Eugen Baumann was a German chemist. He was one of the first people to create polyvinyl chloride, together with Carl Schotten, he discovered the Schotten-Baumann reaction. Baumann was born in Cannstatt, now part of Stuttgart. After he attended a gymnasium in Stuttgart, he was educated in the pharmacy of his father. During his time in Stuttgart, he attended the lectures of Hermann von Fehling at the University of Stuttgart. To broaden his education, he went to Gothenburg to work in pharmacies there, he studied pharmacy at the University of Tübingen. He received his PhD in 1872 for work with Felix Hoppe-Seyler, he followed Hoppe-Seyler to the University of Straßburg where did his habilitation in 1876. The same year, Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond offered him a position as the Head of the Chemistry Department of the Institute of Physiology in Berlin. In 1882, Baumann became professor of medicine at that institute, subsequently obtained professor position at the University of Freiburg. In 1895, he took over the management of Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie with Albrecht Kossel.
From 1883 till his death, Baumann was married to Theresa Kopp, the daughter of chemist Hermann Kopp, they had five children. He died at the age of 49 due to a heart problem; the organosulfur compounds of the urine were his starting point into the physiological chemistry. He identified the source for aromatic compounds in urine being the aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine, he influenced the organosulfur chemistry by the synthesis of thioketals. These substances were subsequently used for example for anesthesia. Together with his coworkers, he was able to prove that thyroxine was the active ingredient in the thyroid gland. During his work at the physiological institute, together with Carl Schotten, discovered a method to synthesize amides from amines and acid chlorides.
Hypnotic or soporific drugs known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia, or for surgical anesthesia. This group is related to sedatives. Whereas the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep; because these two functions overlap, because drugs in this class produce dose-dependent effects they are referred to collectively as sedative-hypnotic drugs. Hypnotic drugs are prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders, with over 95% of insomnia patients being prescribed hypnotics in some countries. Many hypnotic drugs are habit-forming and, due to a large number of factors known to disturb the human sleep pattern, a physician may instead recommend changes in the environment before and during sleep, better sleep hygiene, the avoidance of caffeine or other stimulating substances, or behavioral interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia before prescribing medication for sleep.
When prescribed, hypnotic medication should be used for the shortest period of time necessary. Among individuals with sleep disorders, 13.7% are taking or prescribed nonbenzodiazepines, while 10.8% are taking benzodiazepines, as of 2010. Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fallen out of use in most practices but are still prescribed for some patients. In children, prescribing hypnotics is not yet acceptable unless used to treat night terrors or somnambulism. Elderly people are more sensitive to potential side effects of daytime fatigue and cognitive impairments, a meta-analysis found that the risks outweigh any marginal benefits of hypnotics in the elderly. A review of the literature regarding benzodiazepine hypnotics and Z-drugs concluded that these drugs can have adverse effects, such as dependence and accidents, that optimal treatment uses the lowest effective dose for the shortest therapeutic time period, with gradual discontinuation in order to improve health without worsening of sleep.
Falling outside the above-mentioned categories, the neuro-hormone melatonin has a hypnotic function. Hypnotica was a class of somniferous drugs and substances tested in medicine of the 1890s and including: Urethan, Methylal, paraldehyde, Hypnon and Ohloralamid or Chloralimid. Research about using medications to treat insomnia evolved throughout the last half of the 20th century. Treatment for insomnia in psychiatry dates back to 1869 when chloral hydrate was first used as a soporific. Barbiturates emerged as the first class of drugs that emerged in the early 1900s, after which chemical substitution allowed derivative compounds. Although the best drug family at the time they were dangerous in overdose and tended to cause physical and psychological dependence. During the 1970s, quinazolinones and benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to replace barbiturates. Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks. Questions have been raised as to. Nonbenzodiazepines are the most recent development.
Although it's clear that they are less toxic than their predecessors, comparative efficacy over benzodiazepines have not been established. Without longitudinal studies, it is hard to determine. Other sleep remedies that may be considered "sedative-hypnotics" exist. Examples of these include mirtazapine, clonidine and the over-the-counter sleep aid diphenhydramine. Off-label sleep remedies are useful when first-line treatment is unsuccessful or deemed unsafe. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia, they are effective as anxiolytics and anticonvulsalgesic effects. They have dependence liability, both psychological. Barbiturates have now been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice – for example, in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia – because benzodiazepines are less dangerous in overdose. However, barbiturates are still used in general anesthesia, for epilepsy, assisted suicide.
Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid. The principal mechanism of action of barbiturates is believed to be positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. Examples include amobarbital, phenobarbital and sodium thiopental. Quinazolinones are a class of drugs which function as hypnotic/sedatives that contain a 4-quinazolinone core, their use has been proposed in the treatment of cancer. Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, etaqualone, mebroqualone and methaqualone. Benzodiaz
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
Regulation of therapeutic goods
The regulation of therapeutic goods, drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia; the role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered. There is some degree of restriction of the availability of certain therapeutic goods depending on their risk to consumers. Modern drug regulation has historical roots in the response to the proliferation of universal antidotes which appeared in the wake of Mithridates' death. Mithridates had brought together physicians and shamans to concoct a potion that would make him immune to poisons.
