Native American cuisine
Native American cuisine includes all food practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Modern-day native peoples retain a varied culture of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings. Foods like cornbread, cranberry, blueberry and mush are known to have been adopted into the cuisine of the United States from Native American groups. In other cases, documents from the early periods of contact with European and Asian peoples allow the recovery of food practices which passed out of popularity; the most important native American crops include corn, squash, sunflowers, wild rice, sweet potatoes, peppers, avocados, papayas and chocolate. Modern-day Native American cuisine is varied; the use of indigenous domesticated and wild food ingredients can represent Native American food and cuisine. North American native cuisine can differ somewhat from Southwestern and Mexican cuisine in its simplicity and directness of flavor; the use of ramps, wild ginger, miners' lettuce, juniper berry can impart subtle flavours to various dishes.
Country food, in Canada, refers to the traditional diets of Indigenous peoples in remote northern regions where Western food is an expensive import, traditional foods are still relied upon. The Government of the Northwest Territories estimated in 2015 that nearly half of N. W. T. Residents in smaller communities relied on country food for 75% of their meat and fish intake, in larger communities the percentage was lower, with the lowest percentage relying on country foods being in Yellowknife, the capital and only "large community"; the most common country foods in the NWT's area include mammals and birds and berries. In the eastern Canadian Arctic, Inuit consume a diet of foods that are fished and gathered locally; this may include caribou, ringed seal, bearded seal, beluga whale, polar bear and fireweed. The cultural value attached to certain game species, certain parts, varies. For example, in the James Bay region, a 1982 study found that beluga whale meat was principally used as dog food, whereas the blubber, or muktuk was a "valued delicacy".
Value varies by age, with Inuit preferring younger ring seals, using the older ones for dog food. Contaminants in country foods are a public health concern in Northern Canada. In 2017, the Government of the N. W. T. Committed to using country foods in the soon-to-open Stanton Territorial Hospital, despite the challenges of obtaining and preparing sufficient quantities of wild game and plants. In Southern Canada, wild foods are relatively rare in restaurants, due to wildlife conservation rules against selling hunted meat, as well as strict meat inspection rules; therefore there is a cultural divide between rural and remote communities that rely on wild foods, urban Canadians, who have little or no experience with them. The essential staple foods of the Eastern Woodlands Aboriginal Americans were corn and squash; these were called the "Three Sisters" because they were planted interdependently: the beans grew up the tall stalks of the maize, while the squash spread out at the base of the three plants and provided protection and support for the root systems.
A number of other domesticated crops were popular during some time periods in the Eastern Woodlands, including a local version of quinoa, a variety of amaranth, little barley and sunflowers. Maple syrup is another example of the essential food staples of the Woodland Indigenous peoples. Tree sap is collected from sugar maple trees during the beginning of springtime when the nights are still cold. Birch bark containers were used in the process of making maple syrup, maple cakes, maple sugar, maple taffy; when the sap is boiled to a certain temperature, it is at these temperatures the different variations of maple food products are processed. At one point when the sap starts to thicken, snow is used by pouring the thick sap into the snow to make taffy. Southeastern Native American culture has formed the cornerstone of Southern cuisine from its origins till the present day. From Southeastern Native American culture came one of the main staples of the Southern diet: corn, either ground into meal or limed with an alkaline salt to make hominy, using a Native American technology known as nixtamalization.
Corn was used to make all kinds of dishes from the familiar cornbread and grits to liquors such as whiskey, which were important trade items. Though a lesser staple, potatoes were adopted from Native American cuisine and were used in many ways similar to corn. Native Americans introduced the first non-Native American Southerners to many other vegetables still familiar on southern tables. Squash, many types of beans, many types of peppers, sassafras all came to the settlers via the native tribes. Many fruits are available in this region. Muscadines, blackberries and many other wild berries were part of Southern Native Americans' diet. Southeastern Native Americans supplemented their diets with meats derived from the hunting of native game. Venison was an important meat staple, due to the abundance of white-tailed deer in the area, they hunted rabbits, squirrels and raccoons. Li
A chuckwagon is a type of "field kitchen" covered wagon used for the storage and transportation of perishable food and cooking equipment on the prairies of the United States and Canada. Such wagons formed part of a wagon train of settlers or fed traveling workers such as cowboys or loggers. In modern times, chuckwagons feature in certain cooking events. Chuckwagons are used in a type of horse racing known as chuckwagon racing. While some form of mobile kitchens had existed for generations, the invention of the chuckwagon is attributed to Charles Goodnight, a Texas rancher, the "father of the Texas Panhandle," who introduced the concept in 1866. After the American Civil War, the beef market in Texas expanded; some cattlemen herded cattle in parts of the country that did not have railroads which would mean they needed to be fed on the road for months at a time. Goodnight modified the Studebaker wagon, a durable army-surplus wagon, to suit the needs of cowboys driving cattle from Texas to sell in New Mexico.
