion forms a wide valley known a
Nicodemus Tessin the Younger
Count Nicodemus Tessin the Younger was a Swedish Baroque architect, city planner, administrator. The son of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder and the father of Carl Gustaf Tessin, Tessin the Younger was the middle-most generation of the brief Tessin dynasty, which have had a lasting influence on Swedish architecture and history. Tessin was born on May 23, 1654, as the only child of Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, son of the mayor of Stralsund, Maria Svan, daughter of the mayor of Västerås, he showed artistic talents at an early age and was given an education in Mathematics and language at Uppsala, where he must have been influenced by Olaus Rudbeck, at the time engaged in the scientific basis of architecture and botany. In 1673, 19 years old, he accompanied Marchese del Monte, the Emissary of Queen Christina, to Italy and Rome, where the royal protection ensured he would get the best teachers available; these architects, together with the compulsory study of classical monuments, made a lasting impression on Tessin.
Upon his return to Sweden after four years, the Swedish king sent him on a second trip which would last 1677-78 and take him to England and France were prominent architects such as André Le Nôtre and Jean Bérain had a deep impact on Tessin's decorations and gardens. In 1687-88 he traveled back to Sweden through Austria and Germany. During the trip he made extensive notes in a diary describing works of architecture he saw during the journey. Together with his stepbrother Abraham Winands, Tessin took part in his father's work, when Tessin inherited his father's position, he asked to share it with Winands and the two would keep working side by side until the death of Winands in 1709; when Tessin the Elder came to Stockholm, Sweden was still a major European power and Swedish nobility had the funds required to carry through prestigious architectural projects, a situation which changed with the Reduction through which the nobility lost their financial power and found themselves sidestepped by educated public officials who were raised to nobility.
As parts of this latter group, Tessin the Elder was raised to lesser nobility in 1674 and Tessin the Younger became count in 1714. However, the Reduction meant fewer assignments from the nobility, when Tessin the Younger succeeded his father in 1681, his main clients was the church and the royal court, with the many ambitious palaces and gardens of Queen Hedvig Elenora as the most important projects. In the end of the 1680s, King Charles XI commissioned Tessin to modernise the northern part of the Stockholm Palace, why the architect had the opportunity to do a second study tour, including the Netherlands and Italy; this time, however, he was met with great respect all over the continent, he proudly retold the event when King Louis XIV of France had the fountains at the Versailles Palace play upon his visit, a tribute only granted foreign princes. During this trip Tessin met Daniel Cronström who became one of his invaluable colleagues and an important contact on the continent as Tessin's projects in Sweden required him to negotiate with manufacturers and artists abroad.
Their correspondence has proven invaluable for historical research. Upon his return he begun his work on the royal palace, in 1695 his large-scale northern Baroque façade was completed inspired by Bernini's project at the Louvre. Ambitions to further renew the palace first came to a halt as the king died, were given a new perspective as the palace was destroyed by fire in 1697. Tessin was appointed to produce plans for a new palace the day after the fire and he produced a proposal which pleased both the young King Charles XII and his regency. However, as Charles XII left Sweden for his lengthy campaigns on the continent in 1700, works on the palace first progressed and following the devastating Battle of Poltava in 1709 came to a new halt. Though Tessin spent much of his remaining life producing detailed plans for the palace, it remained incomplete by the time for his death. In 1690, Tessin married his mistress Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock, maid of honour of Queen Hedvig Elenora. However, at this time Tessin still belonged to the lesser nobility and his marriage to a woman from the high nobility was regarded as inappropriate.
The marriage therefore had to take place secretly in Pomerania and, to repair the situation, Tessin had to produce a residence in accordance to his wife's status. Works on the Tessin Palace begun in 1694 and progressed but in 1697 Tessin and his family could move in and in 1701, two years after Tessin had been promoted to high nobility, the interior was completed to the extent Tessin could invite the widowed queen and the royal family to a supper. Besides his own palace, the gardens of the Drottningholm Palace and Steninge Palace, both located not far from Stockholm, are pointed out as his greatest achievements. Most of Tessin's projects as an architect were produced during the 17th century, including several churches such the King Charles' Church in Kungsör and the Holy Trinity Church in Karlskrona, many of his proposals never were built. During his life, he played an important role as an administrator and he produced ambitious city plans for Stockholm in connection to his work for the royal palace.
