Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid is a neighborhood of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, located on the south bank of the Nieuwe Maas opposite the center of town. The district is young and includes the Wilhelmina Pier as well as the V bounded by the Rose Street and railway line on one side and the Rotterdam-Dordrecht Hilledijk, Hill Street and Rijnhaven on the other; the Kop van Zuid is built on old, abandoned port areas around the Binnenhaven, Spoorweghaven and the Wilhelmina Pier. These port sites and the Nieuwe Maas made for a large physical distance between the center and north of the Maas and southern Rotterdam. By converting this area into an urban area, providing better infrastructure, planners sought to unite the northern and southern parts of the city. De Rotterdam Entrepotgebouw Poortgebouw Havana Hotel New York Erasmusbrug Wilhelminahof: Court and Tax Toren op Zuid Hogeschool Inholland De Peperklip World Port Center Luxor Theater Montevideo De Compagnie New Orleans Maastoren De Baltimore Media related to Kop van Zuid at Wikimedia Commons
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Zeewolde is a municipality and a town in the Flevoland province in the central Netherlands. It has a population of 20,000, it is situated in the polder of Flevoland with the small lake called the Wolderwijd to the east. To the south is a large deciduous forest called the Horsterwold; the area to the west is principally agricultural. Zeewolde is known for its nature art. Edinburgh Rugby players and brothers Tim and Sep Visser come from Zeewolde. In the wood Hulkesteinse Bos there is the nudist resort Flevo-Natuur, with recreation bungalows, a camp site, the possibility of day recreation; the municipality of Zeewolde was founded in 1984 and is therefore one of the youngest in the Netherlands. Before 1984, the area was administrated by the Openbaar Lichaam Zuidelijke IJsselmeerpolders, founded by the Dutch national government after the province of Flevoland was created; the name'Zeewolde' was always meant to be on various locations. Zeewolde's first inhabitants were the so-called'pioneers', moving in from the'old land' to the newly created polder in 1979.
They were farmers and in the beginning stages deprived of amenities such as electricity or tap water. The planned village was mostly meant to provide services to the neighbouring farmers. Alongside the farmers, two holiday resorts were founded in the area. In August 1980, the Zeewolde advisory board, headed by Han Lammers, at the time the head of the OLZIJ, met for the first time. In February 1982, municipal elections were held and the first streekplan was drawn, envisaging the village to grow to 15.000 inhabitants. The actual village itself was started in 1983, after which in 1984 Zeewolde became a municipality in its own right. On 23 February 1984, the official first inhabitant of the village of Zeewolde was handed the keys of his house. Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Zeewolde, Sept. 2014. There are no railway stations in the municipality, but the nearest stations are Harderwijk and the stations in Almere. There are busconnections to the stations in Harderwijk and Nijkerk, to the central station in Almere.
Media related to Zeewolde at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Flevoland is the twelfth and last province of the Netherlands, established on 1 January 1986, when the southern and eastern Flevopolders were merged into one provincial entity. It is located in the centre of the country. All of the land belonging to Flevoland was reclaimed only in the 1950s and 1960s; the province consists of 6 municipalities. Its capital is most populous city Almere. Flevoland was named after Lacus Flevo, a name recorded in Roman sources for a large inland lake at the southern end of the later-formed Zuiderzee. After a flood in 1916, it was decided that the Zuiderzee, an inland sea within the Netherlands, would be enclosed and reclaimed: the Zuiderzee Works started. Other sources indicate other times and reasons, but agree that in 1932, the Afsluitdijk was completed, which closed off the sea completely; the Zuiderzee was subsequently divided into IJsselmeer and Markermeer, which in itself was planned to be drained to make the Markerwaard. However, for economic reasons, the Markerwaard never went ahead.
The first part of the new lake, reclaimed was the Noordoostpolder in 1939. This new land included the former islands of Urk and Schokland and it was included in the province of Overijssel. After this, other parts were reclaimed: the southeastern part in 1957 and the southwestern part in 1968. There was an important change in these post-war projects from the earlier Noordoostpolder reclamation: a narrow body of water was preserved along the old coast to stabilise the water table and to prevent coastal towns from losing their access to the sea, thus the Flevopolder became. The municipalities on the three parts voted to become a separate province, which happened in 1986. Eastern Flevoland and Southern Flevoland, unlike the Noordoostpolder, have peripheral lakes between them and the mainland: the Veluwemeer and Gooimeer making them, the world's largest artificial island, they are two polders with a joint hydrological infrastructure, with a dividing dike in the middle, the Knardijk, that will keep one polder safe if the other is flooded.
The two main drainage canals that traverse the dike can be closed by floodgates in such an event. The pumping stations are the Wortman at Lelystad-Haven, the Lovink near Harderwijk on the mainland and the Colijn along the northern dike beside the Ketelmeer. A new element in the design of Eastern Flevoland is the larger city Lelystad, named after Cornelis Lely, the man who had played a crucial role in designing and realising the Zuiderzee Works. Other more conventional settlements existed by then; these three were incorporated in the new municipality of Dronten on 1 January 1972. Southern Flevoland has only one pumping the diesel powered De Blocq van Kuffeler; because of the hydrological union of the two Flevolands it joins the other three in maintaining the water-level of both polders. Almere relieves the housing shortage and increasing overcrowding on the old land, its name is derived from the early medieval name for Lacus Flevo. Almere was to be divided into 3 major settlements initially. In 2003, the municipality made a new Structuurplan which started development of three new settlements: Overgooi in the southeast, Almere-Hout in the east, Almere-Poort in the West.
