The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Lake Jackson, Texas
Lake Jackson is a city in Brazoria County, United States, within the Greater Houston metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 26,849. In 1942 a portion of Lake Jackson was first developed as a company town for workers of the Dow Chemical Company. An oxbow lake was named after the planter, whose house was located at the lake. Minor ruins of the Lake Jackson Plantation can now be seen in a park at the site; the city was built in the early 1940s as a planned community, designed by Alden B. Dow of Midland, Michigan for workers in support of a new plant of the Dow Chemical Company, which his father owned; the City of Lake Jackson was incorporated March 14, 1944, voted for home rule ten years in 1954. The city of Lake Jackson is located in south-central Brazoria County, is bordered to the east by the cities of Clute and Richwood, to the southwest by the Brazos River. Texas State Highway 288, the Nolan Ryan Expressway, runs through the city, leading 10 miles north to Angleton, the county seat, 52 miles north to downtown Houston, 9 miles southeast to Freeport on the Gulf of Mexico.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Lake Jackson has a total area of 20.9 square miles, of which 19.5 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles, or 7.11%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 26,849 people, 10,319 households, 7,134 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,386.0 people per square mile. There were 11,149 housing units at an average density of 550.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.36% White, 5.10% African American, 0.52% Native American, 3.14% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.44% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.53% of the population. There were 9,588 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.7% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families. Twenty percent of all households were made up of individuals, 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.18. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.41% under the age of 18, 5.61% from 20 to 24, 12.51% from 25 to 34, 20.60% from 35 to 49, 20.10% from 50 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.06 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $60,901, the median income for a family was $69,053. Males had a median income of $60,143 versus $30,398 for females; the per capita income for the city was $25,877. About 5.4% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Gas station and convenience store chain; the Dow Chemical Company and the Brazosport Independent School District are major employers of residents. Dow planned to develop this community in 1941 as a 5,000-acre residential area for workers at its Freeport plant.
Lake Jackson is now home to other chemical and manufacturing facilities, along with many other types of businesses. In Lake Jackson's early days, Dow helped to create a booming economy. In 2014 it announced an expansion project, estimated to bring nearly 2,000 employees to the area; the unemployment rate in Lake Jackson, TX, is 8.40%, with job growth of 2.40%. Future job growth over the next ten years is predicted to be 36.40%. The income per capita is $30,625, which includes all children; the median household income is $68,391. The sales tax rate in Lake Jackson, TX, is 8.25%. Sales tax income represents a population of over 70,000 indicating the draw of the retail shopping from the area; the Lake Jackson Library is a part of the Brazoria County Library System. Lake Jackson is represented by Randy Weber. Brazosport College is a public community college, upgraded to offer a baccalaureate degree in certain technical fields, it is distinguished for its professional music hall, The Clarion. Brazosport College's Music Department has been able to bring many successful music artists to Lake Jackson, including Jackie Evancho, Leann Rimes, Wynonna Judd, Keb' Mo', Los Lonely Boys, Michael Martin Murphey, Robert Earl Keen, Doc Severinsen, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Brandford Marsalis, Delfeayo Marsalis, Rita Coolidge, Lyle Lovett, Don McLean, Phil Woods, John Pizarelli.
The public schools in the city are operated by Brazosport Independent School District. K-5 elementary schools within Lake Jackson include: O. M. Roberts Elementary School A. P. Beutel Elementary School Bess Brannen Elementary School Elisabet Ney Elementary School T. W. Ogg ElementaryResidents are zoned to: Grady B. Rasco Middle School Lake Jackson Intermediate School Brazoswood High School Private schools within Lake Jackson include: Brazosport Christian School Our Lady Queen of Peace Foundation Preparatory Academy Brazoria County Airport serves Lake Jackson. Southern Brazoria County Transit provides bus service options for Lake Jackson, Clute and Angleton. Texas State Highway 332 extends from its west end SH 36 in Brazoria to its east end at Surfside Beach; the city's layout and the six designs for homes were completed by Michigan architect Alden B. Dow. All streets radiating from downtown end in the word "Way." Among the streets are Center Way, Winding Way, Cir
An air taxi is a small commercial aircraft which makes short flights on demand. In 2001 air taxi operations were promoted in the United States by a NASA and aerospace industry study on the potential Small Aircraft Transportation System and the rise of light-jet aircraft manufacturing. In Canada, air taxi operations are regulated by Transport Canada under Canadian Aviation Regulation 703; the Canadian definition of air taxi includes all commercial single engined aircraft, multi-engined helicopters flown by day visual flight rules by one pilot and all multi-engined, non-turbo-jet aircraft, with a maximum take-off weight 8,618 kg or less and nine or fewer passenger seats, that are used to transport people or goods or for sightseeing. In the US, air taxi and air charter operations are governed by Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regulations, unlike the larger scheduled air carriers which are governed by more stringent standards of FAR Part 121. Air Taxi Association Commercial aviation General aviation Very light jet NCFlyPorts Passenger drone Fractional Jets ImagineAir Propair Skymax Airstream Jets
William P. Hobby Airport
William P. Hobby Airport is an international airport in Houston, Texas, 7 miles from downtown Houston. Hobby is Houston's oldest commercial airport and was its primary commercial airport until Houston Intercontinental Airport, now George Bush Intercontinental Airport, opened in 1969. After the opening of Houston Intercontinental, Hobby was closed for several years before it became apparent it needed to be reopened, it became a secondary airport for domestic airline service as well as a regional center for corporate and private aviation. Houston Hobby is a major focus city for Southwest Airlines, which operates international and domestic flights from HOU. Houston Hobby is the fifth largest airport in Southwest's network as of December 2017. Hobby is classified as a medium-sized airport, is the third-largest of this airport classification in terms of passengers. Southwest opened its first international terminal at Houston Hobby, began service from Houston Hobby to Mexico and Central and South America on October 15, 2015.
The airport has four runways. Its original art deco terminal building, the first passenger airline terminal in Houston, now houses the 1940 Air Terminal Museum. Hobby Airport opened in 1927 as a private landing field in a 600-acre pasture known as W. T. Carter Field; the airfield was served by Eastern Air Lines. The site was acquired by the city of Houston and was named Houston Municipal Airport in 1937; the airport was renamed Howard R. Hughes Airport in 1938. Howard Hughes was responsible for several improvements to the airport, including its first control tower, built in 1938; the airport's name changed back to Houston Municipal because Hughes was still alive at the time and regulations did not allow federal improvement funds for an airport named after a living person. The city of Houston opened and dedicated a new air terminal and hangar in 1940; the first three Women Airforce Service Pilots training classes were held at the Houston Municipal Airport in 1943. In 1948, Braniff International Airways was flying its first international service from Houston with Douglas DC-4 and DC-6 propliner service to South America via Cuba and Panama.
According to the June 4, 1948 Braniff timetable, the airline was operating three international flights a week from Hobby. Routings included Houston - Havana, Cuba - Panama City, Panama - Guayaquil, Ecuador - Lima, Peru with Havana, Balboa, C. Z. and Lima being served three times a week while Guayaquil was served twice a week. By 1949, Braniff had extended its international service from Houston with direct flights via Lima to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and La Paz, Bolivia. In 1950, Pan American World Airways initiated nonstop Douglas DC-4 service to Mexico City. On October 1, 1950, Chicago and Southern Air Lines began flying new Lockheed Constellation propliners nonstop to St. Louis on a daily basis with direct one stop service to Chicago Midway Airport. At this same time, Chicago & Southern was operating nonstop service between the airport and New Orleans with the sole purpose of these flights being the ability to connect passengers to and from the airline's daily Douglas DC-4 "Caribbean Comet" flights between New Orleans and Havana, Cuba.
By 1953, Chicago & Southern had been acquired by and merged into Delta Air Lines thus giving Delta access to Houston for the first time. In 1954, operating as "Delta C&S", was flying daily international service with a "Super" Convair 340 on a routing of Houston - New Orleans - Havana, Cuba - Port au Prince, Haiti - Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic - San Juan, Puerto Rico. In 1954 an expanded terminal building opened to support the 53,640 airline flights that carried 910,047 passengers; the airport was renamed Houston International Airport the same year. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide lists 26 weekday departures on Eastern, 20 on Braniff, nine on Continental Airlines, nine on Delta Air Lines, nine on Trans-Texas Airways, four on National Airlines, two on Pan American World Airways and one on American Airlines. There were nonstops to New York City and Washington D. C. but not to Chicago or Denver or anywhere further west of Colorado at this time. In 1957, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines started Douglas DC-7C propliner flights to Amsterdam via an intermediate stop in Montreal.