He added a "chuck box" to the back of the wagon with drawers and shelves for storage space and a hinged lid to provide a flat cooking surface. A water barrel was attached to the wagon and canvas was hung underneath to carry firewood. A wagon box was used to store cowboys' personal items. Chuckwagon food included easy-to-preserve items like beans and salted meats and sourdough biscuits. Food would be gathered en route. There was no fresh fruit, vegetables, or eggs available and meat was not fresh unless an animal was injured during the run and therefore had to be killed; the meat they ate was greasy cloth-wrapped bacon, salt pork, beef dried, salted or smoked. The wagon was stocked with a water barrel and a sling to kindle wood to heat and cook food. On cattle drives, it was common for the "cookie" who ran the wagon to be second in authority only to the "trailboss." The cookie would act as cook, barber and banker. The term "chuck wagon" comes from "chuck", a slang term for food, not from the nickname for "Charles".
The American Chuckwagon Association is an organization dedicated to the preservation of the heritage of the chuckwagon. Its members participate in chuckwagon cook-offs throughout much of the US. Through these events, the members educate the public on the history and traditions surrounding the chuckwagon. At a chuckwagon cook off, each wagon is judged on the authenticity of the wagon. Wagons must be in sound drivable condition, with equipment and construction available in the late 1800s. Contents of the chuck-box, including utensils, must match what would have been used during the era. Wagons are judged on the attire of their cooks. A typical chuckwagon cookoff is composed of 5 food categories: Meat, Bread and potatoes. A team of judges evaluates the entries from each wagon. Once scores are tabulated, prizes are awarded to the top wagons. One of the most famous chuckwagon cook-offs is the Lincoln County Cowboy Symposium. Held annually for some two decades, this event attracts thousands to New Mexico.
Among the few chuckwagon cook-offs east of the Mississippi River takes place during SaddleUp! each February in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee. Held just outside Great Smoky Mountains National Park, SaddleUp! features a cowboy symphony and cowboy church services over a four-day period. The Academy of Western Artists presents an annual award for outstanding chuckwagon cooking as well as honors in other fields relating to the culture of the American cowboy. Chuckwagon racing is an event at some rodeos in Western Canada such as the Calgary Stampede. Chuckwagon races were held from 1952 until 1998 at Cheyenne Frontier Days, one of America's biggest rodeos. There are a few professional chuckwagon racing circuits that operate in North America with the premiere circuit being run by the World Professional Chuckwagon Association based in Calgary, the Western Chuckwagon Association out of Grande Prairie, AB, Canadian Professional Chuckwagon Association out of Saskatchewan. A yearly chuckwagon race event is still held in Arkansas.
So far the world's most successful Chuckwagon champion is Kelly Sutherland, who won the Calgary Stampede 12 times - the Wayne Gretzky of Chuckwagon racing. He inherited this tough pioneering spirit from his grandparents Helen and Seath Sutherland who homesteaded about fifteen miles southwest of Grande Prairie, Alberta, they raised 12 children there and Seath drove a team of horses to deliver coal to feed his family during the depression. This he did after mining a coal seam from the banks of the Wapiti river. Chuckwagons are raced around a figure eight barrel obstacle, the stove and tent poles within the wagon must not be lost; the racing team has from two to four "outriders" who load the stove and tent poles at the start and must finish the race with the chuckwagon. Many such races are held each year in towns. Chuckwagon racing is highlighted by animal welfare experts as dangerous to the horses, due to the unusually high risk of broken limbs and other bones. Horses die as a result and animal welfare charities are trying to raise awareness about the sport in this light.
In July 2011, a horse died in the chuckwagon race on the opening night of the Calgary Stampede. Tourists in the summers, can experience chuckwagon suppers, sometimes followed by live entertainment, at locations across the Western United States. Covered wagon Field kitchen American Chuckwagon Association Lincoln County Cowboy Symposium
Roadkill cuisine is preparing and eating roadkill, animals hit by vehicles and found along roads. It is a practice engaged in by a small subculture in the United States, southern Canada, the United Kingdom, other Western countries as well as in other parts of the world, it is a subject of humor and urban legend. Large animals including deer, elk and bear are struck in some parts of the United States, as well as smaller animals such as squirrels, armadillos, raccoons and birds. Fresh kill is preferred and parasites are a concern, so the kill is well cooked. Advantages of the roadkill diet, apart from its low cost, are that the animals that roadkill scavengers eat are high in vitamins and proteins with lean meat and little saturated fat, free of additives and drugs. 1.3 million deer are hit by vehicles each year in the US. If the animal is not suffering from disease, the meat is no different from that obtained by hunting; the practice of eating roadkill is legal, encouraged in some jurisdictions, while it is controlled or restricted in other areas.
Roadkill eating is considered unglamorous and mocked in pop culture, where it is associated with stereotypes of rednecks and uncouth persons. In the United Kingdom, various casseroles may be prepared from badger, otter, rabbit or pheasant where available. Others recommend hedgehog in a fricassee. Hedgehog was traditionally eaten roasted with a nettle pudding. Badger must be cooked to avoid the risk of trichinellosis. Roadkill enthusiasts in Canada recommend roasting beaver, which should first be soaked in salted water overnight after removing all fat. There are several roadkill cookbooks with a tongue-in-cheek treatment but containing sensible advice, not least of, ensuring that the flat meat is fresh and free of disease, is adequately cooked to destroy bacteria and other contaminants. Rat should be avoided because of the risk of Weil's disease. Buck Peterson has written a number of recipe books for this food source which he considers underrated, including Original Road Kill Cookbook, The International Road Kill Cookbook and The Totaled Roadkill Cookbook.
Roadkill Cooking for Campers by Charles Irion gives advice on outdoor cooking of roadkill. The more discerning may prefer Jeff Eberbaugh's Gourmet Style Road Kill Cooking, which gives advice on converting roadside opossum, turtle or skunk carcasses into tasty treats including squirrel pot pie, groundhog hoagies, creamed coon casserole and road kill stir fry. Thomas K. Squier, a former Special Forces survival school instructor, argues that wild meat is free of the steroids and additives found in commercial meat, is an economical source of protein, his book The wild and free cookbook includes a section devoted to locating, evaluating and cooking roadkill. Not all sources are serious. According to some, raccoon or opossum are preferable to squirrel, the taste is improved by aging and marinating the meat in roadside oil and grease before preparing a stew. Alternative recipes for roadkill include raccoon kebabs, moose-and-squirrel meat balls, Pennsylvania possum pot pie and skunk skillet stew; some of these website recipes are humorous in intent and may pose health hazards severe, if taken seriously.
There are various intergrades between an animal, squashed flat, an animal, hit glancingly and thrown onto the verge. An example of the latter would be a cock pheasant which flew up and tried to challenge a passing car and was thrown on the verge with its skull crushed but no other damage; as a guide to edibility, the mnemonic "How fresh is it? How flat is it?" Serves to remind the would-be eater of the two main characteristics to check before preparing roadkill. In Australia, kangaroo meat is produced from free ranging wild animals living on owned land. Wild kangaroos are a serious hazard at night in the Australian bush, accounting for 71% of animal-related insurance claims, followed by dogs and wombats. Most vehicles in the bush are fitted with roo bars to minimize the risk of damage; the meat thus collected may be prepared in a roo stew. Consumption of native species is only lawful if you possess a valid game hunting or scientific license. Motorists in western Canada are at some risk of colliding with bears.
