The Choctaw are a Native American people occupying what is now the Southeastern United States. Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group. Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi, it is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs; the anthropologist John R. Swanton suggested that the Choctaw derived their name from an early leader. Henry Halbert, a historian, suggests; the Choctaw coalesced as a people in the 17th century, developed three distinct political and geographical divisions: eastern and southern. These different groups sometimes created distinct, independent alliances with nearby European powers; these included the French, based in Louisiana.
During the American Revolution, most Choctaw supported the Thirteen Colonies' bid for independence from the British Crown. They never went to war against the United States but they were forcibly relocated in 1831-1833, as part of the Indian Removal, in order for the US to take over their land for development by European Americans. In the 19th century, the Choctaw were classified by European Americans as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" because they adopted numerous practices of their United States neighbors; the Choctaw and the United States agreed to nine treaties. By the last three, the US gained vast land cessions; the Choctaw were the first Native American tribe forced to relocate under the Indian Removal Act. The Choctaw were exiled from their land because the U. S. desired its resources, to sell it for settlement and agricultural development by European Americans. Some US leaders believed that by reducing conflict between the peoples, they were saving the Choctaw from extinction; the Choctaw negotiated most desirable lands in Indian Territory.
Their early government had three districts, each with its own chief, who together with the town chiefs sat on their National Council. They appointed a Choctaw Delegate to represent them to the US government in Washington, DC. By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U. S. citizens. Article 14 in the 1830 treaty with the Choctaw stated Choctaws may wish to become citizens of the United States under the 14th Article of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on all of the combined lands which were consolidated under Article I from all previous treaties between the United States and the Choctaw. During the American Civil War, the Choctaw in both Oklahoma and Mississippi sided with the Confederate States of America; the Confederacy had suggested to their leaders that it would support a state under Indian control if it won the war. After the Civil War, the Mississippi and Louisiana Choctaw fell into obscurity for some time.
The Choctaw in Oklahoma no longer considered the Mississippi Choctaw part of the Choctaw Nation. However, Jack Amos challenged the Choctaw Nation's stance at the turn of the 20th century. In 1978, the United Supreme Court of the United States held that all remnants of the Choctaw Nation are entitled to all rights of the federally recognized Nation; the American Indian Policy Review Commission Final Report Volume I, Chapter 11, Page 468 on May 19, 1977 federally acknowledged/recognized the existence of the Choctaw Communities of Mobile and Washington Counties which are along the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers where Choctaw Treaties were negotiated in various Choctaw Treaties. The Choctaw in Oklahoma struggled to build a nation, they opened an academy for girls in the 1840s. In the aftermath of the Dawes Act in the late 19th century, the US dissolved tribal governments in order to extinguish Indian land claims and admit the Indian and Oklahoma territories as a state in 1907. From that period, the US appointed chiefs of the Choctaw and other tribes in the former Indian Territory.
During World War I, Choctaw soldiers served in the U. S. military as the first Native American codetalkers, using the Choctaw language. After the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Choctaw reconstituted their government; the Choctaw Nation had kept their culture alive despite years of pressure for assimilation. The Choctaw are the third-largest federally recognized tribe. Since the mid-twentieth century, the Choctaw have created new institutions, such as a tribal college, housing authority, justice system. Today the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians are the federally recognized Choctaw tribes. Mississippi recognizes another band, smaller Choctaw groups are located in Louisiana and Texas; the Alabama Choctaw who are federally recognized under 24 C. F. R 1000 and 25 U. S. C. 4101 called the Native American Housing Self-Determination Act of 1986 under which the United States Federal Government jointly owns the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation as land held in trust as a reservation and for the MOWA Ba
Awards and decorations of the National Guard
Awards and decorations of the National Guard are presented to members of the United States National Guard and sometimes to members of the state defense forces in addition to regular United States military decorations. Each of the state governments of the United States maintains a series of military decorations for issuance to members of the National Guard, with such awards presented under the authority of the various state adjutants general; those National Guard soldiers and airmen who subsequently serve in the active or reserve federal forces of the United States Army, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or United States Air Force may not continue to wear and display such decorations on a military uniform, unless such activation is under Title 32 status. Active duty regulations allow federal soldiers, airmen and marines to accept but not to wear state awards. Most states authorize the wear of other states' awards if a soldier or airman has earned awards from a state or territory to which he or she is not presently assigned.
