Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best-known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours is a spin-off of DuPont, which discovered the compound in 1938. Another popular brand name of PTFE is Syncolon® by Synco Chemical Corporation. PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high molecular weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for other cookware, it is nonreactive because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, so it is used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction and energy consumption of machinery, it is used as a graft material in surgical interventions.
It is frequently employed as coating on catheters. PTFE was accidentally discovered in 1938 by Roy J. Plunkett while he was working in New Jersey for DuPont; as Plunkett attempted to make a new chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant, the tetrafluoroethylene gas in its pressure bottle stopped flowing before the bottle's weight had dropped to the point signaling "empty." Since Plunkett was measuring the amount of gas used by weighing the bottle, he became curious as to the source of the weight, resorted to sawing the bottle apart. He found the bottle's interior coated with a waxy white material, oddly slippery. Analysis showed that it was polymerized perfluoroethylene, with the iron from the inside of the container having acted as a catalyst at high pressure. Kinetic Chemicals patented the new fluorinated plastic in 1941, registered the Teflon trademark in 1945. By 1948, DuPont, which founded Kinetic Chemicals in partnership with General Motors, was producing over two million pounds of Teflon brand PTFE per year in Parkersburg, West Virginia.
An early use was in the Manhattan Project as a material to coat valves and seals in the pipes holding reactive uranium hexafluoride at the vast K-25 uranium enrichment plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In 1954, Collette Grégoire, the wife of French engineer Marc Grégoire urged him to try the material he had been using on fishing tackle on her cooking pans, he subsequently created the first non-stick pans under the brandname Tefal. In the United States, Marion A. Trozzolo, using the substance on scientific utensils, marketed the first US-made PTFE-coated pan, "The Happy Pan", in 1961. However, Tefal was not the only company to utilize PTFE in nonstick cookware coatings. In subsequent years, many cookware manufacturers developed proprietary PTFE-based formulas, including Swiss Diamond International, which uses a diamond-reinforced PTFE formula. Other cookware companies, such as Meyer Corporation's Anolon, use Teflon nonstick coatings purchased from Chemours. Chemours is a 2015 corporate spin-off of DuPont.
In the 1990s, it was found that PTFE could be radiation cross-linked above its melting point in an oxygen-free environment. Electron beam processing is one example of radiation processing. Cross-linked PTFE has improved radiation stability; this was significant because, for many years, irradiation at ambient conditions has been used to break down PTFE for recycling. This radiation-induced chain scission allows it to be more reground and reused. PTFE is produced by free-radical polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene; the net equation is n F2C=CF2 → −n−Because tetrafluoroethylene can explosively decompose to tetrafluoromethane and carbon, special apparatus is required for the polymerization to prevent hot spots that might initiate this dangerous side reaction. The process is initiated with persulfate, which homolyzes to generate sulfate radicals: 2− ⇌ 2 SO4•−The resulting polymer is terminated with sulfate ester groups, which can be hydrolyzed to give OH end-groups; because PTFE is poorly soluble in all solvents, the polymerization is conducted as an emulsion in water.
This process gives a suspension of polymer particles. Alternatively, the polymerization is conducted using a surfactant such as PFOS. PTFE is a thermoplastic polymer, a white solid at room temperature, with a density of about 2200 kg/m3. According to Chemours, its melting point is 600 K, it maintains high strength and self-lubrication at low temperatures down to 5 K, good flexibility at temperatures above 194 K. PTFE gains its properties from the aggregate effect of carbon-fluorine bonds, as do all fluorocarbons; the only chemicals known to affect these carbon-fluorine bonds are reactive metals like the alkali metals, at higher temperatures such metals as aluminium and magnesium, fluorinating agents such as xenon difluoride and cobalt fluoride. The coefficient of friction of plastics is measured against polished steel. PTFE's coefficient of friction is 0.05 to 0.10, the third-lowest of any known solid material. PTFE's resistance to van de
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous form. It differs from traditional glasses in containing no other ingredients, which are added to glass to lower the melt temperature. Fused silica, has high working and melting temperatures. Although the terms fused quartz and fused silica are used interchangeably, the optical and thermal properties of fused silica are superior to those of fused quartz and other types of glass due to its purity. For these reasons, it finds use in situations such as semiconductor fabrication and laboratory equipment, it transmits ultraviolet better than other glasses, so is used to make lenses and optics for the ultraviolet spectrum. The low coefficient of thermal expansion of fused quartz makes it a useful material for precision mirror substrates. Fused quartz is produced by fusing high-purity silica sand. There are four basic types of commercial silica glass: Type I is produced by induction melting natural quartz in a vacuum or an inert atmosphere.
