Castle Tower National Park
Castle Tower is a national park in the Gladstone Region, Australia. 407 km northwest of Brisbane. The vegetation in the park is predominantly Open eucalypt woodland. There are some stands of hoop pine. Mount Castle Tower can be seen from Lake Awoonga; the park has limited access with permission required from Gladstone Area Water Board to cross their property. There are no facilities for visitors. Boyne Valley, Queensland Protected areas of Queensland
Mount Archer National Park
Mount Archer National Park is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 522 kilometres northwest of Brisbane. It makes up the backdrop to the city of Rockhampton; the vegetation is open eucalypt woodland with patches of vine scrub. The rufous shrikethrush, white-browed scrubwren, powerful owl and glossy black cockatoo are some of the bird species found in the park. A road leads to the summit of Mount Archer, where there are a few bushwalking and rock climbing opportunities. Protected areas of Queensland Mount Archer National Park - Queensland Holidays
Capricornia Cays National Park
Capricornia Cays is both a national park and a scientific national park in Queensland, located 486 km and 472 km north of the state capital Brisbane respectively. Collectively they comprise 241 ha of coral cays. Popular recreational activities in the park includes bird and turtle watching as well as camping, swimming, boating and diving. Capricornia Cays National Park is noted for its biological diversity and for provided habitat for a number of endangered plants and animals. In particular the cays are recognized as having the largest breeding population of endangered loggerhead turtles in the South Pacific. Access to the islands via boat is available from Gladstone, Bundaberg and 1770; the cays form an Important Bird Area because they support more than 1% of the world populations of black noddies and wedge-tailed shearwaters, making up the majority of the east Australian breeding populations of these species, sometimes more than 1% of the world population of brown boobies. Seasonal closures in some areas is imposed to protect breeding seabirds.
233 mollusc species have been recorded from the islands. Capricornia Cays National Park protects eight vegetated coral cays in the Capricorn and Bunker group of islands of the southern Great Barrier Reef: Erskine Island Heron Island Lady Musgrave Island - Open for visiting, capable of 40 campers. Masthead Island - Open for visiting, capable of 60 campers, however this is limited to 30 from October to March each year to allow a less disrupted egg laying ground for turtles. North West Island - Open for visiting, capable of 150 campers. Tryon Island - Currently closed to public access due to a tree infection, the island has the capacity for 30 campers. Wilson IslandThe cays are built by corals; the area is of significance as a fishery for king prawns These eight islands are part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and all surrounded by reefs. Vegetation on the cays is dominated by the flowering tree species, Pisonia grandis. A further six cays form Capricornia Cays National Park: One Tree Island Wreck Island Fairfax Islands, Hoskyn Islands There is no public access to these cays.
Area: 0.44 km2 Coordinates: 23°20′07″S 151°57′24″E Managing authorities: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service IUCN category: Ia Protected areas of Queensland Capricornia Cays National Park
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
The green-thighed frog is a medium-sized species of ground-dwelling tree frog in Australia. The green-thighed frog is native to the east coast of Australia, its range stretches from Cordalba State Forest in south-eastern Queensland to Ourimbah in New South Wales. The several records from Darkes Forest, south of Sydney, are erroneous. Numbers have decreased at Ourimbah, but there have been no record of declines or disappearances elsewhere, they are believed to occupy an area of less than 500 km2. The ventral surface is pale yellow and peppered with fine dark spots over the throat. A thick stripe runs from the snout, across the eye and tympanum, breaks up into blotches on the sides; the margin of the upper jaw is marked with white. The armpits are marked with lime yellow; the backs of the thighs and groin are green, or blue-green, with black mottling. The tympanum is distinct, finger and toe pads are medium-sized; the fingers are free from webbing and the toes are one-third webbed. The iris is dark brown with a golden crescent in the upper half.
The legs are shorter compared to other ground-dwelling hylids. It inhabits areas of rainforest, wet sclerophyll, open forests. Breeding occurs from September to May after heavy rain. From 300 to 600 eggs are deposited in temporary pools and flooded areas, are laid in clumps among water weeds at the water's surface. Green-thighed frogs are unlikely to be confused with any other species because of the bright colours in the groin and on the thighs and the lack of toe webbing. Barker, J.. C.. J.. A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty & Sons. Frogs Australia Network - Litoria brevipalmata - call available here Litoria brevipalmata
Bunya Mountains National Park
Bunya Mountains is a national park in the South Burnett Region, Australia. The park includes much of the mountain range called the Bunya Mountains; the park are encompasses the most westerly area of subtropical rainforest in southern Queensland and the largest population of bunya pines remaining in the world. It is situated 63 km northeast of 58 km southwest of Kingaroy; the park is known for permanent waterfalls and its views. The mild climate of the range means evening temperatures are low; the park is accessed by a steep and winding roads and is serviced with camping grounds, a network of walking tracks and several picnic grounds. The Wakka Wakka and Barrumgum tribes are the traditional owners for the bunya mountains and have inhabited and managed the mountains through traditional land-use management for thousands of years which included the cultural significant'Bunya Feasts' which would see thousands of people from surrounding tribes from Queensland and New South Wales come to the bunya mountains for these gatherings.
The Bunya grasslands are unique relics of a much cooler climate and have existed since the last ice age and have persisted due to regular burning by Indigenous people over many thousands of years. The balds are considered a cultural landscape and an enduring symbol of indigenous land management which still hold significance to Indigenous people today; the arrival of European settlers saw the removal of indigenous communities off the Bunya Mountains ending active fire management by indigenous people from 1860s onwards. During the 1860s the park was logged for red cedar, bunya pine and hoop pine and the Aboriginals were pushed out. European settlers began to enjoy the scenery in the same decade; the Bunya Sawmill opened in 1883. As the 9,112 hectare national park was declared in 1908, it makes it the second oldest national park in Queensland. A further addition to the park was donated by WA Russell MLA in 1927. Timber was still removed from the national park until about 1917; the last sawmill on the mountains closed in 1945.