Bear collisions have been reported in Ontario. Bears killed by accident may be donated to needy people for their meat. There is some risk of trichinellosis if bear meat contaminated with Trichinella nativa is under-cooked. In 2008, protesters blocking a new highway in British Columbia set up a kitchen in their camp where they cooked raccoon stew, venison steaks, bunny burgers using roadkill collected from the TransCanada Highway. Moose were introduced to Newfoundland in 1878, are now abundant - and a road hazard at night; until moose that were cleanly killed in road accidents were given to charitable groups. However, in April 2009 the Department of Natural Resources stated that they were going to stop this practice, citing concerns about the provenance. A spokesman stated the department would no longer be: "providing roadkill under which we have no idea about the health of the animal, we have no idea about how the animal was butchered"; the Independent and ABC News reported on food pioneer Fergus Drennan, "a full-time forager and star of the Fresh One Productions series The Roadkill Chef" broadcast in 2007 by the BBC.
Drennan is a critic of factory farming. He does have limits to what he'll eat, "One of the few things that I tend to avoid are cats and dogs. In theory, I'd have no problem with eating them... [but the
Fast food is a type of mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in culinary science. Fast food was created as a commercial strategy to accommodate the larger numbers of busy commuters and wage workers who did not have the time to sit down at a public house or diner and wait for their meal. By making speed of service the priority, this ensured that customers with limited time were not inconvenienced by waiting for their food to be cooked on-the-spot. For those with no time to spare, fast food became a multibillion-dollar industry; the fastest form of "fast food" consists of pre-cooked meals kept in readiness for a customer's arrival, with waiting time reduced to mere seconds. Other fast food outlets the hamburger outlets use mass-produced pre-prepared ingredients but take great pains to point out to the customer that the "meat and potatoes" are always cooked fresh and assembled "to order".
Although a vast variety of food can be "cooked fast", "fast food" is a commercial term limited to food sold in a restaurant or store with frozen, preheated or precooked ingredients, served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. Fast food restaurants are traditionally distinguished by their ability to serve food via a drive-through. Outlets may be kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating, or fast food restaurants. Franchise operations that are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant from central locations. Fast food began with chip shops in Britain in the 1860s. Drive-through restaurants were first popularized in the 1950s in the United States; the term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951. Eating fast food has been linked to, among other things, colorectal cancer, high cholesterol, depression. Many fast foods tend to be high in saturated fat, sugar and calories; the traditional family dinner is being replaced by the consumption of takeaway fast food.
As a result, the time invested on food preparation is getting lower, with an average couple in the United States spending 47 minutes and 19 seconds per day on food preparation in 2013. The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is connected with urban developments. Homes in emerging cities lacked adequate space or proper food preparation accouterments. Additionally, procuring cooking fuel could cost as much as purchased produce. Frying foods in vats of searing oil proved as dangerous as it was expensive, homeowners feared that a rogue cooking fire "might conflagrate an entire neighborhood". Thus, urbanites were encouraged to purchase pre-prepared meats or starches, such as bread or noodles, whenever possible. In Ancient Rome, cities had street stands – a large counter with a receptacle in the middle from which food or drink would have been served, it was during post-WWII American economic boom that Americans began to spend more and buy more as the economy boomed and a culture of consumerism bloomed.
As a result of this new desire to have it all, coupled with the strides made by women while the men were away, both members of the household began to work outside the home. Eating out, considered a luxury, became a common occurrence, a necessity. Workers, working families, needed quick service and inexpensive food for both lunch and dinner; this need is what drove the phenomenal success of the early fast food giants, which catered to the family on the go. Fast food became an easy option for a busy family today. In the cities of Roman antiquity, much of the urban population living in insulae, multi-story apartment blocks, depended on food vendors for much of their meal. In the mornings, bread soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked vegetables and stews in popina, a simple type of eating establishment. In Asia, 12th century Chinese scarfed down fried dough and stuffed buns, all of which still exist as contemporary snack food, their Baghdadi contemporaries supplemented home-cooked meals with processed legumes, purchased starches, ready-to-eat meats.