Following his death, the Romans became keen on further developing the Mithridates potion's recipe. Mithridatium re-entered western society through multiple means; the first was through the Leechbook of the Bald, written somewhere between 900 and 950, which contained a formula for various remedies, including for a theriac. Additionally, theriac became a commercial good traded throughout Europe based on the works of Greek and Roman physicians; the resulting proliferation of various recipes needed to be curtailed in order to ensure that people were not passing off fake antidotes, which led to the development of government involvement and regulation. Additionally, the creation of these concoctions took on ritualistic form and were created in public and the process was observed and recorded, it was believed that if the concoction proved unsuccessful, it was due to the apothecaries’ process of making them and they could be held accountable because of the public nature of the creation. In the 9th century, many Muslim countries established an office of the hisba, which in addition to regulating compliance to Islamic principles and values took on the role of regulating other aspects of social and economic life, including the regulation of medicines.
Inspectors were appointed to employ oversight on those who were involved in the process of medicine creation and were given a lot of leigh weigh to ensure compliance and punishments were stringent. The first official'act', the'Apothecary Wares and Stuffs' Act was passed in 1540 by Henry VIII and set the foundation for others. Through this act, he encouraged physicians in his College of Physicians to appoint four people dedicated to inspecting what was being sold in apothecary shops. In conjunction with this first piece of legislation, there was an emergence of standard formulas for the creation of certain ‘drugs’ and ‘antidotes’ through Pharmacopoeias which first appeared in the form of a decree from Frederick II of Sicily in 1240 to use consistent and standard formulas; the first modern pharmacopoeias were the Florence Pharmacopoeia published in 1498, the Spanish Pharmacopoeia published in 1581 and the London Pharmacopoeia published in 1618. In the United States, regulation of drugs was a state right, as opposed to federal right.
But with the increase in fraudulent practices due to private incentives to maximize profits and poor enforcement of state laws, increased the need for stronger federal regulation. President Roosevelt signed the Federal Food and Drug Act in 1906 which established stricter standards. A 1911 Supreme Court decision, United States vs. Johnson, established that misleading statements were not covered under the FFDA; this directly led to Congress passing the Sherley Amendment which established a clearer definition of ‘misbranded’. Another key catalyst for advances in drug regulation were certain catastrophes that served as calls to the government to step in and impose regulations that would prevent repeats of those instances. One such instance occurred in 1937 when more than a hundred people died from using sulfanilamide elixir which had not gone through any safety testing; this directly led to the passing of the Federal, Food and Cosmetic Act in 1938. One other major catastrophe occurred in the late 1950s when Thalidomide, sold in Germany and sold around the world, led to 100,000 babies being born with various deformities.
The UK's Chief Medical Officer had established a group to look into safety of drugs on the market in 1959 prior to the crisis and was moving in the direction of address the problem of unregulated drugs entering the market. The crisis created a greater sense of emergency to establish safety and efficacy standards around the world; the UK started a temporary Committee on Safety of Drugs while they attempted to pass more comprehensive legislation. Though compliance and submission of drugs to the Committee on Safety of Drugs was not mandatory after, the pharmaceutical industry larger complied due to the thalidomide situation; the European Economic Commission passed a directive in 1965 in order to impose greater efficacy standards before marketing a drug. The United States congress passed the Drug Amendments Act of 1962 The Drug Amendments Act required the FDA to ensure that new drugs being introduced to the market had passed certain tests and standards. Both the EU and US acts introduced the requirements to ensure efficacy.
Of note, increased regulations and standards for testing led to greater innovation in pharm
A drug is any substance that, when inhaled, smoked, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body. In pharmacology, a drug is a chemical substance of known structure, other than a nutrient of an essential dietary ingredient, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect. A pharmaceutical drug called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being. Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more also by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. Pharmaceutical drugs are classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action, a related mode of action, that are used to treat the same disease; the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, the most used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system.
Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their permeability or absorption properties. Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous system, altering perception, mood or consciousness, they include alcohol, a depressant, the stimulants nicotine and caffeine. These three are the most consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide and are considered recreational drugs since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes. Other recreational drugs include hallucinogens and amphetamines and some of these are used in spiritual or religious settings; some drugs can cause addiction and all drugs can have side effects. Excessive use of stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition. In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue" deriving into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.
The transitive verb "to drug" arose and invokes the psychoactive rather than medicinal properties of a substance. A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition; the use may be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Dispensing of medication is regulated by governments into three categories—over-the-counter medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions. In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist; these medications are designated by the letter P on the label. The range of medicines available without a prescription varies from country to country. Medications are produced by pharmaceutical companies and are patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them; those that are not patented are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.
Pharmaceutical drugs are categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action, the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses; the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, the most used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System; this groups drugs according to their permeability or absorption properties. Some religions ethnic religions are based on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogens, which are hallucinogens,—psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants; some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant, a sedative, a euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a drink, consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean; some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine within" to achieve religious ecstasy.
Amazonian shamans use ayahuasca a hallucinogenic brew for this purpose. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum a psychoactive plant, its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions. Silene undulata is used as an entheogen, its root is traditionally used to induce vivid lucid dreams during the initiation process of shamans, classifying it a occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia. Peyote a small spineless cactus has been a
An anesthetic or anaesthetic is a drug used to induce anesthesia - in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness. They may be divided into two broad classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body without affecting consciousness. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are used outside anesthesiology, but others are used in various fields of healthcare. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects. Adverse effects, may be increased. Anesthetics are distinct from analgesics. Local anesthetic agents prevent transmission of nerve impulses without causing unconsciousness, they act by reversibly binding to fast sodium channels from within nerve fibers, thereby preventing sodium from entering the fibres, stabilising the cell membrane and preventing action potential propagation.
Each of the local anesthetics have the suffix "-caine" in their names. Local anesthetics can be either ester- or amide-based. Ester local anesthetics are unstable in solution and fast-acting, are metabolised by cholinesterases in the blood plasma and liver, more induce allergic reactions. Amide local anesthetics are heat-stable, with a long shelf life. Amides have a slower onset and longer half-life than ester anesthetics, are racemic mixtures, with the exception of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine. Amides are used within regional and epidural or spinal techniques, due to their longer duration of action, which provides adequate analgesia for surgery and symptomatic relief. Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine has local anesthetic properties, in addition to its opioid effects. Desflurane Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Xenon Volatile agents are specially formulated organic liquids that evaporate into vapors, are given by inhalation for induction or maintenance of general anesthesia.
Nitrous oxide and xenon are gases at room temperature rather than liquids, so they are not considered volatile agents. The ideal anesthetic vapor or gas should be non-flammable, non-explosive, lipid-soluble, it should possess low blood gas solubility, have no end-organ toxicity or side-effects, should not be metabolized, should not be an irritant to the respiratory pathways of the patient. No anaesthetic agent in use meets all these requirements, nor can any anaesthetic agent be considered safe. There are inherent risks and drug interactions that are specific to every patient; the agents in widespread current use are isoflurane, desflurane and nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is a common adjuvant gas, making it one of the most long-lived drugs still in current use; because of its low potency, it cannot produce anesthesia on its own but is combined with other agents. Halothane, an agent introduced in the 1950s, has been completely replaced in modern anesthesia practice by newer agents because of its shortcomings.
Because of its side effects, enflurane never gained widespread popularity. In theory, any inhaled anesthetic agent can be used for induction of general anesthesia. However, most of the halogenated anesthetics are irritating to the airway leading to coughing and overall difficult inductions. For this reason, the most used agent for inhalational induction is sevoflurane. All of the volatile agents can be used alone or in combination with other medications to maintain anesthesia. Volatile agents are compared in terms of potency, inversely proportional to the minimum alveolar concentration. Potency is directly related to lipid solubility; this is known as the Meyer-Overton hypothesis. However, certain pharmacokinetic properties of volatile agents have become another point of comparison. Most important of those properties is known as the blood/gas partition coefficient; this concept refers to the relative solubility of a given agent in blood. Those agents with a lower blood solubility give the anesthesia provider greater rapidity in titrating the depth of anesthesia, permit a more rapid emergence from the anesthetic state upon discontinuing their administration.
In fact, newer volatile agents have been popular not due to their potency, but due to their versatility for a faster emergence from anesthesia, thanks to their lower blood–gas partition coefficient. While there are many drugs that can be used intravenously to produce anesthesia or sedation, the most common are: Barbiturates Amobarbital Methohexital Thiamylal Thiopental Benzodiazepines Diazepam Lorazepam Midazolam Etomidate Ketamine PropofolThe two barbiturates mentioned above and methohexital, are ultra-short-acting, are used to induce and maintain anesthesia. However, though they produce unconsciousness, they provide no analgesia and must be used with other agents. Benzodiazepines
Alfred Kast was a German internist. He studied medicine at the Universities of Heidelberg and Leipzig, earning his doctorate in 1879, he served as an assistant to Wilhelm Heinrich Erb in Heidelberg, Julius Friedrich Cohnheim in Leipzig, from 1881 was a clinical assistant to Christian Bäumler at Freiburg. Here he worked in the physiological-chemical institute. In 1886, he became an associate professor, followed by a directorship at Eppendorf Hospital in Hamburg, he 1892. Kast was instrumental in introducing the sulphonal group of drugs into medicine, his name is associated with "Kast’s syndrome", a condition synonymous to Mafucci syndrome. With surgeon Theodor Rumpel, he was co-author of an illustrated patho-anatomical atlas called: Pathologisch-anatomische Tafeln nach frischen Präparaten mit erläuterndem anatomisch-klinischem Text. Other works by Kast include: Ueber die Wirkung des Acetphenetidins. Written with chemist Oscar Hinsberg. Centralblatt für die medicinischen Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1887, 25: 145-148.
On the introduction of phenacetin. Sulfonal, ein neues Schlafmittel. Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 1888, 25: 309-314. On the introduction of sulphonal, earlier discovered by Eugen Baumann. Alfred Kast @ Who Named It