Tex Schramm

Texas Earnest Schramm Jr. was an American football executive, the original president and general manager of the Dallas Cowboys franchise of the National Football League. Schramm referred to as "Tex", became the head of the Cowboys when the former expansion team started operations in 1960. Despite his name, Schramm was not in San Gabriel, California. Texas was his father's name. Schramm attended Alhambra High School and went to the University of Texas, graduating in 1947 with a bachelor's degree in journalism. At UT he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. Schramm interrupted his education to serve as an officer in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Before joining the Cowboys, Schramm was part of the Los Angeles Rams from 1947 to 1956. During his tenure, he hired Pete Rozelle as the Rams' public relations director, they remained close friends after Rozelle became NFL commissioner and Schramm became general manager of the Cowboys. In late 1959, when it became apparent that the NFL was intent on expanding to Dallas, Schramm told his friends in football that he was interested in running the team.

Chicago Bears owner George Halas introduced Schramm to Clint Murchison Jr. who had tried to bring the NFL to Dallas several times in the past. Murchison hired Schramm as the general manager for a potential Dallas team, which became a reality when the league awarded a franchise to the city on January 28, 1960. In 1960, Schramm hired chief scout Gil Brandt. By the mid-1960s, the three men had built the Cowboys into an elite team; the Cowboys, despite two consecutive losses to the Green Bay Packers in the NFL Championship Game in 1966 and'67, had 20 consecutive winning seasons, won the most games of any NFL team of the 1970s. They appeared in five Super Bowls that decade, winning Super Bowls VI and XII, losing Super Bowls V, X, XIII by a combined 11 points; the Cowboys became a marquee NFL franchise, their popularity inspiring the nickname "America's Team". In 1966, Schramm met secretly with American Football League founder Lamar Hunt to begin the negotiations that led to the 1970 merger of the NFL and AFL, as well as the first Super Bowl in 1967.

Schramm was known as the most powerful general manager in the NFL. The Cowboys' owners during his tenure and Bum Bright left day-to-day operations in his hands. Schramm represented the Cowboys at league meetings and exercised the team's voting rights, something reserved for team owners. Schramm was a leading opponent of the 1987 NFLPA Strike; the NFL players union at the time were agitating for a better deal, including free agency rights. Schramm, with other owners, organized the hiring of replacement players while the usual players were on strike, earning a nickname of "the commissioner of replacement football". Schramm cattily said to executive director of the NFLPA Gene Upshaw "Gene, here’s what you have to understand: we're the ranchers and you're the cattle, we can always get more cattle." Schramm was comparatively effective in convincing regular players of the Cowboys to cross the picket line, albeit at the cost of splitting the team. Running back Tony Dorsett, who had criticized other team members for breaking the strike, felt he was financially forced to rejoin as well by Schramm's threats.

21 Cowboys players would break the strike and play with replacement players, a much higher rate than for other teams in the League. The cost of Schramm's threats to the team's success was high: The Cowboys would only go 8-35 over the next two and a half seasons, not recovering until new ownership took over. Schramm was known for advocating for a number of changes and innovations that helped modernize the NFL; these include instant replay, using computer technology in scouting, multi-color striping of the 20- and 50-yard lines, 30-second clock between plays, extra-wide sideline borders, wind-direction stripes on the goal post uprights, the referee's microphone, headsets in the quarterback's helmet for hearing plays, the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders. While leading the league's Competition Committee, he oversaw rule changes such as using overtime in the regular season, putting the official time on the scoreboard, moving goalposts from the front of the end zone to the back, protecting quarterbacks through the in-the-grasp rule.

Schramm's desire for a more comprehensive scouting combine led to the annual offseason NFL Scouting Combine in Indianapolis. Don Shula said of Schramm, "I believe he had as much, or more, to do with the success of professional football as anyone, connected with the league." Schramm stayed on only with the Cowboys after Jerry Jones purchased the team and fired Tom Landry. He left to become the president of the World League of American Football. Schramm was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1991. Schramm's entry into the Cowboys Ring of Honor took much longer due to strained relations with Jones. Schramm had created the Ring of Honor, had been a "one-man committee" on inductions. Jones became that "committee". In 2003, Jones announced that Schramm would be inducted into the ring during the next football season. Schramm attended the announcement press conference and spoke, but died a few months and was inducted posthumously. Schramm married his high school s


Földes is a large village in Hajdú-Bihar County, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. It has a population of 3980 people, it is located next to the main road 42 between Püspökladány and Berettyóújfalu, 34 km southwest of Debrecen. The Eastern Main Channel is 5 km northeast from Földes. Directly neighboring settlements: Sáp, Báránd, Tetétlen, Hajdúszovát, Berettyóújfalu. A bus service connects to Debrecen, Berettyóújfalu, Püspökladány, Nagyrábé; the closest train station is located in Sáp. In 1938, traces of the first human settlement were found during archeological excavations in the Inacs Mound, next to the main road 42, at the western edge of Földes's boundary, it was a Neolithic site where the remains of their pit houses and burned walls of their wattle-and-daub were found with the tools of a copper-age man. Lajos Kiss and Béla Kálmán linguists declared, the village was named after its soil. György Módy historian said, that the name of the village origined from personal name and got it from its inhabitants dealing with farming.

Földes had a tradition of its own name-origin, spreading by László Virágh a teacher from Földes. The first written mention of Földes –, debated for a long time – was in the Váradi Regestrum in 1215: messenger Gyuro, the son of Moysa from Heldus village, proceeded in an affair of peoples from Bajom and Rábé. From that time on, the name of Földes did not appeared in written sources until 1342, but an interesting tradition has survived from 1241-42. Rogerius a canon of Várad wrote about this period, telling what devastation the Southern Tatar army had done under Kadan's leadership in Bihar County. An sure mentioning of Földes was on 31 May 1342, when in the report of the Eger chapter to Hungarian King Károly Róbert, András the son of Tamás from Földes, appears as a noble witness. Tamás and his son András were the first known members of the Földesi family; the members of this family were the landlords of Földes. They took their family name after the name of the village. From Földes, only the names of this family members can be found in the documents until the end of the 15th century.

Not much in the same year, in 1342, archdeacon Jakab from Földes and his brother Benedek were mentioned. In 1399, Imre the son of Péter from Földes, together with Tamás and János the sons of Mihály from Földes, had mixed up with culprits, were convicted for decapitation and loss of their wealth, they were at last convicted for proscription. Since they had been avare of their guilt they did not attend the county assembly. 1400 at the end of July, Hungarian King Zsigmond appointed Péter the son of János from Földes, to a royal man for border control together with others. In the Autumn of 1400, Földes the village was mentioned for the first time in a diploma of Rábé family. One part of the family's estates was towards Földes. In 1405 Benedek magnus Nagy from Földes and Tamás Nagy and András Nagy were sub-prefects of Szatmár County. According to Kálmán Baán this Benedek the magnus was the founder and eponym of the Földesi Nagy family. In 1407 Vince Földesi a royal man, he was the first member of the family whose family name was evolved.

In 1417 Benedek Földesi Nagy was appointed to a palatine man. According to searches of József Csoma, in 1449 János Hunyadi donated bodily coat of arms for several members of the family; the Földesi family used the family name Szentmiklósi too, depending where the locations of their estates were. In 1459 Adorján Földesi appeared in the suit of an estate who bore a name scrivener which supposes higher education. In 1465 some members of the Földesi Nagy committed murders against other noble men. King Mátyás those who had committed the murders convicted for loss of their wealth, he donated their assets to the families of Sztári and Parlagi. In 1483 the Várad chapter for the command of King Mátyás, designated among others István Földesi to a royal man, he had to cite into law with three times shoutings István Szakolyi, who had estates among other villages in Hosszúmacs. The Bajons and Sztáris after they had got their domains did not stay in the village, procurators handled their lands from the families of Harangi and Simai.

There was the procurators of the estates. In 1489 and 1510 they had still agreed, but in 1516 the Földes nobles attacked the country-seats of the families of Harangi and Simai in Félhalom in Békés County; because of these affairs at the beginning of 16th century there were credible data about 30 Földes nobles who had one plot. On May 7, 1537, King János Szapolyai had issued a decree, confirmed with it the organized community of Földes nobles against Szabolcs County; this diploma was good for them as proof in times, in the protection of local authority over the noble privileges, against Szabolcs County and other powerful warlords. In 1549 they were included in two censuses. Between 1552–1570, because of the wars against the castles had been launched by the Turks, the village got under Turkish rule, it was menaced from Turkish-Tataric forays, destructions. In 1566, around November 19, the village was saved from a Turkish-Tartaric destruction. At that time from this countryside, thousands of people, including residents of Földes too, were dragged away to Szolnok into captivity.

After the Treaty of Speyer, which follo

Dee Molenaar

Dee Molenaar was an American mountaineer and artist. He is best known as the author of The Challenge of Rainier, first published in 1971 and considered the definitive work on the climbing history of Mount Rainier. Molenaar was born in Los Angeles, California, to Dutch immigrant parents and Peter Molenaar. During World War II, he served as a photographer in the U. S. Coast Guard in the Aleutian Islands and western Pacific. In 1950, he earned a BSc degree in geology at the University of Washington, served as civilian adviser at Camp Hale and the Mountain Warfare Training Center. Molenaar worked as a park ranger and mountain guide in Mount Rainier National Park, climbing the mountain over 50 times as a guide and on personal trips, via more than a dozen different routes including three first ascents, he participated in the 1946 second ascent of Mount Saint Elias in Alaska. He was a member of the Third American Karakoram Expedition, a 1953 mountaineering expedition to K2 in which the party became trapped during a severe storm.

Along with "Big Jim" Jim Whittaker and Robert F. Kennedy, he was a member of the 1965 climb and first ascent of Mount Kennedy in the Yukon, named after John F. Kennedy, his career with the United States Geological Survey took him to Alaska, Colorado and Washington, until his retirement in 1983. On April 7, 2012, the American Alpine Club inducted Molenaar into its Hall of Mountaineering Excellence at an award ceremony in Golden, Colorado, he met his wife Colleen on Mount Rainier and they had three children together. Molenaar turned 100 in June 2018 and died on January 19, 2020, at an adult care home in Burlington, Washington. Molenaar painted in oils, he is known for his impressionism-style art with mountain and desert landscapes the dominant theme in his works. He painted the highest watercolor in history, spending 10 days in a tent painting K2 from memory at 25,000 feet during a severe storm that hit during the 1953 expedition. With precious fuel for melting snow running low, his teammates made him drink the remaining water colored with pigments.

Molenaar, Dee. The Challenge of Rainier: a record of the explorations and ascents and tragedies, on the Northwest's greatest mountain. Mountaineers Books. P. 364. ISBN 0-916890-70-8. Molenaar, Dee. Mountains Don't Care. Mountaineers Books. P. 208. ISBN 978-0615293240. Molenaar, Dee. Memoirs of a Dinosaur Mountaineer. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 342. ISBN 978-1479321902. Dee Molenaar Papers at The U of Washington Library Internet Archive: The Challenge of Rainier: a record of the explorations and ascents and tragedies, on the Northwest's greatest mountain