In time, Almere-Pampus could be developed in the northwest, with a new bridge over the IJmeer towards Amsterdam. The Oostvaardersplassen is a landscape of shallow pools and swamps; this low part of the new polder was destined to become an industrial area. Spontaneous settlement of interesting flora & fauna turned the area into a nature park, of such importance that the new railway-line was diverted; the recent decline in agricultural land use will in time make it possible to expand natural land use, connect the Oostvaardersplassen to the Veluwe. The centre of the polder most resembles the pre-war polders in that it is exclusively agricultural. In contrast, the southeastern part is dominated by extensive forests. Here is found the only other settlement of the polder, again a more conventional town acting as the local centre. Zeewolde became a municipality at the same time as Almere on 1 January 1984, which in the case of Zeewolde meant that the municipality existed before the town itself, with only farms in the surrounding land to be governed until the town started to grow.
The King's Commissioner of Flevoland is Leen Verbeek, a member of the Labour Party. The States of Flevoland have 39 seats. Since the 2011 provincial elections, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy has been the largest party in The States, with 9 seats; the second largest parties are the Labour Party and the Party both with 6 seats. Since the 2011 provincial elections, the seats of the States of Flevoland are as following: The Flevopolder is served by the Flevolijn, running from Weesp to Lelystad, the Hanzelijn, continuing from Lelystad towards Zwolle; the two railways stations of the province with intercity services are Almere Centrum and Lelyst
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices. There are three types of polder: Land reclaimed from a body of water, such as a lake or the sea bed Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike Marshes separated from the surrounding water by a dike and subsequently drained. All polders will be below the surrounding water level some or all of the time. Water enters the low-lying polder through infiltration and water pressure of ground water, or rainfall, or transport of water by rivers and canals; this means that the polder has an excess of water, pumped out or drained by opening sluices at low tide. Care must be taken not to set the internal water level too low. Polder land made up of peat will sink in relation to its previous level, because of peat decomposing when exposed to oxygen from the air. Polders are at risk from flooding at all times, care must be taken to protect the surrounding dikes.
Dikes are built with locally available materials, each material has its own risks: sand is prone to collapse owing to saturation by water. Some animals dig tunnels in the barrier. Polders are most though not found in river deltas, former fenlands and coastal areas. Flooding of polders has been used as a military tactic in the past. One example is the flooding of the polders along the Yser river during World War I. Opening the sluices at high tide and closing them at low tide turned the polders into an inaccessible swamp which allowed the Allied armies to stop the German army. From Dutch polder, from Middle Dutch polre, from Old Dutch polra from pol- "part of land, elevated above its surroundings"; the Netherlands is associated with polders, as its engineers became noted for developing techniques to drain wetlands and make them usable for agriculture and other development. This is illustrated by a saying: "God created the world; the Dutch have a long history of reclamation of marshes and fenland, resulting in some 3,000 polders nationwide.
By 1961, about half of the country's land, 18,000 square kilometres, was reclaimed from the sea. About half the total surface area of polders in north-west Europe is in the Netherlands; the first embankments in Europe were constructed in Roman times. The first polders were constructed in the 11th century; as a result of flooding disasters, water boards called waterschap or hoogheemraadschap were set up to maintain the integrity of the water defences around polders, maintain the waterways inside a polder, control the various water levels inside and outside the polder. Water boards hold separate elections, levy taxes, function independently from other government bodies, their function is unchanged today. As such they are the oldest democratic institution in the country; the necessary cooperation among all ranks to maintain polder integrity gave its name to the Dutch version of third way politics—the Polder Model. The 1953 flood disaster prompted a new approach to the design of dikes and other water-retaining structures, based on an acceptable probability of overflowing.
Risk is defined as the product of probability and consequences. The potential damage in lives and rebuilding costs is compared with the potential cost of water defences. From these calculations follows an acceptable flood risk from the sea at one in 4,000–10,000 years, while it is one in 100–2,500 years for a river flood; the particular established policy guides the Dutch government to improve flood defences as new data on threat levels becomes available. Some famous Dutch polders and the year they were laid dry are: Beemster Schermer Haarlemmermeerpolder As part of the Zuiderzee Works: Wieringermeerpolder Noordoostpolder Flevopolder Bangladesh has 123 polders, of which 49 are sea-facing; these were constructed in the 1960s to protect the coast from tidal flooding and reduce salinity incursion. They reduce waterlogging following storm surges from tropical cyclones, they are cultivated for agriculture. De Moeren, near Veurne in West Flanders Polders along the Yser rive between Nieuwpoort and Diksmuide Polders of Muisbroek and Ettenhoven, in Ekeren and Hoevenen Polder of Stabroek, in Stabroek Kabeljauwpolder, in Zandvliet Scheldepolders on the left bank of the Scheldt Uitkerkse polders, near Blankenberge in West Flanders Prosperpolder, near Doel and Kieldrecht.