Type II is produced by fusing quartz crystal powder in a high-temperature flame. Type III is produced by burning SiCl4 in a hydrogen-oxygen flame. Type IV is produced by burning SiCl4 in a water vapor-free plasma flame. Quartz contains only silicon and oxygen, although commercial quartz glass contains impurities; the most dominant impurities are titanium. Melting is effected at 1650°C using either an electrically heated furnace or a gas/oxygen-fuelled furnace. Fused silica can be made from any silicon-rich chemical precursor using a continuous process which involves flame oxidation of volatile silicon compounds to silicon dioxide, thermal fusion of the resulting dust; this results in a transparent glass with an ultra-high purity and improved optical transmission in the deep ultraviolet. One common method involves adding silicon tetrachloride to a hydrogen–oxygen flame, but this precursor results in environmentally unfriendly byproducts including chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Fused quartz is transparent.
The material can, become translucent if small air bubbles are allowed to be trapped within. The water content is determined by the manufacturing process. Flame-fused material always has a higher water content due to the combination of the hydrocarbons and oxygen fuelling the furnace, forming hydroxyl groups within the material. An IR grade material has an content of <10 parts per million. Most of the applications of fused silica exploit its wide transparency range, which extends from the UV to the near IR. Fused silica is the key starting material for optical fiber, used for telecommunications; because of its strength and high melting point, fused silica is used as an envelope for halogen lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps, which must operate at a high envelope temperature to achieve their combination of high brightness and long life. Vacuum tubes with silica envelopes allowed for radiation cooling by incandescent anodes; because of its strength, fused silica was used in deep diving vessels such as the bathysphere and benthoscope.
Fused silica is used to form the windows of manned spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The combination of strength, thermal stability, UV transparency makes it an excellent substrate for projection masks for photolithography, its UV transparency finds uses in the semiconductor industry. EPROMs are recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window which sits on top of the package, through which the silicon chip is visible, which permits exposure to UV light during erasing. Due to the thermal stability and composition, it is used in semiconductor fabrication furnaces. Fused quartz has nearly ideal properties for fabricating first surface mirrors such as those used in telescopes; the material behaves in a predictable way and allows the optical fabricator to put a smooth polish onto the surface and produce the desired figure with fewer testing iterations. In some instances, a high-purity UV grade of fused quartz has been used to make several of the individual uncoated lens elements of special-purpose lenses including the Zeiss 105mm f/4.3 UV Sonnar, a lens made for the Hasselblad camera, the Nikon UV-Nikkor 105mm f/4.5 lens.
These lenses are used for UV photography, as the quartz glass has a lower extinction rate than lenses made with more common flint or crown glass formulas. Fused quartz can be metallised and etched for use as a substrate for high-precision microwave circuits, the thermal stability making it a good choice for narrowband filters and similar demanding applications; the lower dielectric constant than alumina allows thinner substrates. Fused quartz is the material used for modern glass instruments such as the glass harp and the verrophone, is used for new builds of the historical glass harmonica. Here, the superior strength and structure of fused quartz gives it a greater dynamic range and a clearer sound than the used lead crystal. Fused silica as an industrial raw material is used to make various refractory shapes such as crucibles, trays and rollers for many high-temperature thermal processes including steelmaking, investment casting, glass manufacture. Refractory shapes made from fused silica hav
The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium; the melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is specified at a standard pressure such as 1 atmosphere or 100 kPa. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point; because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. When the "characteristic freezing point" of a substance is determined, in fact the actual methodology is always "the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice", that is, the melting point. For most substances and freezing points are equal. For example, the melting point and freezing point of mercury is 234.32 kelvins. However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures.
