Tetrahydrocannabinol is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis. THC is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. With chemical name -trans-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol, the term THC refers to cannabinoid isomers. Like most pharmacologically-active secondary metabolites of plants, THC is a lipid found in cannabis, assumed to be involved in the plant's self-defense, putatively against insect predation, ultraviolet light, environmental stress. THC, along with its double bond isomers and their stereoisomers, is one of only three cannabinoids scheduled by the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, it was listed under Schedule I in 1971, but reclassified to Schedule II in 1991 following a recommendation from the WHO. Based on subsequent studies, the WHO has recommended the reclassification to the less-stringent Schedule III. Cannabis as a plant is scheduled by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, it is still listed under Schedule I by US federal law under the Controlled Substances Act for having "no accepted medical use" and "lack of accepted safety".
However, dronabinol is a synthetic form of THC approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy. The pharmaceutical formulation dronabinol is an oily resin provided in capsules available by prescription in the United States, Canada and New Zealand. THC is an active ingredient in Nabiximols, a specific extract of Cannabis, approved as a botanical drug in the United Kingdom in 2010 as a mouth spray for people with multiple sclerosis to alleviate neuropathic pain, overactive bladder, other symptoms. Nabiximols is available as a prescription drug in Canada; the actions of THC result from its partial agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor CB1, located in the central nervous system, the CB2 receptor expressed in cells of the immune system. The psychoactive effects of THC are mediated by the activation of cannabinoid receptors, which result in a decrease in the concentration of the second messenger molecule cAMP through inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
The presence of these specialized cannabinoid receptors in the brain led researchers to the discovery of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glyceride. THC targets receptors in a manner far less selective than endocannabinoid molecules released during retrograde signaling, as the drug has a low cannabinoid receptor efficacy and affinity. In populations of low cannabinoid receptor density, THC may act to antagonize endogenous agonists that possess greater receptor efficacy. THC is a lipophilic molecule and may bind non-specifically to a variety of entities in the brain and body, such as adipose tissue. Due to its partial agonistic activity, THC appears to result in greater downregulation of cannabinoid receptors than endocannabinoids, further limiting its efficacy over other cannabinoids. While tolerance may limit the maximal effects of certain drugs, evidence suggests that tolerance develops irregularly for different effects with greater resistance for primary over side-effects, may serve to enhance the drug's therapeutic window.
However, this form of tolerance appears to be irregular throughout mouse brain areas. THC, as well as other cannabinoids that contain a phenol group, possesses mild antioxidant activity sufficient to protect neurons against oxidative stress, such as that produced by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. THC is metabolized to 11-OH-THC by the body; this metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. In humans and animals, more than 100 metabolites could be identified, but 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH are the dominating metabolites. Metabolism occurs in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4. More than 55 % of THC is excreted in ≈ 20 % in the urine; the main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces 11-OH-THC was detected. In 1940, cannabidiol was isolated and identified from Cannabis sativa, THC was isolated and described for its structure and synthesis in 1964; as with many aromatic terpenoids, THC has a low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents lipids and alcohols.
A total synthesis of the compound was reported in 1965. In the Cannabis plant, THC occurs as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid react, catalysed by an enzyme to produce cannabigerolic acid, cyclized by the enzyme THC acid synthase to give THCA. Over time, or when heated, THCA is decarboxylated, producing THC; the pathway for THCA biosynthesis is similar to that which produces the bitter acid humulone in hops. The Median lethal dose of THC in humans is not known. A 1972 study gave up to 9000 mg/kg of THC to monkeys without any lethal effects; some rats died within 72 hours after a dose of up to 3600 mg/kg. THC and its 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH metabolites can be detected and quantified in blood, hair, oral fluid or sweat using a combination of immunoassay and chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or in a forensic investigation. Recreational use of cannabis is legal in many parts of North America, increasing the demand for THC monitoring methods in both personal and law enforcement uses.
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"Kabira" is a Hindi song from the 2013 Bollywood film, Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani. Composed by Pritam Chakraborty, the song is sung by Rekha Bhardwaj and Tochi Raina, with lyrics by Amitabh Bhattacharya; the music video of the track focuses on actors Ranbir Kapoor, Deepika Padukone and Kalki Koechlin. An encore version of the same song was released as part of the film soundtrack, rendered by Arijit Singh and Harshdeep Kaur; the song is composed by Pritam. The song is a soothing melody with a Sufi touch in a mix of rustic and western tunes; the song is shot at several locations from Rajasthan, cinematography for the video is done by V. Manikandan, it is produced by Arijit Singh who rendered the encore version of the same song. Singh produced another track from the film, titled "Balam Pichkari", sung by Vishal Dadlani and Shalmali Kholgade. Regarding his association in the song as a music producer, Singh stated; that time helped me in becoming a better musician". In an interview with NDTV, Deepika Padukone picked the song as one of her favourite songs from the film and said it is the only song she "constantly heard on loop".
The music video of the encore version of the song is focused on the wedding preparations of Kalki Koechlin, while the music video of the original version focuses on the relationship of Padukone and Ranbir Kapoor, along with the wedding ceremony of Koechlin with Kunaal Roy Kapur and Kapoor's dream to wander and discover the world. The released promotional music video features Kapoor through snippets from the song "Ilahi"; the encore version of the song has a more Punjabi touch to it and has been accompanied with many Hindustani musical instruments like dhol, sitar, shehnai being used to create the desired effect. In the version, the female lyrics are changed and relates to a girl's marriage where her family describes their state of mind as she is leaving the home and moving to her sasural; the song was released digitally as a part of the soundtrack of film on 29 April 2013. The music video of the song was released on 4 May 2013, through the YouTube channel of T-Series, it was the last original song released from the film.
The song was ranked at position 3, in the list of "Best Songs of 2013" published by Bollywood Spice on 25 December 2013. In an interview with Hindustan Times actor Arshad Warsi chose the song as "one song that describes his current state of mind". Harshdeep Kaur picked the song as one the Sufi songs she loves the most, while lyricist Swanand Kirkire picked the lyrics by Amitabh Bhattacharya in the song as one of his most favourites. Bollywood Hungama's Rajiv Vijayakar wrote: "Tochi Raina gives it his all and the end guitar in relentless mode is fabulous. Rekha Bhardwaj is in customary comfort zone in a mix of raags and rock". Writing for Koimoi, Mohar Basu praising the song as "mesmerizingly beautiful", felt "Bhardwaj's voice glistens brilliantly with Tochi Raina's". Reviewers from IBNLive praising the vocals by Raina and its "liberating music" stated: "It's a kind of song that grows on you. Not a long number, it keeps the essence of the song intact". Sankhayan Ghosh of The Indian Express reacted positively to the song.
Writing for Koimoi, Mohar Basu thought the version "works as well as its original" and stated: "Kabira’s subtle essence and Harshdeep’s indomitable voice overpowers the melody of the track". Similar sentiments were echoed by Sankhayan Ghosh of The Indian Express. Reviewers from IBNLive felt the version is better than the original and further elaborated: "Set in the backdrop of a wedding, it is blissfully rhythmic and beautiful.". However, Bollywood Hungama's Rajiv Vijayakar found Singh's rendition in the song "mechanical" and concluded that the version "does not impress as much". Arijit Singh performed the song live in a duet with Harshdeep Kaur on 28 September 2013, at "Dubai Music Week's Bollywood Night" concert, it was one of the songs Singh performed during his concert at "Xpressions", organised by Xavier Institute of Management in Bhubaneswar and held on 10 November 2013. Singh performed the song in a live concert held at Radisson Blu Water Garden Hotel at Dhaka on 4 April 2014. Singh performed the song as his final performance in his series of "Arijit Singh Live in Concert – Tum Hi Ho" at the City Amphitheatre, Qurum on 19 October 2014.
Apart from the Omen concert, he used the song as his ending act during the concert he held in the parking lot of Inorbit Mall in Malad, on 19 December 2014 and the concert at Emaar Boulder Hills in the city on 27 December 2014. Apart from the vocalists of the song, it was performed by Deepika Padukone in her act from 20th Annual Life OK Screen Awards, along with "Titli", "Nagada Sang Dhol" and "Ang Lagade". Original Motion Picture Soundtrack"Kabira" – 3:44 "Kabira" – 4:29
IBF Falun is a floorball club based in Falun, Sweden. Both the men's and women's teams play in the Svenska Superligan; the men's team proceeded to win in 2014 and 2015 as well. During these successful years, IBF Falun men's team won three straight Champions Cup golds. Home games are played in the IBF Falun Arena, inaugurated 2005, under the name FaluKuriren Arena, has a current capacity of 2400 spectators; the arena is situated in Lugnet in Falun, the main venue for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2015. Men's team as of 21 March 2016 National team caps as of 22 March 2016 Women's team as of 21 March 2016 National team caps as of 22 March 2016 http://www.ibffalun.com IBF Falun's official web site