The order of precedence is the presently assigned state, followed by awards from the District of Columbia other states by their order of admission. The following is a list of National Guard decorations. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia. Alabama National Guard State Awards: Arizona National Guard State Awards: Arizona Medal of Valor Arizona Adjutant General's Medal Arizona Distinguished Service Medal Arizona Meritorious Service Medal Arizona Exceptionally Long Service Medal Arizona Long Service Medal Arizona Service Ribbon Arizona Military Academy Ribbon Arizona Military Academy Ribbon Arizona Southwest Asia Service Support Ribbon Arizona State Active Duty Service Ribbon Arizona Re-enlistment Ribbon Arizona Community Service Ribbon Arizona Initial Active Duty for Training Ribbon Arizona Recruiting Ribbon Arizona Honor Attendance Ribbon Arkansas National Guard State Awards: Arkansas Medal of Honor Arkansas Military Medal Arkansas Distinguished Service Medal Arkansas Exceptional Service Medal Arkansas Commendation Medal Arkansas Federal Service Ribbon Arkansas Service Ribbon Arkansas Emergency Service Ribbon Arkansas Homeland Defense Ribbon Arkansas Recruiting Ribbon California National Guard State Awards: California Medal of Valor California Military Cross Order of California CA Legion of Merit.
California Medal of Merit California Commendation Medal CA Achievement Medal California Good Conduct Medal California Service Medal California Enlisted Trainers Excellence Ribbon California Enlisted Excellence Ribbon California Recruiting Achievement Ribbon California National Guard Federal Service Ribbon California State Service Ribbon California Senior Enlisted Leadership Ribbon California Counterdrug Service Ribbon California Drill Attendance Ribbon California Memorial Medal California Governor's Outstanding Unit Citation California Commanding General's Meritorious Unit Citation Colorado National Guard State Awards: Colorado Meritorious Conduct Medal Colorado Meritorious Service Medal Colorado Soldier/Airman of the Year Award Colorado Commendation Ribbon Colorado Achievement Ribbon Colorado NCO Command Tour Ribbon Colorado Active Service Medal Colorado Long Service Medal Colorado TAG Outstanding Unit Citation Colorado State Emergency Service Ribbon Colorado State Foreign Deployment Service Ribbon Colorado State Mobilization Support Ribbon Colorado Recruiting Ribbon Connecticut National Guard State Awards: Connecticut Medal of Valor - "The Adjutant General and two officers of field grade or above, detailed by the Adjutant General, shall act as a board to receive recommendations through military channels for the award of the medal of valor to any member of the armed forces of the state who, by reason of conspicuous gallantry, at the risk of his life and beyond the call of duty, while on military service, is recommended for the award of such medal of valor, to make such awards as the board finds suitable."
Connecticut Medal of Merit - "The Adjutant General and two officers of field grade or above, appointed by the Adjutant General, shall constitute a board of officers to receive recommendations, through military channels, for the award of the medal of merit to any member of the armed forces of the state who has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious conduct in performing outstanding service while a member of the armed forces of the state and to make such awards as the board finds suitable." Connecticut Medal of Achievement - "The Adjutant General and two officers of field grade or above, appointed by the Adjutant General, shall constitute a board of officers to receive recommendations, through military channels, for the award, within available appropriations, of the medal of achievement to any member of the armed forces of the state, as defined in section 27-2, the armed forces of the United States or the armed forces of any other state, who has distinguished himself or herself through outstanding achievement or meritorious service during the performance of any state military service.
A bronze oak leaf cluster shall be issued in lieu of succeeding awards and a silver oak leaf cluster shall be worn in lieu of five bronze oak leaf clusters." Connecticut Veteran Wartime Service Medal - "The Commissioner of Veterans Affairs in conjunction with the Adjutant General shall award a ribbon and medal to each veteran who served in time of war, as defined in subsection of section 27-103, who either was a resident of this state at the time he or she was called to active duty for such service, or is domiciled in
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Army National Guard
The Army National Guard, in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are part of two different organizations, the Army National Guard of the several states and the District of Columbia, the Army National Guard of the United States, part of the United States National Guard; the Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, the District of Columbia, operates under their respective governors. The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area; the Army National Guard as authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control. The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.
The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, through him to the Secretary of the Army. Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States. If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, a reserve component of the United States Army. Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors. Governors cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency; the President may call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws. The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States.
The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it; this function is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, administer federal programs and resources for the National Guard; the Army National Guard's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, equipment maintenance and other activities.