For example, agar melts at 85 °C and solidifies from 31 °C. The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is close to 0 °C. In the presence of nucleating substances, the freezing point of water is not always the same as the melting point. In the absence of nucleators water can exist as a supercooled liquid down to −48.3 °C before freezing. The chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3,414 °C; the often-cited carbon does not melt at ambient pressure but sublimes at about 3,726.85 °C. Tantalum hafnium carbide is a refractory compound with a high melting point of 4215 K. At the other end of the scale, helium does not freeze at all at normal pressure at temperatures arbitrarily close to absolute zero. Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points. A Kofler bench is a metal strip with a temperature gradient. Any substance can be placed on a section of the strip, revealing its thermal behaviour at the temperature at that point. Differential scanning calorimetry gives information on melting point together with its enthalpy of fusion.
A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window and a simple magnifier. The several grains of a solid are placed in a thin glass tube and immersed in the oil bath; the oil bath is heated and with the aid of the magnifier melting of the individual crystals at a certain temperature can be observed. In large/small devices, the sample is placed in a heating block, optical detection is automated; the measurement can be made continuously with an operating process. For instance, oil refineries measure the freeze point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process and measured automatically; this allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected and taken to a remote laboratory. For refractory materials the high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer. For the highest melting materials, this may require extrapolation by several hundred degrees.
The spectral radiance from an incandescent body is known to be a function of its temperature. An optical pyrometer matches the radiance of a body under study to the radiance of a source, calibrated as a function of temperature. In this way, the measurement of the absolute magnitude of the intensity of radiation is unnecessary. However, known temperatures must be used to determine the calibration of the pyrometer. For temperatures above the calibration range of the source, an extrapolation technique must be employed; this extrapolation is accomplished by using Planck's law of radiation. The constants in this equation are not known with sufficient accuracy, causing errors in the extrapolation to become larger at higher temperatures. However, standard techniques have been developed to perform this extrapolation. Consider the case of using gold as the source. In this technique, the current through the filament of the pyrometer is adjusted until the light intensity of the filament matches that of a black-body at the melting point of gold.
This establishes the primary calibration temperature and can be expressed in terms of current through the pyrometer lamp. With the same current setting, the pyrometer is sighted on another black-body at a higher temperature. An absorbing medium of known transmission is inserted between this black-body; the temperature of the black-body is adjusted until a match exists between its intensity and that of the pyrometer filament. The true higher temperature of the black-body is determined from Planck's Law; the absorbing medium is removed and the current through the filament is adjusted to match the filament intensity to that of the black-body. This establishes a second calibration point for the pyrometer; this step is repeated to carry the calibration to hi
A copolymer is a polymer derived from more than one species of monomer. The polymerization of monomers into copolymers is called copolymerization. Copolymers obtained by copolymerization of two monomer species are sometimes called bipolymers; those obtained from three and four monomers are called quaterpolymers, respectively. There are many commercially relevant copolymers; some examples include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, styrene/butadiene co-polymer, nitrile rubber, styrene-acrylonitrile, styrene-isoprene-styrene and ethylene-vinyl acetate, all formed by chain-growth polymerization. Another production mechanism is step-growth polymerization, used to produce the nylon-12/6/66 copolymer of nylon 12, nylon 6 and nylon 66, as well as the copolyester family. Since a copolymer consists of at least two types of constituent units, copolymers can be classified based on how these units are arranged along the chain. Linear copolymers consist of a single main chain, include alternating copolymers, statistical copolymers and block copolymers.
Branched copolymers consist of a single main chain with one or more polymeric side chains, can be grafted, star shaped or have other architectures. The reactivity ratio of a growing copolymer chain terminating in a given monomer is the ratio of the reaction rate constant for addition of the same monomer and the rate constant for addition of the other monomer; that is, r 1 = k 11 k 12 and r 2 = k 22 k 21, where for example k 12 is the rate constant for propagation of a polymer chain ending in monomer 1 by addition of monomer 2. The composition and structural type of the copolymer depend on these reactivity ratios r1 and r2 according to the Mayo–Lewis equation called the copolymerization equation or copolymer equation, for the relative instantaneous rates of incorporation of the two monomers. D d = Block copolymers comprise two or more homopolymer subunits linked by covalent bonds; the union of the homopolymer subunits may require an intermediate non-repeating subunit, known as a junction block.
Block copolymers with two or three distinct blocks are called diblock copolymers and triblock copolymers, respectively. Technically, a block is a portion of a macromolecule, comprising many constitutional units, that has at least one feature, not present in the adjacent portions. A possible sequence of repeat units A and B in a triblock copolymer might be ~A-A-A-A-A-A-A-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-A-A-A-A-A~. Block copolymers are made up of blocks of different polymerized monomers. For example, polystyrene-b-poly or PS-b-PMMA is made by first polymerizing styrene, subsequently polymerizing methyl methacrylate from the reactive end of the polystyrene chains; this polymer is a "diblock copolymer". Triblocks, multiblocks, etc. can be made. Diblock copolymers are made using living polymerization techniques, such as atom transfer free radical polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, ring-opening metathesis polymerization, living cationic or living anionic polymerizations. An emerging technique is chain shuttling polymerization.
The synthesis of block copolymers requires that both reactivity ratios are much larger than unity under the reaction conditions, so that the terminal monomer unit of a growing chain tends to add a similar unit most of the time. The "blockiness" of a copolymer is a measure of the adjacency of comonomers vs their statistical distribution. Many or most synthetic polymers are in fact copolymers, containing about 1-20% of a minority monomer. In such cases, blockiness is undesirable. A block index has been proposed as a quantitative measure of blockiness or deviation from random monomer composition. An alternating copolymer has regular alternating A and B units, is described by the formula: -A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-, or -n-; the molar ratio of each monomer in the polymer is close to one, which happens when the reactivity ratios r1 and r2 are close to zero, as can be seen from the Mayo–Lewis equation. For example, in the free-radical copolymerization of
A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Due to their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, their large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The terms polymer and resin are synonymous with plastic; the term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς and μέρος, refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis. Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, polymer science. Products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science. Polyisoprene of latex rubber is an example of a natural/biological polymer, the polystyrene of styrofoam is an example of a synthetic polymer. In biological contexts all biological macromolecules—i.e. Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g. Isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecules and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.
The simplest theoretical models for polymers are ideal chains. Polymers are of two types: occurring and synthetic or man made. Natural polymeric materials such as hemp, amber, wool and natural rubber have been used for centuries. A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, the main constituent of wood and paper; the list of synthetic polymers in order of worldwide demand, includes polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, synthetic rubber, phenol formaldehyde resin, nylon, polyacrylonitrile, PVB, many more. More than 330 million tons of these polymers are made every year. Most the continuously linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists of carbon atoms. A simple example is polyethylene. Many other structures do exist. Oxygen is commonly present in polymer backbones, such as those of polyethylene glycol, DNA. Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. During the polymerization process, some chemical groups may be lost from each monomer.
This happens in the polymerization of PET polyester. The monomers are terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol but the repeating unit is —OC—C6H4—COO—CH2—CH2—O—, which corresponds to the combination of the two monomers with the loss of two water molecules; the distinct piece of each monomer, incorporated into the polymer is known as a repeat unit or monomer residue. Laboratory synthetic methods are divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization; the essential difference between the two is that in chain growth polymerization, monomers are added to the chain one at a time only, such as in polyethylene, whereas in step-growth polymerization chains of monomers may combine with one another directly, such as in polyester. Newer methods, such as plasma polymerization do not fit neatly into either category. Synthetic polymerization reactions may be carried out without a catalyst. Laboratory synthesis of biopolymers of proteins, is an area of intensive research. There are three main classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides and polynucleotides.
In living cells, they may be synthesized by enzyme-mediated processes, such as the formation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase. The synthesis of proteins involves multiple enzyme-mediated processes to transcribe genetic information from the DNA to RNA and subsequently translate that information to synthesize the specified protein from amino acids; the protein may be modified further following translation in order to provide appropriate structure and functioning. There are other biopolymers such as rubber, suberin and lignin. Occurring polymers such as cotton and rubber were familiar materials for years before synthetic polymers such as polyethene and perspex appeared on the market. Many commercially important polymers are synthesized by chemical modification of occurring polymers. Prominent examples inclu
The density, or more the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most used for density is ρ, although the Latin letter D can be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: ρ = m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, V is the volume. In some cases, density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume, although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials have different densities, density may be relevant to buoyancy and packaging. Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but certain chemical compounds may be denser. To simplify comparisons of density across different systems of units, it is sometimes replaced by the dimensionless quantity "relative density" or "specific gravity", i.e. the ratio of the density of the material to that of a standard material water.
Thus a relative density less than one means. The density of a material varies with pressure; this variation is small for solids and liquids but much greater for gases. Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object and thus increases its density. Increasing the temperature of a substance decreases its density by increasing its volume. In most materials, heating the bottom of a fluid results in convection of the heat from the bottom to the top, due to the decrease in the density of the heated fluid; this causes it to rise relative to more dense unheated material. The reciprocal of the density of a substance is called its specific volume, a term sometimes used in thermodynamics. Density is an intensive property in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density. In a well-known but apocryphal tale, Archimedes was given the task of determining whether King Hiero's goldsmith was embezzling gold during the manufacture of a golden wreath dedicated to the gods and replacing it with another, cheaper alloy.
Archimedes knew that the irregularly shaped wreath could be crushed into a cube whose volume could be calculated and compared with the mass. Baffled, Archimedes is said to have taken an immersion bath and observed from the rise of the water upon entering that he could calculate the volume of the gold wreath through the displacement of the water. Upon this discovery, he leapt from his bath and ran naked through the streets shouting, "Eureka! Eureka!". As a result, the term "eureka" entered common parlance and is used today to indicate a moment of enlightenment; the story first appeared in written form in Vitruvius' books of architecture, two centuries after it took place. Some scholars have doubted the accuracy of this tale, saying among other things that the method would have required precise measurements that would have been difficult to make at the time. From the equation for density, mass density has units of mass divided by volume; as there are many units of mass and volume covering many different magnitudes there are a large number of units for mass density in use.
The SI unit of kilogram per cubic metre and the cgs unit of gram per cubic centimetre are the most used units for density. One g/cm3 is equal to one thousand kg/m3. One cubic centimetre is equal to one millilitre. In industry, other larger or smaller units of mass and or volume are more practical and US customary units may be used. See below for a list of some of the most common units of density. A number of techniques as well as standards exist for the measurement of density of materials; such techniques include the use of a hydrometer, Hydrostatic balance, immersed body method, air comparison pycnometer, oscillating densitometer, as well as pour and tap. However, each individual method or technique measures different types of density, therefore it is necessary to have an understanding of the type of density being measured as well as the type of material in question; the density at all points of a homogeneous object equals its total mass divided by its total volume. The mass is measured with a scale or balance.
To determine the density of a liquid or a gas, a hydrometer, a dasymeter or a Coriolis flow meter may be used, respectively. Hydrostatic weighing uses the displacement of water due to a submerged object to determine the density of the object. If the body is not homogeneous its density varies between different regions of the object. In that case the density around any given location is determined by calculating the density of a small volume around that location. In the limit of an infinitesimal volume the density of an inhomogeneous object at a point becomes: ρ = d m / d V, where d V is an elementary volume at position r; the mass of the body t
Daikin Industries, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational air conditioning manufacturing company headquartered in Osaka. It has operations in Japan, Philippines, India, Southeast Asia, North America, South America. Daikin is the inventor of variable refrigerant volume systems and an innovator in the split system air conditioning market. Daikin codeveloped a R-410A refrigerant with Carrier. Daikin Industries Ltd was founded in 1924 as Osaka Kinzoku Kogyosho LP by Akira Yamada. In 1953, Daiflon or polychlorotrifluoroethylene was developed. In 1963 the company was developed Neoflon. In 1982 it was renamed to the current Daikin Industries Ltd. In 1993, Sekai was founded as a electric home appliances maker. Sekai grew to become a competitor to Daikin, but was acquired by Daikin in December 2016. Daikin entered the North American air conditioning market in 2004. In 2006, Daikin Industries acquired McQuay International, a Minneapolis, MN based global corporation that designs and sells commercial and institutional heating and air conditioning products, in November of the same year, purchased OYL Industries.
