Finska Kyrkogränd is a blind alley in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. Leading south from Slottsbacken, the alley separates the Finnish Church from the Tessin Palace, was named after the vicinity to the former, it forms a parallel street to Källargränd. The alley, for long the property of the Crown, used to lead to Trädgårdsgatan, it was excepted from a land donation in 1648 for the construction of the Lilla Bollhuset, a building intended for ball games but used for theatre. This latter building was rebuilt into the Finnish Church in 1725, as the Finnish parish enlarged the building, the alley became a blind alley periodically sealed off. List of streets and squares in Gamla stan Bollhustäppan hitta.se - location map and virtual walk
Slottsbacken is a street in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. It stretches east from the Stockholm Cathedral and the Royal Palace down to the street Skeppsbron which passes along the eastern waterfront of the old town. In the western end, the alley Källargränd leads south to the square Stortorget, while Storkyrkobrinken extends Slottsbacken west beyond the cathedral and Högvaktsterrassen, down to the square Riddarhustorget. On the southern side of Slottsbacken, three alleys connect to the interior throng of the old town: On either side of the Tessin Palace are Finska Kyrkogränd and Bollhusgränd, while Österlånggatan begins in the low-lying eastern part of the slope; the street, named after the vicinity to the Royal Palace, first appears in historical records during the second half of the 15th century, from early on the name designated not only the slope down to the waterfront, but the open space above it. The present palace, designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and built in 1697-1760, was preceded by the Medieval castle Tre kronor, continuously rebuilt during it existence and was destroyed by fire in 1697.
South of this older building was in medieval times a slope consisting of sand and gravel, deliberately left unbuilt for defensive purposes. Wider than the present slope, it stretched further south to the royal stables, the kitchen gardens, the butchers stalls on the opposite side. In 1520, the burghers of the city were requested to relocate their stables and piggeries from the "Stable Slope" to the hills surrounding the city. New defensive walls were built around the royal palace during the 16th century on the expense of the open area surrounding it, defensive constructions outdated in the early 17th century. By the end of the 17th century, the slope had been transformed into an narrow street squeezed between the wide moat of the palace and the variegated structures lined-up on the southern side. Parts of the five metres deep moat was furnished with a superstructure; as the new palace was being built, the slope was redesigned to become the palace's grand-style Baroque antechamber, the structures and gardens on the southern side were replaced by more prestigious buildings in stone.
While the exterior of the Palace was more or less completed in the 1750s, the work on the slope, the palace's main approach, was still proceeding by the end of that century. Though the four façades of the Royal Palace are all built in brick and bound by a unitary programme, they are all given distinctive designs in accordance to their various functions; the southern façade, representing the Nation and concealing the Royal Chapel and the Rikssal, is facing the palace's main approach and is the most pompous of the four. It is dominated by a Roman triumphal arch composition dressed in limestone and furnished with six war trophies, four abduction scenes by Bouchardon, 16 reliefs displaying mythological scenes; the balustrade over the central part was intended to be furnished with a series of sculptures. While the tall central portion, 115 metres wide, is flanked by a 48 metres long eastern wing, the corresponding western wing is limited to a mere 11 metres, as the original plans of the architect to demolish the Medieval cathedral were ignored.
The statues in the eight niches, dating from 1899–1902, depict prominent Swedes from the late 17th century: Dahlbergh, M. Stenbock, Polhem, Adelcrantz and von Dalin; the five sections of the eastern façade of the Stockholm Cathedral reflects the three original, medieval nave and aisles and the flanking two aisles. The marble statue of Olaus Petri, dating from 1897 and carved by Theodore Lundberg, celebrates the reformer who, inspired by studies in Germany paid by King Gustav Vasa, translated the Bible to Swedish and had a crucial role in the development of the Swedish language, he is buried in it. In the cobbled pavement between the cathedral and the palace are two markings showing the location of the south-west bastion of the medieval palace and the eastern sanctuary of the medieval church destroyed by King Gustav Vasa to give the cannons of the palace more aiming space. Built in 1910 to the design of Erik Josephson, the tall building on number 2 was much criticized as it replaced a lower building, the concave façade of which made the space in front of the palace wider and more prominent, the'tenement Baroque' it represented was regarded as objectionable for the royal setting.
The building is, occupied by the Royal Household. In respect to the vicinity to the royal palace and as a consequence of the irregularly shaped lot, the discreet three-story façade of the private palace of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, unveils little of the elaborated Baroque garden in the interior court; the lime stone portal by Ferdinand Foucquet, one of the most prominent monumental sculptors of the Swedish Baroque era, gives an inviting hint of the richly decorated interior. The façade was flanked by two walls perpendicular to the façade; the building is today the residence of the county governor of Stockholm. Finland was a part of Sweden until 1809, the national parish of the Finnish Church was established in Stockholm in 1533, at the time accommodated in the old abbey of the Blackfriars. A building constructed on the present site 1648-1653 intended for ball games, thus called Lilla bollhuset, but used as a theatre, was taken over by the Finnish parish in 1725 from w
Stockholm Palace or the Royal Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. Stockholm Palace is located in Gamla stan in the capital, Stockholm, it neighbours the Riksdag building. The offices of the King, the other members of the Swedish Royal Family, the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden are located here; the palace is used for representative purposes by the King whilst performing his duties as the head of state. This royal residence has been in the same location by Norrström in the northern part of Gamla stan in Stockholm since the middle of the 13th century when the Tre Kronor Castle was built. In modern times the name relates to the building called Kungliga Slottet; the palace was designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and erected on the same place as the medieval Tre Kronor Castle, destroyed in a fire on 7 May 1697. Due to the costly Great Northern War which started in 1700, construction of the palace was halted in 1709, not recommenced until 1727—six years after the end of the war.
When Tessin the Younger died in 1728, the palace was completed by Carl Hårleman who designed a large part of its Rococo interior. The palace was not ready to use until 1754, when King Adolf Frederick and Queen Louisa Ulrika moved in, but some interior work proceeded until the 1770s. No major conversions have been done in the palace since its completion, only some adjustments, new interiors and redecorating for different regents and their families, coloration of the facades and addition of the palace museums; the palace is surrounded by the Lejonbacken and the Norrbro to the north, the Logården and Skeppsbron in the east, the Slottsbacken and the Storkyrkan in the south, the outer courtyard and Högvaktsterrassen in the northwest. As of 2009 the interior of the palace consists of 1,430 rooms; the palace contains apartments for the Royal families and festivities such as the State Apartments, the Guest Apartments and the Bernadotte Apartments. More features are the Hall of State, the Royal Chapel, the Treasury with the Regalia of Sweden and the Tre Kronor Museum located in the remaining cellar vaults from the former castle.
The National Library of Sweden was housed in the northeast wing, the Biblioteksflygeln, until 1878. As of 2014 it houses the Bernadotte Library; the Slottsarkivet is housed in the Chancery Wing. In the palace are the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden, a place of work for 200 employees; the Royal Guards have guarded the palace and the Royal Family since 1523. A comprehensive renovation of the facade began in 2011, to repair weather damaged parts made from sandstone; the repairs are estimated to cost 500 million crowns over a period of 22 years. The Royal Palace is owned by the Swedish State through the National Property Board of Sweden, responsible for running and maintaining the palace, while the Ståthållarämbetet manages the royal right of disposition of the palace; the first building on this site was a fortress with a core tower built in the 13th century by Birger Jarl to defend Lake Mälaren. The fortress grew to a castle named Tre Kronor for the core tower's spire top decorated with three crowns.
