Italian Americans are citizens of the United States of America who are of Italian descent. Italian Americans are the fourth largest ethnic group of European Americans behind German Americans, Irish Americans and English Americans. About 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. In 1870, there were fewer than 25,000 Italian immigrants in America, many of them Northern Italian refugees from the wars that accompanied the Risorgimento—the struggle for Italian unification and independence from foreign rule which ended in 1871. Immigration began to increase during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated than during the five previous decades combined; the 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to the United States, the majority being from Southern Italy and Sicily, with many having agrarian backgrounds. This period of large-scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year, never resumed.
Further immigration was limited by several laws Congress passed in the 1920s. 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily, still rural and agricultural, where much of the populace had been impoverished by centuries of foreign misrule, an oppressive taxation system imposed after Italian unification in 1861. After unification, the Italian government encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South. After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a half million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy and elsewhere to fill the labor shortage caused by the war. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in eastern cities, mining camps and farms; the descendants of the Italian immigrants rose from a lower economic class in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. The Italian community has been characterized by strong ties to family, the Roman Catholic Church, fraternal organizations, political parties.
Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Europeans. Christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in 1492–1504, was Italian. Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. England's claims in North America were based on the voyages of the Italian explorer John Cabot and his son Sebastian Cabot in the early 16th century. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to map the Atlantic coast of today's United States, to enter New York Bay. A number of Italian navigators and explorers in the employ of Spain and France were involved in exploring and mapping their territories, in establishing settlements. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory that became the states of Arizona and New Mexico; the first Italian to reside in America was Pietro Cesare Alberti, a Venetian seaman who, in 1635, settled in what would become New York City.
A small wave of Protestants, known as Waldensians, who were of French and northern Italian heritage, occurred during the 17th century. The first Waldensians began arriving around 1640, with the majority coming between 1654 and 1663, they spread out across what was called New Netherland, what would become New York, New Jersey and the Lower Delaware River regions. The total American Waldensian population that immigrated to New Netherland is unknown. Henri de Tonti, together with the French explorer LaSalle, explored the Great Lakes region. De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, in Arkansas in 1683. With LaSalle, he co-founded New Orleans, was governor of the Louisiana Territory for the next 20 years, his brother Alphonse de Tonty, with French explorer Antoine Cadillac, was the co-founder of Detroit in 1701, was its acting colonial governor for 12 years. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native American population. Included among these missionaries were numerous Italians.
In 1519-25, Alessandro Geraldini was the first Catholic bishop in the Americas, at Santo Domingo. Father François-Joseph Bressani labored among the Algonquin and Huron Indians in the early 17th century. Between 1687 and 1711, the southwest and California were explored and mapped by Italian Jesuit priest Eusebio Kino; the Taliaferro family from Venice, was one of the first families to settle in Virginia. Francesco Maria de Reggio, an Italian nobleman who served under the French, came to Louisiana in 1751 where he held the title of Captain General of Louisiana until 1763. Another colonial, merchant Francis Ferrari of Genoa, was naturalized as a citizen of Rhode Island in 1752, he died in 1753 and in his will speaks of Genoa, his ownership of three ships, cargo of wine and his wife Mary, who went on to own one of the oldest coffee houses in America, the Merchant Coffee House of New York on Wall Street at Water St. Her Merchant Coffee House moved across Wall Street in 1772, retaining the same patronage.
Today, the descendants of the Alberti/Burtis, Fonda, Reggio an
China Campaign Medal
The China Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army, created by order of the United States War Department on January 12, 1905. The medal recognizes service in the China Relief Expedition, conducted by the United States Army at the turn on the 20th century during the Boxer Rebellion. To be awarded the China Campaign Medal, a service member must have performed military duty in China, between the dates of June 20, 1900 and May 27, 1901, with such duty being in service of the China Relief Expedition. For those service members who were cited for gallantry in action, the Citation Star is authorized as a device to the China Campaign Medal; the United States Navy equivalent of the China Campaign Medal was the China Relief Expedition Medal. A similar medal, known as the China Service Medal, was created by the Navy in 1941. On the obverse is the Imperial Chinese five-toed dragon with the inscription CHINA RELIEF EXPEDITION around the upper border and the dates 1900–1901 at the bottom. On the reverse is a trophy composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kris.