In 1958, Delta was operating daily nonstop Douglas DC-7 service to New York City as well as weekly DC-7 service direct to Caracas, Venezuela via an intermediate stop in New Orleans while Eastern was operating Douglas DC-7 and Lockheed Constellation aircraft nonstop to New York City as well. Braniff International introduced Boeing 707 jet service in April 1960 nonstop to Dallas Love Field with direct one stop jet service to Chicago O'Hare Airport and was operating Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop service nonstop to Chicago Midway Airport and Dallas Love Field with direct flights to Denver, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Kansas City and Lubbock being operated with the Electra. In June 1960, Eastern Airlines was operating Douglas DC-8 jets nonstop to New York City Idlewild Airport and to Atlanta in addition to flying Lockheed L-188 Electra propjets nonstop to Washington D. C. National Airport with direct one stop Electra service to Newark. KLM introduced jet service as well in July 1960 with Dougl
Brazoria County, Texas
Brazoria County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population of the county was 313,166; the county seat is Angleton. Brazoria County is included in the Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the Gulf Coast region of Texas. Regionally, parts of the county are within the extreme southernmost fringe of the regions locally known as Southeast Texas. Brazoria County is among a number of counties that are part of the region known as the Texas Coastal Bend, its county seat is Angleton, its largest city is Pearland. Brazoria County, like nearby Brazos County, takes its name from the Brazos River; the county includes what was once Velasco, the first capital of the Republic of Texas. It served as the first settlement area for Anglo-Texas, when the Old Three Hundred emigrated from the United States in 1821. Brazoria County, like Brazos County, takes its name from the Brazos River. Anglo-Texas began in Brazoria County when the first of Stephen F. Austin's authorized 300 American settlers arrived at the mouth of the Brazos River in 1821.
Many of the events leading to the Texas Revolution developed in Brazoria County. In 1832, Brazoria was organized as a separate municipal district by the Mexican government, so became one of Texas original counties at independence in 1836. An early resident of Brazoria County, Joel Walter Robison, fought in the Texas Revolution and represented Fayette County in the Texas House of Representatives. Stephen F. Austin's original burial place is located at a church cemetery, Gulf Prairie Cemetery, in the town of Jones Creek, on what was his brother-in-law's "Peach Point Plantation", his remains were brought to be reinterred at the state capital in Austin. The town of West Columbia served as the first capital of Texas, dating back to pre-revolutionary days. Temple Lea Houston, youngest son of Sam Houston, was c. 1880 the county attorney of Brazoria County. His life story is reflected in the 1963 film The Man from Galveston and the 26-episode 1963-1964 NBC western television series, Temple Houston. Lake Jackson is a community developed beginning in the early 1940s to provide housing to workers at a new Dow Chemical Company plant in nearby Freeport.
The county has elements of both rural and suburban communities, as it is part of the Greater Houston. On June 2, 2016, the flooding of the Brazos River required evacuations for portions of Brazoria County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,609 square miles, of which 1,358 square miles is land and 251 square miles is water. Harris County Galveston County Matagorda County Wharton County Fort Bend County Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge San Bernard National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, 241,767 people, 81,954 households, 63,104 families resided in the county; the population density was 174 people per square mile. There were 90,628 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.09% White, 8.50% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.63% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races. About 22.78 % of the population were Latino of any race. About 12.1% were of German, 11.2% American and 7.2% English ancestry according to Census 2000.
About 79.0 % spoke only English at home. Of the 81,955 households, 40.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.00% were not families. About 19.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82, the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.60% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 8.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 107 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,632, for a family was $55,282. Males had a median income of $42,193 versus $27,728 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,021. About 8.1% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.6% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 313,166 people residing in the county. 70.1% were White, 12.1% Black or African American, 5.5% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 9.2% of some other race and 2.6% of more than one race. 27.7 % were Latino. The Brazoria County Jail is located at 3602 County Road 45 in unincorporated central Brazoria County, north of Angleton; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates six state prisons for men and its Region III office in unincorporated Brazoria County. As of 2007,1,495 full-time correctional job positions were in the county. In 1995, of the counties in Texas, Brazoria had the second-highest number of state prisons and jails, after Walker County. In 2003, a total of 2,572 employees were employed at the six TDCJ facilities; the TDCJ units are: Clemens Unit, near Brazoria Darrington Unit, near Rosharon - The Windham School District Region III office is within the unit. Wayne Scott Unit, near Angleton. Ramsey Unit - The unit is co-located with Stringfellow and Terrell.
The TDCJ Region III Maintenance Headquarters is within this unit. Stringfellow Unit, near Rosharon - The
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
The AgustaWestland AW139 is a 15-seat medium-sized twin-engined helicopter developed and produced principally by AgustaWestland. It is marketed at several different roles, including VIP/corporate transport, offshore transport, fire fighting, law enforcement and rescue, emergency medical service, disaster relief, maritime patrol. In addition to AgustaWestland's own manufacturing facilities in Italy and the United States, the AW139 is produced in Russia by HeliVert, a joint venture between AgustaWestland and Russian Helicopters; the AW139 was designed and developed jointly by Agusta and Bell Helicopters and marketed as the Agusta-Bell AB139, being redesignated AW139 when Bell withdrew from the project. Since entering service in 2003, the AW139 has become one of AgustaWestland's most influential products. In 1997, the Italian helicopter manufacturer Agusta launched a programme to develop a replacement for the Bell Huey family of helicopters with a potential market of 900 aircraft being predicted.
In 1998, Bell and Agusta entered into an agreement, setting up a joint venture, Bell/Agusta Aerospace Company, to develop two aircraft: a conventional helicopter and a tiltrotor aircraft. These became the Bell/Agusta Bell/Agusta BA609 respectively. Bell was to be the leading partner for the development of the BA609 while Agusta would be the lead partner for the AB139. On 26 September 2000, the first order for the type was placed by Bristow Helicopters; the first preproduction helicopter flew on 3 February 2001 at Vergiate in Italy, with two further AW139s participating in flying trials. The first production AW139 made its first flight on 24 June 2002. European JAA certification was received in June 2003, its FAA type certificate followed in December 2004. By May 2005, the AW139 had received in excess of 100 orders worldwide. In the US, the type was marketed under the designation US139, was entered into the US Army's Light Utility Helicopter competition. One key market for the AW139 was the oil & gas industry, which required helicopters of increased endurance for offshore operations.
In 2005, AgustaWestland bought out Bell's 25% share in the program and all of its rights to the AW139 for $95 million. In April 2008, AgustaWestland revealed that it was in the process of certifying an increase in the AW139's max gross weight to 14,991 lb to better compete in long-range markets served by helicopters such as the larger Sikorsky S-92 and Eurocopter EC225. In 2007, a second production line at the AgustaWestland Aerospace plant in Philadelphia, United States was established. S. production was intended to reach 40 units per year in the near future. By 2011, AgustaWestland was producing 90 AW139s a year. By 2013, a combined total of 720 AW139s had been sold to over 200 operators in 60 different countries. In 2011, a military-configured variant, the AW139M, was revealed by AgustaWestland, it was promoted at the US market, including for the U. S. Air Force's Common Vertical Lift Support Program; the AW139M is equipped with a high definition forward-looking infrared, self-protection system, heavy-duty landing gear, has low thermal and acoustic signatures.
Options offered include an external stores system including various armaments, armored seats, self-sealing fuel tanks, a full ice-protection system for all-weather operations. The AW139 serves as the basis for AgustaWestland's wider business strategy, under which it aims to produce a standardised family of helicopters with common design features; the sharing of components and design philosophies is intended to simplify maintenance and training for operators. The AW139 was the first of this group, as of 2014, it was to be joined by the larger AW149 and AW189, aimed at military and civilian customers respectively. Advances made in the development of new models are intended to be transferrable onto existing family members, decreasing the cost of future upgrades for the AW139. In June 2010, it was announced that AgustaWestland and Rostvertol would build a manufacturing plant in Tomilino, Moscow Region, where it was planned to produce AW139s by 2012. HeliVert, a joint venture between AgustaWestland and Rostvertol, commenced domestic production of the AW139 in 2012, at which point it was planned that between 15 and 20 helicopters would be produced per year.
The first AW139 to be assembled in Russia made its first flight in December 2012. In January 2013, the Russian Defense Ministry was considering placing an order for seven AW139s. In January 2014, HeliVert received a Certificate of Approval from the Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation Committee to commence production of commercial AW139s. In September 2014, a certificate was granted to perform comprehensive maintenance and servicing of the type at the Tomilino facility. In 2015, AgustaWestland unveiled an AW139 variant with an increased gross weight of 7 tonnes, enabling a range of 305 km while carrying 12 passengers; the heavier airframe comes at the expense of decreased high performance. In November 2015, AgustaWestland demonstrated a 60-minute "run-dry" test of an AW139's main gearbox, 30 minutes greater than any other certified rotorcraft at the