These acquisitions made Daikin Industries, a major global HVAC manufacturer, rivaling Carrier Corporation in total number of products produced, total dollar volume and worldwide territory coverage. In 2008, McQuay International was re-branded as Daikin-McQuay as Daikin began implementing many of its technologies and manufacturing processes into McQuay equipment and factories. However, in November 2013, the Daikin-McQuay group was again re-branded as Daikin Applied, ending 80 years of business for the McQuay name. In 2008 Daikin purchased a 75 % share of All World Machinery Supply based in Illinois. Daikin developed the hybrid hydraulic systems using technology from their Air Conditioning division. Facing the global demands on CO2 reductions and the serious energy issues facing the world, this product aims to cut energy consumption in the manufacturing sector; as of 2009, Daikin Airconditioning Philippines is established. As of April 2014, Daikin Hydraulics marketed a line of piston pumps, vane pumps, manual pumps, solenoid valves, flow and control valves claiming their pump technology to be 50–70 percent more energy efficient than conventional technology.
In August 2012 Daikin agreed to acquire Goodman Global from the San Francisco-based private equity firm Hellman & Friedman for $3.7 billion, after first planning to buy Goodman the previous year. In January 2011, Daikin had announced plans to buy Goodman Global at US $4 billion valuation, the plans were put off following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami The acquisition was expected to expand Daikin's presence in the United States and in duct-type and split-system air-conditioners, was expected to make Daikin the world's largest maker of heating and air-conditioning systems. In December, 21, 2016, Sekai was acquired by Daikin. In a Daikin-Panasonic War which happened in June, 17, 2016, Sekai was selected by Daikin, as a neutral company. PT. Tripacific Electrindo, as a maker of Sekai products, was renamed into PT. Daikin-Sekai Eco Solutions. In 2017, Daikin opened the Daikin Texas Technology Park, its largest plant and the fifth largest factory in the world. Costing $417 million, this 4.1 million square-foot facility in Hockley, Texas will consolidate Goodman's manufacturing operations.
Daikin is the official sponsor of Belgian soccer team Club Brugge and of Galatasaray Daikin women's volleyball team. Daikin is the official sponsor of Indian Premier League cricket team Delhi Capitals. Daikin is organised into the following divisions, offering the following products: Air Conditioning Residential air conditioners Residential air purifiers Commercial-use air conditioners Commercial-use air purifiers Humidity-adjusting external air-processing units Large-sized chillers Marine container refrigeration units Marine vessel air conditioners Chemicals Fluorocarbons Fluoroplastics Fluoro coatings Fluoroelastomers Fluorinated oils Oil- and water-repellent products Mold release agents Pharmaceuticals and intermediates Semiconductor-etching products Dry air suppliers Air Filtration Oil Hydraulics Industrial hydraulic equipment and systems Mobile hydraulic equipment Centralized lubrication equipment and systems Defense Systems Ammunition Warheads Warheads for guided missiles Grenades and other military explosives Fuses Aircraft parts Fire extinguishers for aircraft engines Medical equipment Rebreathers and similar equipment Home-use oxygen therapy equipment Electronics business System management of product development process Facility design CAD software Molecular chemistry software For quite some time, Daikin Industries Ltd has been doing business with independent dealers in Africa.
However, in 2006, Daikin merged the UAE with the East African market by creating Daikin Middle East and Africa. In January 20, 2017, they sponsored the DAIKIN PREMIER LEAGUE - Season 7. In August 2016, Daikin Industries Ltd opened a functional headquarters in Cairo, Egypt. Daikin Cairo is yet another move for the company to establish business in Africa. Plans are underway to open more headquarters. Official website"Company history books". Shashi Interest Group. April 2016. Wiki collection of bibliographic works on DaikinDaikin in IndonesiaDaikin-Sekai Eco Solutions