The first walking tracks were constructed in 1939. Carbine's chute was the first of many trenches built to assist the removal of logs off the mountains, it can be accessed by a 1.5 km track from Munros camp. The last sawmill in the area was at Wengenville, which closed in 1961. In a successful attempt to reduce the splintering and damage to logs from falling down the steep trenches the owner of the Wengenville sawmill, Lars Anderson, used a combination of tramway, winches and flying foxes to transport logs; some of the parks bunya pines are estimated to be up to 600 years old and 25 metres high. The forests contain wild raspberry, many vines and pockets of ferns. Other trees species in the park include white silky oaks. Grass trees on Mount Kiangarow grow nearly 5 m tall and some are least several hundred years old. Scattered throughout the mountain forests are many natural clearings known as'grassy balds'; these clearings are a few hectares in area and are caused by bushfires and geological conditions.
Where there a slabs of unfractured basalt soil formation and root penetration is impossible, leaving a patch in the forest. There are about 100 balds, although those caused by fire are being lost due to a lack of recent fires; the grassy balds have a higher biodiversity than the dense rainforests, because they are home to birds and rodents not found elsewhere in the forest. The park is home to more than 200 frogs and reptiles as well as marsupials such as pademelons, rock wallabies, swamp wallabies and an endemic subspecies of ringtail possum found only on the mountain peaks. Reptile species include the blue-tongued skink, land mullet, carpet snake, red bellied black snake and brown tree snake; the mountains are part of the Bunya Mountains and Yarraman Important Bird Area which contains what is thought to be the largest population of the black-breasted button-quail. In the park, 120 species of bird have been recorded. Significant species include the wedge-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon, grey goshawk, brown cuckoo-dove, rose robin, eastern yellow robin, large-billed gerygone, Australian golden whistler.
The Bunya Mountains support the most westerly populations of many rainforest dwelling species, including green catbirds, regent bowerbirds, paradise riflebirds, eastern whipbirds, noisy pittas and the Australian logrunner. Some of the more seen species include pied currawongs, laughing kookaburras, Australian king parrots, crimson rosellas, sulphur-crested cockatoos, red-browed finches, white-browed scrubwrens, satin bowerbirds, wonga pigeons and brush turkeys; the park contains a number of waterfalls including Mcgrory Falls. The national park is managed by the department of national parks, recreation and racing, There has been an integrated program of burning the unique grassland balds by Queensland Parks and Wildlife in the Bunya Mountains since the late 1990s with 27% of unburnt balds being burnt for the first time in many years. There have been difficulties in recovering a number of balds which have well established forest canopies due to decades of non-burning, these balds may be too far gone to recover.
Some balds which have had significant forest species invasion have had mechanical removal and coppicing of trees to aid recovery of the balds through burning. Proactive fire management is a priority within the current management plan for the Bunya Mountains National Park with additional importance given to partnerships with traditional owners using traditional fire techniques in restoring and maintaining the grasslands. Australian Government initiatives such as the ‘Working on Country’ Program has been active on the mountain since 2009 allowing gre
Noosa Heads, Queensland
Noosa Heads is a town and suburb of the Shire of Noosa on the Sunshine Coast, Australia. It is located 136 kilometres north of Brisbane, the state's capital; the Noosa River forms one boundary of the headlands of the Noosa National Park another. Nearby are the suburbs of Tewantin and Noosa Junction, which create a continuous urban area at the northern end of the Sunshine Coast; the beach at Noosa Heads has remained a popular tourist attraction since the 1890s. The Shire's tourism exponentially grew shortly after the Second World War. In the 1800s, Noosa's early wealth came from the timber and milling industries with tourism developing in the late 1920s. In this decade cafes and tourist accommodation was built along the beachfront; the town has been the site of many tussles between developers and those seeking to preserve the town. Since the seventies, people have continued to migrate from southern states. In 1988, Noosa was renamed Noosa Heads. Noosa Heads has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 17 Noosa Drive: Halse Lodge Noosa Heads is the tourist heart of Noosa district, with many restaurants and hotels.
The main street is Hastings Street. Buses to elsewhere in the Sunshine Coast depart from Noosa Heads bus station. There are dedicated bike lanes throughout the shire. Push bikes are an easy way to get around. Bike racks are provided in all beach precincts. Motor scooter is another easy option. There are scooter parking bays on Hastings Street, Noosa Heads, on many shopping strips. There is a taxi rank at Noosa Fair shopping centre. Noosa Heads hosts a population of koalas, which are seen in and around Noosa National Park; the koala population in Noosa is in decline. Native black and grey-headed flying foxes can be heard in local trees if they are flowering or fruiting. Micro-bat species are common and aid in insect control. Noosa Lions Park is an open, grassed area which used as a staging area for several large community events including the Noosa Triathlon, Noosa Food and Wine Festival, Noosa Winter Festival and Noosa Classic Car Show. To overcome severe beach erosion at Noosa's main beach a sand pumping system has been built.
It operates when necessary during off peak hours, supplying sand via a pipeline built underneath the boardwalk. Noosa Heads' main attraction is its beaches, its main beach and its small bays around the headland are common surfing locations which are known on world surfing circuits. One of its major surfing contests involves the Noosa Festival of Surfing; this festival attracts large numbers of longboarders. A fatal shark attack of a 22-year-old surfer was recorded at Noosa in 1961; the Noosa Shire Council operates a mobile library service which visits Lanyana Way at Noosa Junction. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, Noosa was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "location". Shire of Noosa University of Queensland: Queensland Places:Noosa Heads and Noosaville