Holland Marsh Pitt Polder Ecological Reserve Grand Pré, Nova Scotia The city of Kunshan has over 100 polders. The Jiangnan region, at the Yangtze River Delta, has a long history of constructing polders; the bulk of these projects were performed between the 13th centuries. The Chinese government assisted local communities in constructing dikes for swampland water drainage; the Lijia self-monitoring system of 110 households under a lizhang headman was used for the purposes of service administration and tax collection in the polder, with a liangzhang responsilbe for maintaining the water system and a tangzhang (塘长, dike chief）for po
Gerrit Thomas Rietveld was a Dutch furniture designer and architect. One of the principal members of the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl, Rietveld is famous for his Red and Blue Chair and for the Rietveld Schröder House, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Rietveld was born in Utrecht in 1888 as the son of a joiner, he left school at 11 to be apprenticed to his father and enrolled at night school before working as a draughtsman for C. J. Begeer, a jeweller in Utrecht, from 1906 to 1911. By the time he opened his own furniture workshop in 1917, Rietveld had taught himself drawing and model-making, he afterwards set up in business as a cabinet-maker. Rietveld designed his Red and Blue Chair in 1917 which has become an iconic piece of modern furniture. Hoping that much of his furniture would be mass-produced rather than handcrafted, Rietveld aimed for simplicity in construction. In 1918, he started his own furniture factory, changed the chair's colours after becoming influenced by the De Stijl movement, of which he became a member in 1919, the same year in which he became an architect.
The contacts that he made at De Stijl gave him the opportunity to exhibit abroad as well. In 1923, Walter Gropius invited Rietveld to exhibit at the Bauhaus, he built, the Rietveld Schröder House, in 1924, in close collaboration with the owner Truus Schröder-Schräder. Built in Utrecht on the Prins Hendriklaan 50, the house has a conventional ground floor, but is radical on the top floor, lacking fixed walls but instead relying on sliding walls to create and change living spaces; the design seems like a three-dimensional realization of a Mondrian painting. The house has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000, his involvement in the Schröder House exerted a strong influence on Truus' daughter, Han Schröder, who became one of the first female architects in the Netherlands. Rietveld broke with De Stijl in 1928 and became associated with a more functionalist style of architecture, known as either Nieuwe Zakelijkheid or Nieuwe Bouwen; the same year he joined the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne.
From the late 1920s he was concerned with social housing, inexpensive production methods, new materials and standardisation. In 1927 he was experimenting with prefabricated concrete slabs, a unusual material at that time. In the 1920s and 1930s, all his commissions came from private individuals, it was not until the 1950s that he was able to put his progressive ideas about social housing into practice, in projects in Utrecht and Reeuwijk. Rietveld designed the Zig-Zag Chair in 1934 and started the design of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, finished after his death. In 1951 Rietveld designed a retrospective exhibition about De Stijl, held in Amsterdam and New York. Interest in his work revived as a result. In subsequent years he was given many commissions, including the Dutch pavilion for the Venice Biennale, the art academies in Amsterdam and Arnhem, the press room for the UNESCO building in Paris. Designed for the display of small sculptures at the Third International Sculpture Exhibition in Arnhem’s Sonsbeek Park in 1955, Rietveld's ‘Sonsbeek Pavilion’ was rebuilt at the Kröller-Müller Museum in 1965.
Due to irreparable damages caused by regular decay, it was once again rebuilt, this time with new materials, in 2010. In order to handle all these projects, in 1961 Rietveld set up a partnership with the architects Johan van Dillen and J. van Tricht built hundreds of homes, many of them in the city of Utrecht. His work was neglected when rationalism came into vogue, but he benefited from a revival of the style of the 1920s thirty years later. Gerrit Rietveld's son Wim Rietveld became a renowned industrial designer. Rietveld had his first retrospective exhibition devoted to his architectural work at the Central Museum, Utrecht, in 1958; when the art academy in Amsterdam became part of the higher professional education system in 1968 and was given the status of an Academy for Fine Arts and Design, the name was changed to the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in honour of Rietveld. "Gerrit Rietveld: A Centenary Exhibition" at the Barry Friedman Gallery, New York, in 1988 was the first comprehensive presentation of the Dutch architect's original works held in the U.
S. The highlight of a celebratory “Rietveld Year” in Utrecht, the exhibition “Rietveld’s Universe” opened at the Centraal Museum and compared him and his work with famous contemporaries like Wright, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe. Two software tools, both for code review, have been named after Gerrit Rietveld: Gerrit and Rietveld. Rietveld Schröder Archive A collection of the Centraal Museum Rietveld furniture and archive in Centraal Museum, The Netherlands Rietvelds furniture designs that are still in production www. ModernFurnitureClassics.com Rietveld Bio Great Buildings Online Project by Gerrit Rietveld in architectureguide.nl
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity