Proslavery is an ideology that perceives slavery as a positive good. Aristotle claimed that people were natural slaves, and that it was in the best interests of these people to be enslaved. For them it is better to be ruled in accordance with this sort of rule, if such is the case for the other things mentioned. For he is a slave by nature who is capable of belonging to another–which is why he belongs to another–and who participates in only to the extent of perceiving it. Thomas Aquinas argued that slavery was not part of natural law, John Locke discusses slavery in his Second Treatise of Government. However, he goes on to argue that enslavement of those who are guilty of offences is permissible. He defends the enslavement of captured in war, This is the perfect condition of slavery, which is nothing else. Farr argues that Lockes theoretical justifications of slavery were inadequate to justify his practical involvement in the enslavement of Africans and he sees this contradiction as ultimately unsolvable, Locke never addressed, much less resolved, this contradiction.
On Afro-American slavery, silence seems to have been his principal bequest to posterity, Lockes silence is all the more difficult to fathom inasmuch as in the Two Treatises he developed a general theory and justification of slavery for captives taken in a just war. I hope to show that this theory is inadequate as an account of Afro-American slavery and, further. While Islam traditionally permits slavery, most contemporary Islamic authorities argue that the practice is inapplicable in the modern world, however, a minority of contemporary Islamic jurists defend slavery as still relevant and permissible today, and it is actively practiced by Islamist extremist groups. In the United States, pro-slavery sentiment arose in the period as a reaction to the growing antislavery movement in the United States in the late 18th century. Larry E. Tise goes on to describe in detail the history of thought in the British West Indies. He argues that the debate over slavery is more accurately seen, not as something exclusively American, until the middle of the 18th century, slavery was practiced with little challenge anywhere in the world.
For centuries philosophers as varied as Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, only in the American Revolutionary War era did slavery first become a significant social issue in North America. By 1810, 75% of Northern slaves had been freed and virtually all were freed within the next generation, in Virginia, as the economy shifted away from tobacco towards less labor-intensive wheat crops, more slaves were freed between 1783 and 1812 than any time until 1865. There was the potential, in many Southern minds, for a short transition away from slavery. Only in the early 19th century did abolitionist movements gather momentum, the increasing rarity of slavery, combined with an increase in the number of slaves caused by a boom in the cotton trade, drew attention and criticism to the Southern states continuation of slavery
Claudius Bombarnac is an adventure novel written by Jules Verne. Claudius Bombarnac, a reporter is assigned by the Twentieth Century to cover the travels of the Grand Transasiatic Railway which runs between Uzun Ada and Peking, China. Accompanying him on this journey is a collection of characters, including one who is trying to beat the round the world record. Claudius hopes one of them become the hero of his piece. He is not disappointed when a special car guarded by troops is added to the train, the great Mandarin actually turns out to be a large consignment being returned to China from Persia. Unfortunately the train must travel through a part of China that is controlled by unscrupulous robber-chiefs. Before the journey is over, Claudius finds his hero, first UK edition 1894, USA, New York, Coryell and Co.279 pp
Off on a Comet
Off on a Comet is an 1877 science fiction novel by Jules Verne. The story starts with a comet called Gallia, that touches the Earth in its flight, the disaster occurred on January 1 of the year 188x in the area around Gibraltar. On the territory that was carried away by the comet there remained a total of people of French, Spanish. These people did not realize at first what had happened, and they first noticed weight loss, Captain Servadacs adjutant Ben Zoof to his amazement, jumped twelve meters high. At the beginning of their stay in Gallia they noticed the Earth with the Moon, other important information was obtained through their research expedition with a ship, which the comet took. As found by a new expedition, the circumference of Gallia was 2320 km. The mass of the comet was calculated by Rosette and he determined it at 209,346 billion tonnes. For the calculation he used spring scales and forty 5-franc silver coins, the owner of the scales, Isaac Hakkabut, had rigged the instrument, so the results had to be cut by a quarter.
Involuntary travelers through the Solar system did not have any hope for long-term colonization of their new world and they ate mainly the animals that were left on the land carried away by Gallia. One strange phenomenon they met was that the sea on the comet did not freeze, once a stone was thrown into the sea, the sea froze in a few moments. The ice was completely smooth and allowed skating and sleigh sailing, the object of their interest was for example previously Spanish Ceuta, which became an island on the comet and which both parties started to consider an unclaimed territory. Captain Servadac therefore attempted to occupy Ceuta, but was not successful and it turned out that the island had been occupied by Englishmen, who maintained a connection to their base at Gibraltar through optical telegraph. Gallia got to a point of its orbit and began its return to Earth. In early November Rossetes refined calculations showed that there will be a new collision with the Earth, the idea appeared to leave the comet collision in a balloon.
The proposal was approved and the made a balloon out of the sails of their ship. In mid-December there was an earthquake, in which Gallia partially fell apart and lost a fragment, when on January 1 there was again a contact between the atmospheres of Gallia and Earth, the space castaways left in the balloon and landed safely two kilometers from Mostaganem in Algeria. The 36 inhabitants of Gallia include a German Jew, an Italian, pablo, a Spanish boy Colonel Heneage Finch Murphy and Major Sir John Temple Oliphant of Britains Gibraltar garrison. In the French original Murphy is actually a Brigadier, a too high to be the butt of Vernes joking description as playing an interminable game of chess without a pawn being taken
Foundling Mick is an adventure novel written by Jules Verne first published in 1893. It describes adventures in Ireland, more specifically the rags to riches tale of an orphan, the story begins in Westport, with the wandering puppeteer Thornpipe demonstrating his puppets to the destitute populace. Revealed to be abandoned while only 6 months old, the boy does not know his name, being the protagonist. The public confronts Thornpipe and stands up for the boy, driving Thornpipe out of town, with no local family able or willing to raise the foundling, he is given to an orphanage known as Ragged School in the neighboring town of Galway. After the death of yet another child who lived them, Litl Fellow ran away from Hards hut. This chapter of Litl Fellows life ends when he finds a bottle of vodka, unfortunately, he is noticed by Carker, who proceeds to appropriate the bottle, lock up Grip and Litl Fellow in the attic, and throw a drinking party. Litl Fellow is noticed by the young and popular actress Anna Waston and she immediately adopts the boy, much to the dismay of her middle-aged servant Elisa, who knew the pretentious and emotionally unstable nature of her master too well.
But the boy, only 5 years old at the time and not yet able to tell reality from a show, takes the play literally, Anna dumps the boy in Limerick and leaves Ireland, never to return. The boy is found at the steps of a cathedral near a cemetery by the visiting farmers and Martine MacCarthy. The family shelters Litl Fellow to live with them on their Kerwan farm in County Kerry, absent was the couples second son, who entered the service as a seaman. Becoming a good worker, Litl Fellow requests only one thing for his payment—a small rock for every day he would spend in service of the family. Murdock is imprisoned for half-year due to his participation in the nationalist movement for home rule, supported by Martin, the Grandmother, severely ill at the time, meets death at the hands of the landlords manager and police guards come to evict the family. Litl Fellow, who was absent at the time walking several miles to a neighboring village trying to obtain a medicine for the dying Grandmother, arrives to see the family gone and the farm demolished.
After nearly perishing in the cold, Litl Fellow is saved by the familys shepherd dog, Birk. Birk, leads Litl Fellow away from Limerick and into Newmarket, Litl Fellow happens to find a briefcase lost by a local landlord, marquis Piborne. After returning the briefcase containing £100 to marquis residence, Trelingar Castle, Litl Fellow is invited to serve in the castle as a groom to marquis son, count Ashton. The boy accepts and serves in the castle for months, once again suffering constant ridicule from other servants. Birk, being at odds with Ashtons dogs, cannot be taken by the boy into the castle and has to be taken care of in either by him, or by his only friend in the castle
Abolitionism in the United States
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States. In the Americas and western Europe, abolitionism was a movement to end the Atlantic slave trade, in the 17th century, English Quakers and Evangelicals condemned slavery as un-Christian. At that time, most slaves were Africans, but thousands of Native Americans were enslaved, in the 18th century, as many as six million Africans were transported to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them on British ships to North America. Abolition was part of the message of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s in the Thirteen Colonies, in the same period, rationalist thinkers of the Enlightenment criticized slavery for violating human rights. A member of the British Parliament, James Edward Oglethorpe, was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, founder of the Province of Georgia, Oglethorpe banned slavery on humanistic grounds. He argued against it in Parliament and eventually encouraged his friends Granville Sharp, soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect.
Although anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century and emerging nations, notably in the southern United States, continued to use and uphold traditions of slavery. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal, freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state, in other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans. During the ensuing decades, the abolitionist movement grew in Northern states, britain banned the importation of African slaves in its colonies in 1807 and abolished slavery in the British Empire in 1833. The United States criminalized the international trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War. Historian James M. McPherson defines an abolitionist as one who before the Civil War had agitated for the immediate and total abolition of slavery in the United States. He does not include antislavery activists such as Abraham Lincoln, U. S.
President during the Civil War, or the Republican Party, the first Americans who made a public protest against slavery were the Mennonites of Germantown, Pennsylvania. Soon after, in April 1688, Quakers in the town wrote a two-page condemnation of the practice and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church. The Quaker establishment never took action, the Quaker Quarterly Meeting of Chester, made its first protest in 1711. Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby. Slavery was banned in the Province of Georgia soon after its founding in 1733, the colonys founder, James Edward Oglethorpe, fended off repeated attempts by South Carolina merchants and land speculators to introduce slavery to the colony. In 1739, he wrote to the Georgia Trustees urging them to hold firm, If we allow slaves we act against the principles by which we associated together. Whereas, now we should occasion the misery of thousands in Africa, by setting men upon using arts to buy, the struggle between Georgia and South Carolina led to the first debates in Parliament over the issue of slavery, occurring between 1740 and 1742
An Antarctic Mystery
An Antarctic Mystery is a two-volume novel by Jules Verne. Written in 1897, it is a response to Edgar Allan Poes 1838 novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket and it follows the adventures of the narrator and his journey from the Kerguelen Islands aboard Halbrane. Neither Poe nor Verne had actually visited the remote Kerguelen Islands, located in the south Indian Ocean, the story is set in 1839, eleven years after the events in Arthur Gordon Pym, one year after the publication of that book. The narrator is a wealthy American Jeorling, who has entertained himself with private studies of the wildlife on the Kerguelen Islands and is now looking for a back to the USA. Halbrane is one of the first ships to arrive at Kerguelen, they meet a stray iceberg with a dead body on it, which turns out to be a sailor from Jane. A note found with him indicates that he and several others including Janes captain William Guy had survived the attempt at Tsalal and are still alive. Guy, who had talked to Jeorling earlier about the subject of Pym and he decides to try to come to the rescue of Janes crew.
After taking on provisions on Tristan da Cunha and the Falklands and they take aboard another mysterious sailor named Hunt who is eager to join the search for undisclosed reasons. Extraordinarily mild weather allows the Halbrane to make progress, and they break the pack ice barrier. They find first Bennets islet, where Jane had made a stop, but the island is completely devastated, apparently by a recent massive earthquake, and deserted. They find the remains of Tsalals natives, who died long before the earthquake, and the collar of Pyms dog, Tiger. At this point, Hunt is revealed to be Dirk Peters, on their travel south of Tsalal, he and Pym had become separated, and only Peters made it safely back to the States where he, not Pym, instigated the publication of their voyage. Pyms diary, in Peters possession, had apparently been significantly embellished by Poe, upon returning home, Peters took on a new identity, because he was too ashamed of having resorted to cannibalism on the wreck of Grampus.
Not much later, in an accident, Halbrane is thrown upon an iceberg. The crew makes it safely onto the iceberg, but with one small boat left. The iceberg drifts even past the South Pole, before the party is cast ashore on a hitherto unknown land mass still within the pack ice barrier. They are lucky, however, as shortly thereafter they see a boat of aboriginal style drifting by. Peters is the first to react as he swims out toward the boat, but Peters finds more, In the boat, there are captain William Guy and the three surviving seamen of his crew and close to death by starvation
Robur the Conqueror
Robur the Conqueror is a science fiction novel by Jules Verne, published in 1886. It is known as The Clipper of the Clouds and it has a sequel, The Master of the World, which was published in 1904. The story begins with strange lights and sounds, including blaring trumpet music and these events are all the work of the mysterious Robur, a brilliant inventor who intrudes on a meeting of a flight-enthusiasts club called the Weldon Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He chastises the group for being balloon-boosters when heavier than air flying apparatuses are the future, when asked if Robur himself has made conquest of the air, he states that he has, leading to him accepting the title Robur the Conqueror. During his short time at the Weldon Institute, Robur so incites the members that they chase him outside, just as they are about to attack him, Robur appears to vanish into the mob, but he has actually been borne away by a flying machine. Later that night Robur kidnaps the Weldon Institutes secretary, and it bears the same black flag with golden sun that has been sighted on so many landmarks, and the music in the sky is explained to be one of the crewmen playing a trumpet.
To demonstrate the superiority, Robur takes his captives around the world in the course of three weeks. The president and secretary are angry at Robur for kidnapping them and unwilling to admit that the Albatross is a fantastic vessel and they demand that Robur release them, but he is aloof and always says that they shall remain as long as he desires it. Fearing they will be held forever, the two formulate plans to both escape and destroy the Albatross. After the horizontal propellers are damaged in a storm, the Albatross is anchored over the Chatham Islands for repairs, while the crew is busy at work, the two Weldon Institute members light a fuse and make their escape. They try to bring the valet with them but cannot find him, the Albatross explodes and its wreckage, along with Robur and his crew, plunge into the ocean. Meanwhile, the three escapees are safe on a small but inhabited island and are rescued by a ship. Rather than have one propeller to their dirigible, they decide to have one propeller in front and another behind.
Seven months after their return the Go-ahead is completed and making its maiden voyage with the president, the speed and maneuverability of the dirigible marvels a huge crowd, but are trivial compared to Roburs Albatross. Suddenly, out of the sky appears the Albatross. It is revealed that when the Albatross exploded, enough of it was intact so that at least some of the propellers operated and slowed its descent, the crew used the remains of the Albatross as a raft until they were rescued by a ship. Later and the crew made it back to his secret X Island, Robur has built a new Albatross and now intends to exact revenge by showing that it is superior to the Weldon Institutes Go-ahead. The entirety of the scene is described from the crowds point of view
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened, following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, and are much more durable than paperbacks. Hardcover books are more costly to manufacture. If brisk sales are anticipated, an edition of a book is typically released first. Some publishers publish paperback originals if slow hardback sales are anticipated, for very popular books these sales cycles may be extended, and followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper. In the past the release of an edition was one year after the hardback. It is very unusual for a book that was first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback, an example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, and in hardcover.
Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Hardcovers typically consist of a block, two boards, and a cloth or heavy paper covering. The pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, and it too is covered by the cloth, a paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is usually put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is generally a blurb, the back flap is where the biography of the author can be found. Reviews are often placed on the back of the jacket, bookbinding Paperback How to make a simple Hardcover book