Of the 45 individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2017, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in Army National Guard. George Washington, commissioned a Major in the Virginia Militia in 1753, he attained the rank of colonel before resigning his commission at the end of the French and Indian War. Thomas Jefferson and commander of the Albemarle County Militia at the start of the American Revolution James Madison, colonel in the Orange County Militia at the start of the American Revolution and aide to his father, James Madison, Sr., the commander. James Monroe, served in the militia while attending the College of William and Mary. After being wounded at the Battle of Trenton while serving in the Continental Army, he returned to Virginia to recruit and lead a regiment as a militia lieutenant colonel, but the regiment was never raised. In 1780 the British invaded Richmond and Jefferson commissioned Monroe as a colonel to command the militia raised in response and act as liaison to the Continental Army in North Carolina.
Andrew Jackson, commander of the Tennessee Militia as a Major General prior to the War of 1812. William Henry Harrison, commander of Indiana Territory's militia and Major General of the Kentucky Militia at the start of the War of 1812. John Tyler, commanded a company called the Charles City Rifles, part of Virginia's 52nd Regiment, in the War of 1812. James Polk, joined the Tennessee Militia as a captain in a cavalry regiment in 1821, he was subsequently appointed a colonel on the staff of Governor William Carroll. Millard Fillmore, served as inspector of New York's 47th Brigade with the rank of major. Commanded the Union Continentals, a militia unit raised to perform local service in Buffalo, New York, during the American Civil War. Franklin Pierce, appointed aide de camp to Governor Samuel Dinsmoor in 1831, he remained in the militia until 1847 and attained the rank of colonel before becoming a brigadier general in the Army during the Mexican–American War. James Buchanan, a member of the Pennsylvania Militia.
His dragoon unit took part in the defense of Baltimore, during the War of 1812. Abraham Lincoln, served in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War, he commanded a company i
A code talker was a person employed by the military during wartime to utilize a little-known language as a means of secret communication. The term is now associated with United States service members during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages. In particular, there were 400 to 500 Native Americans in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was to transmit secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formally or informally developed codes built upon their native languages; the code talkers improved the speed of encryption and decryption of communications in front line operations during World War II. There were two code types used during World War II. Type one codes were formally developed based on the languages of the Comanches, Hopies and Navajos, they used words from their languages for each letter of the English alphabet. Messages could be encoded and decoded by using a simple substitution cipher where the ciphertext was the native language word.
Type two code was informal and directly translated from English into the native language. If there was no word in the native language to describe a military word, code talkers used descriptive words. For example, the Navajo did not have a word for submarine; the name code talkers is associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the US Marine Corps to serve in their standard communications units of the Pacific theater. Code talking, was pioneered by the Cherokee and Choctaw peoples during World War I. Other Native American code talkers were deployed by the United States Army during World War II, including Lakota, Meskwaki and Comanche soldiers. Native speakers of the Assiniboine language served as code talkers during World War II to encrypt communications. One of these code talkers was Gilbert Horn Sr. who grew up in the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation of Montana and became a tribal judge and politician. In November 1952, Euzko Deya magazine reported that in May 1942, upon meeting about 60 US Marines of Basque ancestry in a San Francisco camp, Captain Frank D. Carranza thought to use the Basque language for codes.
His superiors were wary. There were 35 Basque Jesuits in Hiroshima, led by Pedro Arrupe. There was a colony of Basque jai alai players in China and the Philippines, there were Basque supporters of Falange in Asia; the American Basque code talkers were kept away from these theaters. According to Euzko Deya, on August 1, 1942, Lieutenants Nemesio Aguirre, Fernández Bakaicoa, Juanana received a Basque-coded message from San Diego for Admiral Chester Nimitz; the message warned Nimitz of Operation Apple to remove the Japanese from the Solomon Islands. They translated the start date, August 7, for the attack on Guadalcanal; as the war extended over the Pacific, there was a shortage of Basque speakers and the US military came to prefer the parallel program based on the use of Navajo speakers. In 2017, Pedro Oiarzabal and Guillermo Tabernilla published a paper refuting Euzko Deya's article. According to Oiarzabal and Tabernilla, they could not find Carranza, Fernández Bakaicoa, or Juanana in the National Archives and Records Administration or US Army archives.
They did find a small number of US Marines with Basque surnames, but none of them in worked in transmissions. They suggest that Carranza's story was an Office of Strategic Services operation to raise sympathy for US intelligence among Basque nationalists; the first known use of code talkers in the US military was during World War I. Cherokee soldiers of the US 30th Infantry Division fluent in the Cherokee language were assigned to transmit messages while under fire during the Second Battle of the Somme. According to the Division Signal Officer, this took place in September 1918 when their unit was under British command. During World War I, company commander Captain Lawrence of the US Army overheard Solomon Louis and Mitchell Bobb having a conversation in the Choctaw language. Upon further investigation, he found; the Choctaw men in the Army's 36th Infantry Division trained to use their language in code and helped the American Expeditionary Forces in several battles of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
On October 26, 1918, the code talkers were pressed into service and the "tide of battle turned within 24 hours... and within 72 hours the Allies were on full attack." German authorities knew about the use of code talkers during World War I and sent a team of thirty anthropologists to the United States to learn Native American languages before the outbreak of World War II. However, the task proved too difficult because of the array of native dialects. Nonetheless, after the US Army learned of the Nazi effort, it opted not to implement a large-scale code talker program in the European theater. A total of 14 code talkers using the Comanche language took part in the Invasion of Normandy and served in the 4th Infantry Division in Europe. Comanche soldiers of the 4th Signal Company compiled a vocabulary of over 100 code terms using words or phrases in their own language. Using a substitution method similar to the Navajo, the code talkers used descriptive Comanche language words for things that did not have translations.
For example, the Comanche language word for tank was turtle, bomber was pregnant airplane, machine gun was sewing machine, Adolf Hitler was crazy white man. Two Comanche code talker
A service ribbon, medal ribbon, or ribbon bar is a small ribbon, mounted on a small metal bar equipped with an attaching device, issued for wear in place of a medal when it is not appropriate to wear the actual medal. Each country's government has its own rules on what ribbons can be worn in what circumstances and in which order; this is defined in an official document and is called "the order of precedence" or "the order of wearing." In some countries, some awards are "ribbon only," having no associated medal. According to the Defense Logistics Agency, the U. S. military's standard size for a ribbon bar is 1 3/8 in wide, 3/8 inches tall, with a thickness of 0.8mm. The service ribbon for a specific medal is identical to the suspension ribbon on the medal. For example, the suspension and service ribbon for the U. S. government's Purple Heart medal is purple with a white vertical stripe at each end. However, there are some military awards that do not have a suspension ribbon, but have an authorized ribbon and unit award emblem.
The Soviet Order of Victory is a badge, worn on the military parade uniform. However, a ribbon bar representing the Order of Victory was worn on a military field uniform. Ribbon bars come in a variety of colors. In the case of the U. S. military, it maintains a specific list of colors used on its ribbons, based on the Pantone Matching System and Federal Standard 595 color systems: There is a variety of constructions of service ribbons. In some countries, service ribbons are mounted on a "pin backing", which can be pushed through the fabric of a uniform and secured, with fasteners, on the inside edge; these ribbons can be individually secured and lined up, or they can be all mounted on to a single fastener. After the Second World War, it was common for all ribbons to be mounted on a single metal bar and worn in a manner similar to a brooch. Other methods of wearing have included physically sewing each service ribbon onto the uniform garments. "Orders of wearing" define which ribbons may be worn on which types of uniform in which positions under which circumstances.
For example, miniature medals on dinner dress, full medals on parade dress, ribbons on dress shirts, but no decorations on combat dress and working clothing. Some countries maintain a standard practice of wearing full service ribbons on combat utility clothing. Others prohibit this; these regulations are similar to the regulations regarding display of rank insignia and regulations regarding saluting of more senior ranks. The reasoning for such regulations is to prevent these displays from enabling opposing forces to identify persons of higher rank and therefore aid them in choosing targets which will have a larger impact on the battlefield. In times of war, it is not uncommon for commanders and other high value individuals to wear no markings on their uniforms and wear clothing and insignia of a lower ranking soldier. Service medals and ribbons are worn in rows on the left side of the chest. In certain commemorative and/ or memorial circumstances, a relative may wear the medals or ribbons of a dead relative on the right side of the chest.
Medals and ribbons not mentioned in the "Order of wear" are generally worn on the right side of the chest. Sequencing of the ribbons depends on each country's regulations. In the United States, for example, those with the highest status—typically awarded for heroism or distinguished service—are placed at the top of the display, while foreign decorations are last in the bottom rows; when medals are worn, ribbons with no corresponding medals are worn on the right side. The study and collection of ribbons, among other military decorations, is known as phaleristics. Keith Payne, VC, OAMHis Excellency General The Honourable Sir Peter Cosgrove, AK, MC Sir Hans Jesper Helsø former General and Chief of Defence. Ecuadorian General of the Army Paco Moncayo Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Admiral of the Fleet Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma In the U. S. military, the different services have different methods of wearing ribbon bars. In the U. S. Navy, they are worn in rows of three with no spacing between rows.
For U. S. Navy members who have three or more ribbons, they can elect to wear only their three highest-ranked ones instead of all of them. In the U. S. Marine Corps, they can be worn with optional staggering. In the U. S. Army staggered with spacing in between rows. A U. S. serviceman's complete ribbon display is referred to colloquially as a "ribbon rack" or "rack" for short. Field Marshal S. H. F. J. Manekshaw Phaleristics Order List of military decorations List of prizes and awards Awards and decorations of the United States military Danish service ribbons
Texas Military Forces
The Texas Military Forces is the three-branch military of the U. S. state of Texas. It is composed of the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard, the Texas State Guard. All three branches are administered by the state adjutant general, an appointee of the Texas governor, fall under the command of the governor; the Texas military was first established by Stephen F. Austin on February 18, 1823, under the authorization of the emperor of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide, who directed Austin "to organize the colonists into a body of the national militia, to preserve tranquility," as well as to make war on Native American tribes who were hostile to newly established Texas settlements. All of the Texan militias would come under the command of Sam Houston during the Texas War of Independence between Texas and Mexico beginning in 1835 and ending in 1836 after Texas secured its independence to become the new nation of the Republic of Texas. From 1836 to 1845, the Texas militias being a part of the Army of the Republic of Texas fell under the command of the President of the Republic of Texas.
After Texas became the 28th US state in 1845, the state military and its various branches have fallen under the command of the Texas governor. The Texas National Guard consists of the Joint Force Headquarters for Texas, the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard and the Domestic Operations Command; the Guard is administered by an appointee of the governor of Texas. The Constitution of the United States charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions; those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress; when National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-in-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed."
The Governor may call individuals or units of the Texas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." The Texas State Guard is a military entity authorized by both the State Code of Texas, U. S. Code and executive order. Additionally, the U. S. Constitution grants the states the right to organize a state militia; the Texas State Guard is the state's authorized militia and is composed of retired and former active and reserve military personnel. Other members include those with no prior military service plus selected professional persons who volunteer their time and talents in further service to Texas; the current adjutant general for the Texas National Guard is Major General Tracy R. Norris, she is the 52nd Adjutant General for the State of Texas and the first female to hold that post in Texas.
Formations of the Texas Army National Guard include the 36th Infantry Division, the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the 36th Combat Aviation Brigade, the 71st Battlefield Surveillance Brigade, the 36th Sustainment Brigade, the 176th Engineer Brigade, the 136th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, the 136th Expeditionary Signal Battalion, the 136th Regiment. The current Assistant Adjutant General-Army, for Texas is Major General William L. Smith; the Texas Air National Guard is composed of the 149th Fighter Wing, the 136th Airlift Wing, the 147th Attack Wing, the 254th Combat Communications Group, the 272nd Engineering Installation Squadron, the 204th Security Forces Squadron. The 149th Fighter Wing prepares pilots for combat, the 136th Airlift Wing flies C-130s in-and out of theater and the 147th Reconnaissance Wing has acquired Predators to be the eyes in the hostile sky; the 136th Airlift Wing in Fort Worth flies C-130 cargo aircraft carrying personnel and equipment around the world.
The 531st Air Force Band is co-located with the 136th Airlift Wing. The 147th Attack Wing, headquartered in Houston on the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, provides a worldwide deployable dual-role fighter/attack capability while covering the Gulf Coast from Brownsville, Texas to New Orleans, Louisiana in the Air Sovereignty Alert mission; the 111th Attack Squadron is attached to the 147th Attack Wing. The Squadron flies the MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle; the 149th Fighter Wing is headquartered in San Antonio on Lackland Air Force Base. The fighter wing is assigned to the US Air Forces Air Education and Training Command and is one of the primary "school houses" for F-16 pilots; the 182nd Fighter Squadron is attached to the 149th Fighter Wing. The Squadron flies the Block 30 F-16C/D Fighting Falcon dual-role fighter; the 204th Security Forces Squadron is located at Fort Bliss, El Paso. They are the only security forces unit in the Air National Guard. Since September 11, 2001 attacks, members of the 204th SFS have seen duty in central and southwest Asia, in Africa and onboard ship in the Persian Gulf.
They have served on installations in several states in the U. S. and taught military base defense in Latin American countries. The unit still has members serving in the Iraq area of operations as par