At the beginning of the 17th century, King Gustavus Adolphus made plans for a new royal palace. The plans came to naught, but in 1651, his daughter Queen Christina appointed Jean de la Vallée to Architect for the Royal castles and among his commissions was to make suggestions for how to improve and update the Tre Kronor Castle. Contemporaneous copperplates from 1654 shows de la Vallée’s idea of a more visible castle on a raised plateau with a connecting bridge over the Norrström. Queen Christina remodelled and embellished the existing castle extensively, but no new castle was built during her reign. From 1650 to 1660, Jean de la Vallée made suggestions for large conversions of the castle, but it was not until 1661, when Nicodemus Tessin the Elder became City Architect and Architect for the Royal castles, that more substantial plans for a new castle were made. In 1661, he presented the first draft for a conversion of the northern row which his son, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, would rework and realise in 1692 to 1696.
A map of the Stadsholmen from the 1650s, illustrates de la Vallées suggestion for the conversion of the old castle. The project brought about an adjustment of the Slottsbacken, making it enclosed by buildings. Of interest are Tessin the Younger's additions in pencil on that map made at the end of the 17th century. There is an early sketch for the northern facade's west wing and the two curved wings enclosing the outer courtyard. Tessin the Younger made plans for the city area west of the palace with large stairs in false perspective where the Axel Oxenstierna palace, among other buildings and joining the Västerlånggatan in addition to a wide street to the present Mynttorget, straight though the city block with the present Brantingtorget, he had envisioned a line of sight from the center of westwards to the Riddarholmen. The northern row of the present palace was built in 1692, in just five months as a part of the old Tre Kronor castle; the new row had the same austere Baroque style that still remain, contrasting with the rest of the Renaissance castle.
At an early stage of the conversion in the 1690s, a number of elderly Swedish artists such as David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl and Johan Sylvius, were still alive and they contributed with ar
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Bollhusgränd is an alley in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. Named after Bollhuset, a historical theatre, it connects Slottsbacken to Köpmantorget, as Baggensgatan extends the alley further south beyond Köpmangatan, together they form a parallel street to Österlånggatan and Själagårdsgatan; the alley is named after its vicinity to the two royal ball game buildings constructed in 1627-1792 and 1648–53, the bigger of the two used as a theatre from 1667 and torn down in 1792-93, the smaller transformed into the Finnish Church in 1725 and still existent. In 1648 the alley was known as Donat Apotechars grend in reference to a Donat Deutschman living on the south-eastern-most corner house facing the square Köpmantorget. On the north-west side of the street is the Tessin Palace, on the opposite corner is the Royal Coin Cabinet. On the latter location was until 1903 a restaurant called Skomakare-Källaren, Café & Restaurant known as one of the best eating houses in town and decorated with a coffered ceiling, tiled stove, the symbol of the shoemaker's guild, a silver shoe with a jingle on the toecap.
The restaurant was preceded by another called Drufvan renamed to Draken. The restaurant is today part of the museum of the Royal Coin Cabinet. Together with Baggensgatan, Bollhusgränd used to run along the interior of the eastern city wall, from the open space surrounding the castle Three Crowns south to the Blackfriars monastery. While the northern end of the alley is narrow, it widens where the carriages and horses of Tessin entered their palace on the alley's east side; the Baroque portal on Number 3A indicates the building was the private palace of the councillor Per Banér, as it displays his and his wife's coat of arms together with two lions. List of streets and squares in Gamla stan Bollhustäppan Media related to Bollhusgränd at Wikimedia Commons hitta.se - Location map and virtual walk Stockholmskällan - Historical photos
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Governor of Stockholm
The Governor of Stockholm was the head of the Office of the Governor of Stockholm, as such he was the highest Swedish State official overseeing the affairs in the City of Stockholm between 1634 and 1967. The Governor was the equivalent in Stockholm of a county governor elsewhere in Sweden; the Governor was reported to the King in Council. The Office of the Governor of Stockholm was instituted by the Instrument of Government of 1634, written by Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, which uniformly delineated the civil state administration of Sweden into Counties and the Office of the Governor of Stockholm. While Stockholm County was established in 1714, the city itself was not included until 1968, when the Office of the Governor of Stockholm was abolished and the duties of it was handed over to the Governor of Stockholm County. Counties of Sweden County Governors of Sweden Governor-General in the Swedish Realm Marshal of the Realm