Below the trophy are the words FOR SERVICE. Around the border at the top are the words UNITED STATES ARMY and around the bottom are thirteen stars; the ribbon is 13⁄8 inches wide and is composed of the following vertical stripes: 1/16 inch Ultramarine blue, 11⁄4 inch Golden yellow, 1/16 inch Ultramarine Blue. Army units which received credit for campaign participation may display the streamer on the organizational flag; the inscription will be as indicated on the unit's lineage and honors. There are three streamers displayed on the Army flag to represent the China Relief Expedition; the inscriptions are: TIENTSIN 1900 YANG-TSUN 1900 PEKING 1900 List of military decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military This article incorporates text in the public domain from the United States Army."China Relief Expeditionary Medal". Service Medals and Campaign Credits of the United States Navy. Naval Historical Center. 13 June 1998. Retrieved 2007-10-17."China Campaign Medal". The Institute of Heraldry, United States Army.
Archived from the original on 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-10-17
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War called the War Department, was the United States Cabinet department responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence; the War Department existed from August 7, 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment, renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949. Shortly after the establishment of a strong government under President George Washington in 1789, Congress created the War Department as a civilian agency to administer the field army under the president and the secretary of war.
Retired senior General Henry Knox in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War. Forming and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. Direct field command of the small Regular Army by President Washington leading a column of troops west through Pennsylvania to Fort Cumberland in Maryland in 1794 to combat the incipient Whiskey Rebellion on the frontier was an occasion never since used by American Presidents; the Possibility of re-organizing a "New Army" under nominal command of retired President and Major General George Washington and his aide, former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton to deal with the rising tide of maritime incidents between American commerce ships and the new French Republic was authorized by second President John Adams in 1798 and the remote possibility of land invasion was an interesting adventure. On November 8, 1800 the War Department building with its records and files was consumed by fire. Foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army.
In August 1814 during the Burning of Washington, the United States Department of War building was burned-however the War and State Department files had been removed-all books and record had been saved. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary. Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun reorganized the department into a system of bureaus, whose chiefs held office for life, a commanding general in the field, although the Congress did not authorize this position. Winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861; the bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops and field installations. The bureaus conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War supported the bureaus. Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, their chiefs looked to that body for support. Calhoun set up the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824, the main agency within the War Department for dealing with Native Americans until 1849, when the Congress transferred it to the newly founded Department of the Interior.
During the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care and pay of two million soldiers, comprising both the regular army and the much larger temporary volunteer army. A separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. During Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states; when military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, the last Republican state governments in the region ended; the Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, in coastal artillery units in port cities, dealing with the threat of a naval attack. The United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century.
By contrast, France had an army of 542,000. Temporary volunteers and state militia units fought the Spanish–American War of 1898; this conflict demonstrated the need for more effective control over its bureaus. Secretary of War Elihu Root sought to appoint a chief of staff as general manager and a European-type general staff for planning, aiming to achieve this goal in a businesslike manner, but General Nelson A. Miles stymied his efforts. Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and the General Staff, he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War, Root worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, wrote the charter of government for the Philippines, eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico.
Root's successor as Secretary
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A brigade is a major tactical military formation, composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division. Brigades formed into divisions are infantry or armored. In addition to combat units, they may include combat support units or sub-units, such as artillery and engineers, logistic units or sub-units; such brigades have sometimes been called brigade-groups. On operations, a brigade may comprise both organic elements and attached elements, including some temporarily attached for a specific task. Brigades may be specialized and comprise battalions of a single branch, for example cavalry, armored, air defence, engineers, signals or logistic; some brigades are classified as independent or separate and operate independently from the traditional division structure. The typical NATO standard brigade consists of 3,200 to 5,500 troops. However, in Switzerland and Austria, the numbers could go as high as 11,000 troops.
The Soviet Union, its forerunners and successors use "regiment" instead of brigade, this was common in much of Europe until after World War II. A brigade's commander is a major general, brigadier general, brigadier or colonel. In some armies, the commander is rated as a General Officer; the brigade commander has staff. The principal staff officer a lieutenant colonel or colonel, may be designated chief of staff, although until the late 20th century British and similar armies called the position'brigade-major'; some brigades may have a deputy commander. The headquarters has a nucleus of staff officers and support that can vary in size depending on the type of brigade. On operations, additional specialist elements may be attached; the headquarters will have its own communications unit. In some gendarmerie forces, brigades are the basic-level organizational unit. "The brigade as a military unit came about starting in the 15th century when the British army and militia developed a unit to control more than one infantry regiment or cavalry squadron".
Each regiment, cavalry squadron, or artillery battery operated somewhat independently, with its own field officer or battery commander reporting directly to the field force or "army" commander. As such a "field army" became larger, the number of subordinate commanders became unmanageable for the officer in general command of said army a major general, to command. In order to streamline command relationships, as well as effect some modicum of tactical control in regard to combined arms operations, an intermediate level of command became evident. "The term's origin is found in two French roots, which together, meant roughly'those who fight' ". Another theory for derivation of the term brigade derives from Italian brigata, as used for example in the introduction to The Decameron, where it refers only to a group of ten, or Old French brigare, meaning "company" of an undefined size, which in turn derives from a Celtic root briga, which means "strife"; the so-called "brigada" was a well-mixed unit, comprising infantry and also artillery, designated for a special task.
The size of such "brigada" ranged from a reinforced "company" of up to two regiments. The "brigada" was the forerunner of the modern "battalion task force", "battle group", or "brigade"; the brigade was improved as a tactical unit by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus, who introduced it in 1631 during a reorganization of the Swedish Army during the Thirty Years' War. The creation of the brigade overcame the lack of coordination inherent in the traditional army structure consisting of independent regiments of infantry and units of supporting arms acting separately under their individual commanding officers. Gustavus accomplished this battlefield coordination by combining battalions of infantry with cavalry troops and artillery batteries into a "battle group", viz. brigada or "brigade" commanded by a senior colonel, or lieutenant colonel, appointed as a brigadier-general. The brigade organization was copied in France by Maréchal Turenne, who made it a permanent standing unit, requiring the creation in 1667 of a permanent rank of brigadier des armées du roi.
Unlike the Swedish brigades, French brigades at that time were composed of two to five regiments of the same branch. The rank, intermediate between colonel and maréchal de camp, disappeared in 1788 and should not be confused with that of général de brigade, equivalent to a brigadier general. In the Argentinian Army, the typical brigade is composed of an HQ company, two or three battalions of the brigade´s main branch, which give the brigade its denomination, plus one battalion of the other branch, plus one or two artillery groups, an engineers battalion or company, a signals company, intelligence company, an army aviation section and a logistics battalion. Mountain brigades have a special forces company; the brigade is commanded by a brigadier general or a senior colonel, who may be promoted to general during his tenure as brigade comman
Mexican Service Medal
The Mexican Service Medal is an award of the United States military for service in Mexico from 1911 to 1919. The Mexican Service Medal awarded by the Army was established by General Orders of the United States War Department on December 12, 1917; the Navy's Mexican Service Medal was established by Navy Department General Orders Number 365 on February 11, 1918, as amended by Navy Department General Orders No. 464 of April 27, 1919. The Mexican Service Medal recognizes those service members who performed military service against Mexican forces between the dates of April 12, 1911 and June 16, 1919. To be awarded the Mexican Service Medal, a service member was required to perform military duty during the time period of eligibility and in one of the following military engagements. Veracruz Expedition: April 21 to November 23, 1914 Punitive Expedition into Mexico: March 14, 1916 to February 7, 1917 Buena Vista, Mexico: December 1, 1917 The punitive expedition in the aftermath of the Brite Ranch raid on San Bernardino Canyon, Mexico: December 26, 1917 La Grulla, Texas: January 8 – January 9, 1918 The aftermath of the Neville Ranch raid that resulted in a small action in the village of Pilares, Chihuahua: March 28, 1918 For actions in Nogales, Arizona during the Battle of Nogales or Battle of Ambos Nogales: November 1–26, 1915, or August 27, 1918 El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua for the Battle of Ciudad Juárez: June 15 – June 16, 1919The United States Navy issued the Mexican Service Medal to members of the Navy and Marines who participated in any of the above actions, as well as to service members who served aboard U.
S. naval vessels patrolling Mexican waters between April 21 and November 26, 1914, or between March 14, 1916, February 7, 1917. The Mexican Service Medal was awarded to any service member, wounded or killed while participating in action any against hostile Mexican forces between April 12, 1911 and February 7, 1917. Although a single decoration, both the Army and Navy issued two different versions of the Mexican Service Medal; the Army Mexican Service Medal displayed an engraving of a yucca plant, while the Navy version depicts the San Juan de Ulúa fortress in Veracruz harbor. Both medals displayed the annotation "1911 - 1917" on the bottom of the medal; the Mexican Service Medal was a one time decoration and there were no service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple engagements. For those Army members, cited for gallantry in combat, the Citation Star was authorized as a device to the Mexican Service Medal. There were no devices authorized for the Navy's version of the decoration.
A similar decoration, known as the Mexican Border Service Medal existed for those who had performed support duty to Mexican combat expeditions from within the United States. General of the Armies John J. Pershing General of the Army Douglas MacArthur Fleet Admiral William Halsey Jr. USN General George S. Patton Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, USN Major General John H. Russell Jr. USMC Awards and decorations of the United States military Border War