During the Middle Ages, large towns and major urban areas such as London and Paris supported numerous vendors that sold dishes such as pies, flans, wafers and cooked meats. As in Roman cities during antiquity, many of these establishments catered to those who did not have means to cook their own food single households. Unlike richer town dwellers, many could not afford housing with kitchen facilities and thus relied on fast food. Travelers such as pilgrims en route to a holy site, were among the customers. In areas with access to coastal or tidal waters,'fast food' included local shellfish or seafood, such as oysters or, as in London, eels; this seafood was cooked directly on the quay or close by. The development of trawler fishing in the mid-nineteenth century led to the development of a British favourite and chips, the first shop in 1860. A blue plaque at Oldham's Tommyfield Market marks the origin of the
Culture of Chicago
The culture of Chicago, Illinois is known for the invention or significant advancement of several performing arts, including improvisational comedy, house music, hip hop, gospel and soul. The city is known for its Chicago Prairie School architecture, it continues to cultivate a strong tradition of classical music, popular music and performing arts, rooted in Western civilization, as well as other traditions carried forward by its African-American, Asian-American, European American, Hispanic American, Native American citizens. The city is additionally known for various popular culinary dishes, including deep-dish pizza, the Chicago-style hot dog and the Italian beef sandwich. Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; the Chicago-style thin crust is popular in the city. A number of well-known chefs have had restaurants in Chicago, including Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, Rick Bayless.
In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the country's "most exceptional dining destination" and in 2008, Maxim awarded Chicago the title of "Tastiest City." The most popular Chicago-style foods are: The Chicago-style hot dog, traditionally a steamed or boiled, natural-casing all-beef wiener on a poppy-seed bun, topped with yellow mustard, chopped onion, sliced tomato, neon-green sweet-pickle relish, sport peppers, a dill pickle spear, a sprinkling of celery salt—but never ketchup. Chicago-style pizza is deep-dish pizza with a tall outer crust and large amounts of cheese, with chunky tomato sauce on top of the cheese instead of underneath it. Similar to this is stuffed pizza, with more cheese, topped with a second, thinner crust. Thin-crust pizza is very popular in Chicago with it cut in squares; the Italian beef, a sandwich featuring thinly sliced roast beef simmered in a broth containing Italian-style seasonings and served on an Italian roll soaked in the meat juices. Most beef stands offer a "cheesy beef" option, the addition of a slice of provolone or mozzarella.
A "combo" is a beef sandwich with the addition of grilled Italian sausage. Italian beef sandwiches are traditionally topped with spicy giardiniera. Other Chicago-style dishes include: Chicken Vesuvio, an Italian-American dish made from chicken on the bone and wedges of potato and carrots. Shrimp DeJonghe, a casserole of whole peeled shrimp blanketed in soft, sherry-laced bread crumbs. Maxwell Street Polish, named after Maxwell Street where it was first sold. It's a Polish sausage made with beef and pork, with garlic and other spices, served on a bun with grilled onions. A francheezie is a variation of the Chicago-style hot dog; the hot dog is wrapped in bacon and deep-fried, either stuffed or topped with cheese. The jibarito is a specialty sandwich that originated in the heart of Chicago's Puerto Rican community. Invented by Borinquen Restaurant in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, a jibarito is made with meat or chicken, condiments, placed between two pieces of fried and flattened plantain instead of bread.
The mother-in-law is a tamale on a hot dog bun, topped with chili. Chicago has its own unique style of tamale, machine-extruded from cornmeal and wrapped in paper, sold at hot dog stands. Gyros is popular in Chicago. While some restaurants still make their own gyros cones, Chicago is the hometown of mass-produced gyros. Flaming saganaki was popularized by restaurants in the Greektown neighborhood. A square piece of kasseri, kefalotyri, or a similar cheese is fried in a small, two-handled pan, topped with a splash of brandy, served flambé-style, traditionally with a cry of "Opa!" from the waiter. A pizza puff is a deep-fried dough pocket filled with cheese, tomato sauce, other pizza ingredients such as sausage. Indigenous to Chicago, pizza puffs can be found at some hot dog restaurants. A pepper and egg sandwich combines scrambled grilled bell peppers, served on French bread. Eaten during Lent by Italian immigrants in Chicago, it now can be found in some casual dining restaurants. Less well known are: The more provincial South Side specialties such as the big baby, a style of double cheeseburger with the cheese in between the hamburger patties, ketchup and pickle slices underneath them, grilled onions on top.
The breaded-steak sandwich, a specialty found in the Bridgeport neighborhood, which consists of a flattened inexpensive cut of beef, breaded, fried Milanesa-style and served on an Italian bread roll with marinara sauce, topped with optional mozzarella cheese and/or green peppers. The gym shoe, a submarine sandwich made with a combination of corned beef and either roast beef or Italian beef. Aquarium-smoked barbecue rib tips and hot links; this is barbecue, cooked in a rectangular indoor smoker with glass sides and a large compartment for a wood fire under the grill. Barbecued ribs are very popular in Chicago. Atomic cake, featuring banana and chocolate cake layers alternating with banana and fudge fillings. Chicago mix popcorn, which consists of caramel corn and cheese-flavored popcorn mixed together. Chicago Brick ice cream, a Neapolitan-style three-flavor ice-cream with orange sherbet and caramel flavors. Chicago features many restaurants that highlight the city's various ethnic neighborhoods, in
Vaccinium corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry, is a North American species of blueberry which has become a food crop of significant economic importance. It is native to eastern Canada and the eastern and southern United States, from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south as far as Florida and eastern Texas, it is naturalized in other places: Europe, New Zealand, the Pacific Northwest of North America, etc. Other common names include blue huckleberry, tall huckleberry, swamp huckleberry, high blueberry, swamp blueberry. Vaccinium corymbosum is a deciduous shrub growing to 6 -- 12 feet wide, it is found in dense thickets. The dark glossy green leaves are up to 2 inches long. In autumn, the leaves turn to a brilliant red, yellow, and/or purple; the flowers are long bell- or urn-shaped white to light pink, 1⁄3 of an inch long. The fruit is a 1⁄4-to-1⁄2-inch diameter blue-black berry; this plant is found in open areas with moist acidic soils. The species does not self-pollinate. Most cultivars have a chilling requirement greater than 800 hours.
Many wild species of Vaccinium are thought to have been cultivated by Native Americans for thousands of years, with intentional crop burnings in northeastern areas being apparent from archeological evidence. V. corymbosum, being one of the species used by these peoples, was studied and domesticated in 1908 by Frederick Vernon Coville. In natural habitats it is a food source for native and migrating birds and small mammals; the berries were collected and used in Native American cuisine in areas where Vaccinium corymbosum grew as a native plant. Vaccinium corymbosum is the most common commercially grown blueberry in present-day North America, it is cultivated as an ornamental plant for home and wildlife gardens and natural landscaping projects. The pH must be acidic; some common cultivar varieties are listed here, grouped by approximate start of the harvest season: The cultivars Duke and Spartan have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Some named Southern highbush blueberry are hybridized forms derived from crosses between V. corymbosum and Vaccinium darrowii, a native of the Southeastern U.
S. These hybrids and other cultivars of V. darrowii have been developed for cultivation in warm southern and western regions of North America. Vaccinium Huckleberry United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile for Vaccinium corymbosum Species account and photographs from Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network
Cuisine of the Southwestern United States
The cuisine of the Southwestern United States is food styled after the rustic cooking of the region. It comprises a fusion of recipes for things that might have been eaten by Spanish colonial settlers, Native Americans, Mexicans throughout the post-Columbian era. Southwestern cuisine is similar to Mexican cuisine but involves larger cuts of meat, namely pork and beef, less use of tripe and other parts not considered as desirable in the United States; as with Mexican cuisine, Southwestern cuisine is largely known for its use of spices. Several chains of casual dining restaurants specializing in Southwestern cuisine have become popular in the United States. New Mexican cuisine is known for its dedication to the chile, most notably the Hatch chile, named for the city in New Mexico where they are grown. Part of the New Mexican cuisine is smothering each dish with green chile or both, and the usage of pork or beef. The New Mexican Cuisine is most popular in the southwestern states of New Mexico and Utah.
Texas has a version, Tex-Mex cuisine, while Arizona's style of Southwestern cuisine is called Sonoran, since the Sonoran Desert covers a third of the state. Jane Butel, author on the subject New Mexican cuisine Nusom, Lynn "Authentic Southwestern Cooking." Western National Parks Association. ISBN 1-877856-89-4 Curtis, Susan "The Santa Fe School of Cooking Cookbook: Spirited Southwestern Recipes." Gibbs Smith. ISBN 0-87905-619-3, ISBN 0-87905-873-0Sedlar, Rivera John