United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Texarkana is a city in Arkansas and the county seat of Miller County. The city is located across the state line from its twin city, Texas; the city was founded at a railroad intersection on December 8, 1873, was incorporated in Arkansas on August 10, 1880. Texarkana is the principal city of the Texarkana metropolitan area, ranked 274th in terms of population in the United States with 150,098 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau. Located within the Ark-La-Tex subregion of Southwest Arkansas, Texarkana is located in the Piney Woods, a oak-hickory forest atop the flat Gulf Coastal Plain. Texarkana's economy is driven by agriculture and the city's position as a crossroads of three major Interstate highways: Interstate 30, I-49 and the future I-69. Outdoors tourism, such as fishing at Lake Millwood, are important in the region; the Texarkana Arkansas School District is the largest public school district on the Arkansas side, leading to graduation from Arkansas High School. The city is home to Texarkana College, a branch campus of the University of Arkansas Community College at Hope.
Texarkana, Arkansas, is located at 33°25′59″N 94°1′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.9 square miles, of which 41.7 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Texarkana has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2016, there were 30,283 people, 13,565 households, 7,040 families residing in the city. The population density was 830.5 people per square mile. There were 11,721 housing units at an average density of 368.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.93% White, 31.00% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.78% of the population. There were 13,565 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 18.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families.
28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,343, the median income for a family was $38,292. Males had a median income of $35,204 versus $21,731 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,130. About 17.2% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.0% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or above. The Arkansas Department of Correction operates the Texarkana Regional Correction Center in Texarkana. Arkansas residents whose permanent residence is within the city limits of Texarkana, Arkansas are exempt from Arkansas individual income taxes.
The Federal Courthouse is located directly on the Arkansas-Texas state line and is the only federal office building to straddle a state line. According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the area are: Red River Army Depot & tenants 7,200, Christus St. Michael Health Care 1,883, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company 1,700, Domtar 1,300, Wal-Mart 1,100, International Paper 925, Wadley Regional Medical Center 850, Texarkana Independent School District 795, Texarkana Arkansas School District 785, Southern Refrigerated Transport 750 Texarkana Texarkana Regional Airport Interstate 30 Interstate 49 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 71 U. S. Highway 59 Arkansas Highway 196 Arkansas Highway 151 Arkansas Highway 296 Arkansas Highway 237 Public education for elementary and secondary school students is provided by two school districts: Texarkana Arkansas School District, which leads to graduating from Arkansas High School; the high school mascot is the Razorback, selected for use by the University of Arkansas in exchange for used athletic equipment—a practice that no longer occurs.
A small portion of the city is within the Genoa Central School District, which leads to graduation from Genoa Central High School. The high school mascot is the Dragon with white serving as the school colors. Private education opportunities include: Trinity Christian School, a Baptist school serving prekindergarten through grade 12In 2012, Texarkana became home to a branch of the University of Arkansas Hope-Texarkana, a community college based in Hope, in 2015 UAHT began partnering with the University of Arkansas Little Rock, to offer bachelor's-degree programs through UALR Texarkana, based on the UAHT Texarkana campus. Texarkana is referenced in the song "Cotton Fields" by the American folk and blues musician Lead Belly and recorded by several notable country rock artists, including The Highwaymen, Buck Owens, The Beach Boys, Elton John and Creedence Clearwater Revival. Lead Belly, was born on a cotton plantation near Linden, about 40 miles southwest of Texarkana, worked on a plantation near De Kalb, about 35 miles west of Texark
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Miller County, Arkansas
Miller County is a county located in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,462; the county seat is Texarkana. Miller County is part of TX-AR, Metropolitan Statistical Area; when first formed, Miller County was Arkansas's sixth county, established on April 1, 1820, named for James Miller, the first governor of the Arkansas Territory. Additionally, Miller County was the first of the state's counties to be formed upon the creation of the Arkansas Territory; the first five — Arkansas, Clark and Pulaski — were formed during Arkansas's days as part of the Missouri Territory. This county was abolished in 1838. During the Reconstruction era, it was organized again on December 22, 1874 from a portion of neighboring Lafayette County; when created in 1820, Miller County included most of the current Miller County, as well as several present-day Texas counties. In 1831 the county seat was located what is Texas; when Arkansas achieved statehood the same year as Texas declared itself an independent republic in 1836, a dispute arose over their common border, with the area in Miller County having representation in both the Arkansas legislature and the Texas congress.
In 1837 and 1838, Texas organized Red River and Fannin counties in the area. Arkansas attempted to counter by making it a misdemeanor for Miller County residents to hold office in Texas, by establishing a county court in Fannin; the attempts were unsuccessful. In 1845 Texas agreed to annexation by the United States, settling the boundary between Texas and Arkansas; as much of Miller County was lost to Texas, the county was dissolved, with the remaining territory returning to Lafayette County. The modern Miller County was re-created in 1874 from the parts of Lafayette County lying west and south of the Red River. Miller County is located in the southwest corner of Arkansas in the Piney Woods, a temperate coniferous forest; the forests of pine trees formed a logging and silviculture industry, though many fields have been cleared from the forest to grow rice, soybeans and vegetables. The county is within the Ark-La-Tex region, sharing a tripoint with Texas and Louisiana; the Ark-La-Tex is an economic region anchored by Shreveport, Tyler, Longview and Texarkana.
