Refugio County, Texas
Refugio County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,383, its county seat is Refugio. The county was created as a municipality of Mexico in 1834 and organized as a county in 1837. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 818 square miles, of which 770 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 Interstate 69E is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 77 in most places. U. S. Highway 77 Alternate/U. S. Highway 183 State Highway 35 State Highway 239 Farm to Market Road 136 Farm to Market Road 774 Farm to Market Road 2441 Farm to Market Road 2678 Victoria County Calhoun County Aransas County San Patricio County Bee County Goliad County Aransas National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 7,828 people, 2,985 households, 2,176 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 3,669 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 80.22% White, 6.77% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 10.42% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. 44.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,985 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,986, the median income for a family was $36,162.
Males had a median income of $29,667 versus $16,565 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,481. About 14.30% of families and 17.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.20% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. The Tom O'Connor field was discovered in 1934 with the Quintana No. 1-A well, the location of, based on a gravity survey and a trend of other fields to the southwest and northeast between the Vicksburg Fault Zone and the Frio Fault Zone. The field is a structural trap formed by an anticline on the downthrown side of the Vicksburg Fault Zone; the faulting is due to "large-scale gravity slumping", these types of faults are referred to as growth faults, which are normal faults that occur with sedimentation. Most of the oil and half the gas is produced at depths between 4500–6000 feet, from 15 oil reservoirs and 4 gas reservoirs in the Oligocene Frio Formation sandstones deposited during Marine regression, notably the "5900 foot sand", the "5800 foot sand", the "5500 foot sand" and the "5200 foot sand".
Gas with some oil is found above these sandstones in the Oligocene Anahuac Formation, deposited in a Marine transgression, notably the "4400 foot Greta sand". Dry gas is found in the Miocene-Pliocene Fleming sandstones deposited during marine regression, notably the "L-4 sand, overlain by 1400 feet of Pleistocene Lissie sandstones. Medical care is provided to the citizens of Refugio County through a county hospital, several rural health clinics, a wellness clinic and a specialty clinic. Refugio County Medical Center opened in 1940 and underwent expansions in 1962 and 2009; the hospital was run by religious orders until the 1970s. A hospital district was established in 1977. Austwell Bayside Refugio Woodsboro Tivoli Copano St. Mary's of Aransas Structural evolution of the Louisiana gulf coast List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in Refugio County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Refugio County Refugio County from the Handbook of Texas Online Refugio County government "Refugio County Profile" from the Texas Association of Counties Exxon wins, again, in oil field sabotage case At Tom O'Connor Ranch, Field Production High
Aransas County, Texas
Aransas County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,158, its county seat is Rockport. The county was organized the following year, it was named for a Spanish outpost in early Texas. Aransas County is part of the Corpus Christi Metropolitan Statistical Area. Aransas County was formed in 1871 from portions of Refugio County, it was named after a Spanish outpost in early Texas. The first European to see this land was Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, who sailed along the coast of Texas in the summer of 1519 and who discovered the Aransas Bay. Hurricane Harvey caused tremendous damage to the county in August 2017. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 528 square miles, of which 252 square miles is land and 276 square miles is water. Calhoun County Gulf of Mexico Nueces County San Patricio County Refugio County Aransas National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 22,497 people, 9,132 households, 6,401 families residing in the county.
The population density was 89 people per square mile. There were 12,848 housing units at an average density of 51 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.44% White, 1.43% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 2.77% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 5.33% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. 20.32% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,132 households out of which 27.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. As of the 2010 census, there were about 5.9 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 27.10% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,702, the median income for a family was $34,915. Males had a median income of $31,597 versus $20,289 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,560. About 15.50% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.00% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Most county residents, including the cities of Rockport and Fulton, are served by the Aransas County Independent School District; some residents are served by the Aransas Pass Independent School District. State Highway 35 State Highway 188 Aransas County Airport is located in Fulton, north of Rockport. Aransas Pass Corpus Christi Rockport Fulton Holiday Beach Lamar Aransas City List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in Aransas County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Aransas County Aransas County government Aransas County from the Handbook of Texas Online Aransas County from the Texas Almanac Aransas County from the TXGenWeb Project Historic Photographs of Aransas County
Geography of Texas
The geography of Texas is diverse and large. Occupying about 7% of the total water and land area of the U. S. it is the second largest state after Alaska, is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which end in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Texas is in the south-central part of the United States of America, is considered to form part of the U. S. South and part of the U. S. Southwest. By residents, the state is divided into North Texas, East Texas, Central Texas, South Texas, West Texas, but according to the Texas Almanac, Texas has four major physical regions: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Basin and Range Province; this has been cited as the difference between human geography and physical geography, although the fact that Texas was granted the prerogative to divide into as many as five U. S. states may be a historical motive for Texans defining their state as containing five regions. Some regions in Texas are more associated with the Southeast than the Southwest, while other regions share more similarities with the Southwest.
The upper Panhandle is considered by many to have more in common with parts of the plains Midwest than either the South or Southwest. The size of Texas prohibits easy categorization of the entire state wholly in any recognized region of the United States, cultural diversity among regions of the state make it difficult to treat Texas as a region in its own right. Continental and Modified Marine are the three major climatic types of Texas, with no distinguishable boundaries. Modified Marine, or subtropical, dominates the majority of the state. Texas has an annual precipitation range from 60.57 inches in Jasper County, East Texas, to 9.43 inches in El Paso. The record high of 120 °F was reached at Seymour on August 12, 1936, Monahans on June 28, 1994; the low ties at −23 °F in Tulia on February 12, 1899, Seminole on February 8, 1933. Texas covers a total area of 268,581 square miles; the longest straight-line distance is from the northwest corner of the panhandle to the Rio Grande river just below Brownsville, 801 miles.
The width west-to-east, from El Paso to Orange, Texas, is 762 miles. The largest continental state is so expansive that El Paso, in the western corner of the state, is closer to San Diego, than to the Houston and Beaumont area, near the Louisiana state line. Texarkana, in the northeastern corner of the state, is about the same distance from Chicago, Illinois, as it is to El Paso, Dalhart, in the northwestern corner of the state, is closer to the state capitals of Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico and Wyoming than it is to Austin, its own state capital; the geographic center of Texas is about 15 miles northeast of Brady in northern McCulloch County. Guadalupe Peak, at 8,749 feet above sea level, is the highest point in Texas, the lowest being sea level where Texas meets the Gulf of Mexico. Texas has five state forests and 120 state parks for a total over 605,000 acres. There are 15 major river systems flowing through 191,000 miles of Texas. Emptying into seven major estuaries, these rivers support over 212 reservoirs.
With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions, 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, geology and plant and animal communities. The Gulf Coastal Plains extends from the Gulf of Mexico inland to the Balcones Fault and the Eastern Cross Timbers; this large area, including the Texas barrier islands, stretches from the cities of Paris to San Antonio to Del Rio but shows a large variety in vegetation. With about 20 to over 58 inches annual rainfall, this is a nearly level, drained plain dissected by streams and rivers flowing into estuaries and marshes. Windblown sands and dunes, oak mottes and salt marshes make up the seaward areas. National Parks include Big Thicket National Preserve, Padre Island National Seashore and the Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site; the North Central Plains are bounded by the Caprock Escarpment to the west, the Edwards Plateau to the south, the Eastern Cross Timbers to the east. This area includes the North Central Plains around the cities of Abilene and Wichita Falls, the Western Cross Timbers to the west of Fort Worth, the Grand Prairie, the Eastern Cross Timbers to the east of Dallas.
With about 35 to 50 inches annual rainfall rolling to hilly forested land is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest of oaks, hickories and gum trees. Soils vary from coarse sands to shet rock clays and shales; the Great Plains include the Llano Estacado, the Panhandle, Edwards Plateau, Toyah Basin, the Llano Uplift. It is bordered on the east by the Caprock Escarpment in the panhandle and by the Balcones Fault to the southeast. Cities in this region include Midland and Odessa and Amarillo; the Hill Country is a popular name for the area of hills along the Balcones Escarpment and is a transitional area between the Great Plains and the Gulf Coastal Plains. With about 15 to 31 inches annual rainfall, the southern end of the Great Plains are rolling plains of shrub and grassland, home to the dramatic Caprock Canyons and Palo Duro Canyon state parks; the largest concentration of playa lakes in the world is on the Southern High Plains of Texas and Eastern New Mexico. Texas' blackland
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Government of Texas
The government of Texas operates under the Constitution of Texas and consists of a unitary democratic state government operating under a presidential system that uses the Dillon Rule, as well as governments at the county and municipal levels. Austin is the capital of Texas; the State Capitol resembles the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. but is faced in Texas pink granite and is topped by a statue of the "Goddess of Liberty" holding aloft a five-point Texas star. The capitol is notable for purposely being built seven feet taller than the U. S. national capitol. The statewide elected officials are: The executive branch consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, the Secretary of State. Texas has a plural executive branch system. Except for the Secretary of State, all executive officers are elected independently making them directly answerable to the public, not the Governor.
Because of many elected officials, the governor's powers are quite limited in comparison to other state governors or the U. S. President. In popular lore and belief the lieutenant governor, who heads the Senate and appoints its committees, has more power than the governor; the governor commands the state militia and can veto bills passed by the Legislature and call special sessions of the Legislature. The governor appoints members of various executive boards and fills judicial vacancies between elections. All members of the executive branch are elected statewide except for the Secretary of State and the State Board of Education; the executive branch includes several boards and commissions that are constituted through a mixture of elections and gubernatorial appointments confirmed by the Senate. With the Governor appointing several members of boards and commissions, the overall effect is a sprawling network of administrative bodies that neither the Governor nor the Legislature are able to coordinate or control.
The Governor appoints the directors of a handful of state agencies, the Governor exercises direct authority over these offices. Most state agencies are headquartered in Austin; the Texas Administrative Code contains the compiled and indexed regulations of Texas state agencies and is published yearly by the Secretary of State. The Texas Register contains proposed rules, executive orders, other information of general use to the public and is published weekly by the Secretary of State; the Texas Legislature is bicameral. The Texas House of Representatives has 150 members, while the Texas Senate has 31; the Speaker of the House presides over the House, the Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor, but due to Texas's plural executive; the legislature convenes its regular sessions at noon on the second Tuesday in January of odd-numbered years.
The maximum duration of a regular session is 140 days. The governor is given authority under the state constitution to convene the legislature at other times during the biennium; such sessions are known as called or special sessions and are reserved for legislation that the governor deems critically important in the conduct of state affairs. Called sessions are limited to a period of 30 days, during which the legislature is permitted to pass laws only on subjects submitted by the governor in calling for the session, its session laws are published in the official Special Laws. The judicial system of Texas has a reputation as one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and many overlapping jurisdictions. Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, which hears civil cases, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Except in the case of some municipal benches, partisan elections choose all of the judges at all levels of the judiciary. All members of the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals are elected statewide.
The Municipal Courts are the most active courts, with the County and District Courts handling most other cases and sharing the same buildings. Administration is the responsibility of the Supreme Court, aided by the Texas Office of Court Administration, the Texas Judicial Council and the State Bar of Texas. Texas has a total of 254 counties, by far the largest number of counties of any state; each county is run by a five-member Commissioners' Court consisting of four commissioners elected from single-member districts and a county judge elected at-large. The county judge does not have authority to veto a decision of the commissioners court. In smaller counties, the county judge does perform judicial duties, but in larger counties the judge's role is limited to serving on the commissioners court and certifying elections. Certain officials, such as the sheriff and tax collector, are elected separately by the voters, but the commissioners court determines their office budgets, sets overall county policy.
All county elections are partisan. The Commissioners Courts in Texas are
Sports in Texas
Texas is home of several national sports league franchises among other professional sports, being the second most populated U. S. state. Since the state is located in the South Central United States, most teams are part of the Central / South or West league divisions, with the notable exception of the NFL Dallas Cowboys, an NFC East franchise. Texas is home to 10 major league sports two major women's teams. Many Texans are passionate about American football and intensely follow high school and college football teams, which dominate social and leisure activity. Professional football is intensely popular in Texas, the state is home to two National Football League franchises, the Dallas Cowboys and Houston Texans. In addition to the Cowboys and Texans, two current NFL teams played in the state, one now-defunct NFL team called the state home; the Cowboys, founded in 1960, are one of the most popular teams in the league and have fans in many parts of the United States, leading to the nickname "America's Team".
They are one of the most successful, having reached eight Super Bowls and won five. The Cowboys play their home games at AT&T Stadium in nearby Arlington, into which they moved in 2009 after having spent 38 years at Texas Stadium in Irving; the first major-league sports team in Texas was an NFL franchise—the Dallas Texans, which joined the league in 1952. The team's first game, proved to be a harbinger for the season—a 24–6 loss in front of less than 18,000 fans in the then-75,000-seat Cotton Bowl. Home attendance continued to slump, dropping to 10,000 for a loss that left the team 0–7; the team owners, unable to make payroll, returned the Texans to the league, the team played the rest of the 1952 season as a traveling team, never returning to Texas. After the season, the NFL folded the Texans, making them the last NFL team to permanently cease operations. In the same year that the Cowboys entered the NFL, the American Football League began operations with two teams in the state—the Dallas Texans and Houston Oilers.
The new Texans shared the Cotton Bowl with the Cowboys. The Texans and Cowboys shared the stadium through the 1962 season; the Oilers moved from Jeppesen Stadium to the larger Rice Stadium after the 1964 season, joined baseball's Houston Astros at the Astrodome in 1968. Two years the merger that the AFL and NFL had agreed to in 1966 took effect, with all AFL franchises being incorporated into the NFL; the Oilers remained at the Astrodome into the 1990s, but the failure of team owner Bud Adams to reach an agreement with the city on a new stadium led to his moving the franchise to Nashville, where it was renamed the Tennessee Titans. The NFL returned to Houston in 2002 with the debut of the current Texans, who play their home games at NRG Stadium, the first NFL stadium with a retractable roof. Baseball has a strong presence in Texas, with two Major League Baseball teams; the Houston Astros started playing in 1962. The Texas Rangers debuted in 1972 after relocating from Washington, D. C. In 2005, the Astros became the first team in Texas to make it to the World Series.
The Rangers followed the Astros in 2010 to the following year as well. In 2017, the Astros became the first team in Texas to win the World Series. Minor League Baseball is closely followed in Texas—especially in the smaller metropolitan areas. Three teams play in the Triple-A Pacific Coast League: the El Paso Chihuahuas, Round Rock Express, San Antonio Missions. Four teams play in the Double-A Texas League: the Amarillo Sod Poodles, Corpus Christi Hooks, Frisco RoughRiders, Midland RockHounds; the Fort Worth Cats were a team in Fort Worth that won three-straight championships in independent leagues, one in the Central Baseball League and the last two in the American Association. College baseball is quite popular, as Texas A&M University, Rice University, University of Texas at Austin, University of Houston, Baylor University, Texas Tech University, Texas Christian University have all made multiple College World Series appearances. Basketball is popular, Texas hosts three NBA teams: the San Antonio Spurs, the Houston Rockets, the Dallas Mavericks.
All three have won championships, however the Spurs having won at least 50 games over the past 15 seasons and 5 NBA championships, are arguably the best professional franchise in Texas sports and are considered one of the best NBA franchises in history. The Houston Rockets did however distinguish themselves as the first team in Texas to win an NBA Championship and are the only team in Texas to have back-to-back NBA Championships. Texas is home to one WNBA team, the Dallas Wings, which relocated from Tulsa, Oklahoma after the 2015 season; the state had the Houston Comets and San Antonio Stars. The Comets, a founding member of the WNBA, won the league's first four championships, but folded after the 2008 season; the Stars were a founding member of the WNBA as the Salt Lake City-based Utah Starzz, moved to San Antonio when the team was bought by the Spurs' parent company, Spurs Sports & Entertainment, before the 2003 season. The team took the identity of San Antonio Silver Stars, dropping the word "Silver" after the 2013 season.
After the 2017 season, SSE sold the Stars to MGM Resorts Internat