Tessin the Younger was the father of Carl Gustaf Tessin, one of the most influential Swedish politicians of his time. Carl Erik Tessin Hedvig Tessin von Schwerin Ulrika Maria Tessin Sparre, she was the mother of Fredrik Sparre, Lord High Chancellor of Sweden in the 1790
Cieszyn is a border town in southern Poland on the east bank of the Olza River, the administrative seat of Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship. The town has about 36,100 inhabitants, lies opposite Český Těšín in the Czech Republic's Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region. Both towns belonged to the historical region of Austrian Silesia and are the historical capital of the region of Cieszyn Silesia; the town is situated on the Olza river, a tributary of the Oder River, which forms the border with the Czech Republic. It is located within the western Silesian Foothills north of the Silesian Beskids and Mt. Czantoria Wielka, a popular ski resort. Cieszyn is the heart of the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia, the southeasternmost part of Upper Silesia; until the end of World War I in 1918 it was a seat of the Dukes of Teschen. In 1920 Cieszyn Silesia was divided between the two newly created states of Poland and Czechoslovakia, with the smaller western suburbs of Teschen becoming part of Czechoslovakia as a new town called Český Těšín.
The larger part of the town joined Poland as Cieszyn. Three bridges connect the twin towns. After Poland and the Czech Republic joined the European Union and its passport-free Schengen zone, border controls were abolished and residents of both the Polish and Czech part could move across the border; the combined population of Polish and Czech parts of the city is 61,201 inhabitants. Cieszyn is the southern terminus of the Polish National road 1 leading to Gdańsk on the Baltic coast; the town combines both Old -- Austrian peculiarities in the style of its buildings. Because of several major fires and subsequent reconstructions, the picturesque old town is sometimes called Little Vienna; the only relic of the ancient castle is a square tower, dating from the 14th century and 11th century romanesque chapel. The area has been populated by Slavic peoples since at least the 7th century. According to legend, in 810 three sons of a prince – Bolko and Cieszko, met here after a long pilgrimage, found a spring, decided to found a new settlement.
They called it Cieszyn, from the words cieszym się. This well can be found at ulica Trzech Braci, just west of the town square; the town was the capital of the Duchy of Teschen since 1290, ruled by Piast dynasty until 1653 and by the Habsburg Dynasty of Austria to 1918. It was in Teschen that Maria Theresa and Frederick II on in May 1779 signed the Teschen Peace Treaty, which put an end to the War of the Bavarian Succession. In the 19th century Teschen was known for its ethnic and cultural diversity, containing German, Polish and Czech communities. There was a small Hungarian community in the town consisting of officers and clerks; the town was divided in July 1920, by the Spa Conference, a body formed by the Versailles Treaty, leaving a Polish minority on the Czechoslovak side. Its smaller western suburbs became what is now the town of Český Těšín in the Czech Republic. During the interwar period two villages were merged into Cieszyn: Błogocice in 1923 and Bobrek in 1932. After 1920 many ethnic Germans left the town, while many Poles from the Czechoslovakian part of the region moved in.
According to the Polish census of 1921, Cieszyn had 15,268 inhabitants, of whom 9,241 were Poles, 4,777 were Germans, 1014 were Jews, 195 were Czechs. The census from 1931 indicated 14,707 inhabitants, of whom 12,145 were Poles, while the rest consisted of Germans and Jews. Cieszyn and Český Těšín were merged again in October 1938 when Poland annexed the Zaolzie area together with Český Těšín. In 1939 Cieszyn Silesia was occupied by German forces and during World War II it was part of Nazi Germany; the entire Jewish community was murdered by the Nazis. After World War II, the border between Poland and Czechoslovakia was restored to that of 1920. Most Germans fled or were expelled and were replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Signs of the former German presence in the town were obliterated by a special committee. On 19 July 1970, five firefighters from Cieszyn died when a bridge they were on fell into the Olza River, due to heavy flooding. In 1977, Boguszowice, Gułdowy, Krasna, Pastwiska were amalgamated with Cieszyn and Marklowice.
Since the 18th century Cieszyn Silesia has been an important centre of Polish Protestantism when the Jesus Church was built as the only one in Upper Silesia. Cieszyn is the site of the Cieszyn Summer Film Festival, one of the most influential film festivals in Poland. There is an earlier established Czech-Polish-Slovak film festival. Cieszyn is an important centre of the electromechanical industry, it is the site of the Olza Cieszyn sweets factory and the Brackie Browar, where Żywiec Porter is brewed. The main source of income for many citizens is trade with the nearby Czech Republic and retail trade associated with transit across the two bridges over the Olza to Český Těšín. In the past, the city was home to many furniture factories. Romanesque St. Nicholas' Chapel Remnants of the Piast dynasty castle Piast Castle Tower Gothic St. Mary Magdalene Church Old Town Square bourgeoisie houses Town Hall Former minting house Lutheran Church of Jesus Museum of Cieszyn Silesia in the former Larisch family palace (Pałac Laryszów
Tessin is a town in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the river Recknitz, 22 km east of Rostock. Ernst Heydemann, German politician and from 1919 to 1930 mayor and Lord Mayor of the Hansestadt Rostock. Carl Heydemann, the last Lord Mayor in the Hansestadt Stralsund before the takeover of the National Socialists. Roland Methling, Lord Mayor of the Hansestadt Rostock since 2005