The Red River serves as the northern and eastern boundary of the county, though the watercourse has shifted since the county's reestablishment in 1874. The original Red River continues to serve as the county line between Little River and Lafayette counties in Arkansas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Miller County has a total area of 637.48 square miles, of which 623.98 square miles is land and 13.50 square miles is water. The county is located 143 miles southwest of Little Rock, 73 miles north of Shreveport, 204 miles east of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in Texas. Miller County is surrounded by three Arkansas counties: Little River County to the north, Hempstead County to the northeast, Lafayette County to the east. Miller County is within the South Central Plains Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Within the region, the county contains parts of four different Level IV ecoregions. Throughout the South Central Plains, forests are swamp - southern floodplain forest, unlike the oak–hickory–pine forest of higher, better drained forests in adjacent eco-regions.
Along the north and eastern county boundary, the Red River Bottomlands follows the Red River. This eco-region contains floodplains, low terraces, oxbow lakes, meander scars, natural levees, the meandering Red River. Natural vegetation is southern floodplain forest unlike the oak–hickory– pine forest of higher, better drained compared to adjacent forests. However, the region has been cleared and drained for agriculture; the Red River is continuously turbid. South of Texarkana, the Floodplains and Low Terraces eco-region follows the Sulphur River, it contains flooded forested wetlands, natural levees, oxbow lakes, meander scars. Longitudinal channel gradients are less than in the Ouachita Mountains. North of the low terraces, a small strip of Pleistocene Fluvial Terraces ecoregion contains level, poorly-drained, periodically wet soils underlain by Pleistocene unconsolidated terrace deposits. Loblolly pine and oaks are adapted to the prevailing hydroxeric regime. A vertical sequence of terraces occurs.
The lowest terrace is nearly flat and has extensive hardwood wetlands. Higher terraces become more dissected; the mid-level terrace is veneered with windblown silt deposits. Streams tend to be mildly stained by organic matter, they have more suspended solids, greater turbidity, higher hardness values than the Tertiary Uplands. Miller County contains two protected areas: the Sandhills Natural Area owned by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, the Sulphur River Wildlife Management Areas, owned by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission; the Sandhills Natural Area preserves 274 acres of undisturbed sandhill vegetation al
James Miller (general)
James Miller was the first Governor of Arkansas Territory and a brevet brigadier general in the United States Army during the War of 1812. It was during his term as governor, due to his influence, that the territory's capital was moved from Arkansas Post to Little Rock. James Miller was born in New Hampshire, to James and Catharine Miller, he attended an academy at Amherst and Williams College. After Martha's death, he married Ruth Flint, he had a law practice in Greenfield, New Hampshire, from 1803 to 1808. Miller joined the New Hampshire state militia and commanded an artillery unit, until General Benjamin Pierce noticed him and recommended that he be commissioned as a major in the regular army. Miller joined with the 4th United States Infantry in 1808. In 1811, Miller's unit went to fight Indians in Vincennes, where he was promoted to colonel. In May 1812, his regiment moved to Michigan, he was the commander during the Battle of Maguaga. Shortly afterwards, Miller was taken prisoner in 1813 and was exchanged.
In 1814, Miller was colonel of the 21st Infantry Regiment and led his men in the capture of the British artillery at the Battle of Lundy's Lane. His "I will try, sir!" Quote became famous and he earned the name of "Hero of Lundy's Lane". He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in November 1814. Miller was made a Brevet Brigadier-General brigadier general by the U. S. Congress after the battle. Appointed governor of the Arkansas Territory on March 3, 1819, Miller resigned from the army, but did not leave New England for his governorship until September 1819, he traveled to Washington, D. C. first, where he learned that he would serve as the superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Arkansas Territory. He traveled to Pittsburgh and acquired armaments for the territorial militia, he traveled down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers with the armaments in tow, arriving at Arkansas Post on December 26, 1819, on a vessel flying flags reading "Arkansaw" and "I will try, sir!" Due to Miller's tardiness, Robert Crittenden, the secretary of the territory, had been running the state and filling necessary appointments which were validated by the U.
S. Congress. Miller focused his attentions on finding a suitable location for a territorial capital. Since a number of influential men, including Miller, in the territorial legislature had purchased lots in the Little Rock area, the bill moving the capital from Arkansas Post to Little Rock passed the territorial legislature; as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the territory, Miller dealt with the considerable debate over Quapaw and Choctaw land claims and the desire for American whites to take the land for themselves. To make matters more confusing for Miller, warfare between the Cherokee and the Osage erupted within the territory in 1821. From the beginning of his term, it was clear that he did not plan to stay in Arkansas, as his wife remained in New Hampshire. Miller left the torrid Arkansas summer for cooler New Hampshire in April 1821, returning the following November. In his absences, Crittenden made decisions regarding the Native American problems. In June 1823, Miller left Arkansas and did not return at all that year.
He held the post as Governor of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 to 1824. In the fall of 1824, he was elected to the House of Representatives in New Hampshire but never took office. Instead he was appointed Collector of Customs in Salem, Massachusetts, a post he served in until 1849, it is in this role that he is portrayed as the General in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Custom-House, an Introductory to The Scarlet Letter. Miller retired to his home in New Hampshire, where he died of a stroke, he was buried in Harmony Grove Cemetery in Massachusetts. Miller was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1821. Miller County and Miller State Park in Peterborough, New Hampshire are both named after him. List of Congressional Gold Medal recipients List of Governors of Arkansas List of people from New Hampshire List of Williams College people Arkansas Encyclopedia Governors of Arkansas epodunk.com New Hampshire Historical Markers