A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Donley County, Texas
Donley County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,677, its county seat is Clarendon. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1882. Donley County was established in 1876 from land given by the Bexar District, it is named for justice of the state supreme court. There are several historical sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Donley County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 933 square miles, of which 927 square miles are land and 5.6 square miles are covered by water. Interstate 40 U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 70 State Highway 273 Gray County Collingsworth County Hall County Briscoe County Armstrong County Wheeler County As of the census of 2000, 3,828 people, 1,578 households, 1,057 families resided in the county; the population density was four people per square mile. The 2,378 housing units averaged 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.41% White, 3.94% Black or African American, 0.89% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 2.72% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.
About 6.35% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 1,578 households, 24.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were not families. About 31.40% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was distributed as 22.40% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 20.60% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 21.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,006, for a family was $37,287. Males had a median income of $24,375 versus $18,882 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,958. About 10.50% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.90% of those under age 18 and 15.90% of those age 65 or over.
The Saints' Roost Museum in Clarendon is dedicated to the American West. The Harold Dow Bugbee Ranch owned by the Western artist and his second wife, Olive Vandruff Bugbee an artist, is located in Donley County; the legendary cattle baron Charles Goodnight spent his years in Donley County. It was the home of historian Harley True Burton, author of A History of the JA Ranch, which Goodnight co-owned. Burton was president of Clarendon College and the mayor of Clarendon from 1955 to 1963; the JA Ranch is located in the counties of Donley, Hall and Armstrong. U. S. Highway 287, which runs through the county, no longer offers wi-fi; the rest area offers sanctuary from weather offering a tornado shelter in the main building. Clarendon Hedley Howardwick Lelia Lake Aviation historian Randy Acord U. S. Representative Mac Thornberry List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Donley County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Donley County Donley County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Donley County Donley County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Oldham County, Texas
Oldham County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,052, its county seat is Vega. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1881. Oldham County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Oldham County was formed in 1876 and organized in 1881, named for Williamson Simpson Oldham, Sr. a Texas pioneer and Confederate Senator. At the time of its organization, nearly the entire county was a part of the XIT Ranch; the county seat was at the town of Tascosa, which in the 1880s was one of the largest towns in the Panhandle. As the railroads came through the county, they bypassed Tascosa. Oldham County is ranch and farm land, with many thousands of acres planted in wheat, the major crop; the county has some petroleum production and large wind farms. In 1902, the Matador Ranch acquired the 210,000 acres Alamositas Ranch in Oldham County. At its peak, the Matador owned 90,000 cattle and had title to 879,000 acres of land in parts of four Texas counties.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,501 square miles, of which 1,501 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. A southern strip of the county, including the county seat Vega, is located on top of the Llano Estacado; the next 12 miles slope down to the Canadian River. The former county seat of Tascosa is located at a crossing of the Canadian River north of Vega; the terrain slopes up from the Canadian River, passing the county line at 6 miles and reaching the top of the High Plains a further four miles north. For years there has been a simmering dispute over a strip of land running north and south, including an abandoned part of Glenrio at the west end of Oldham County, as to which state it is lawfully a part of: Texas or New Mexico? The border between the two states was defined as the 103rd meridian, but the 1859 survey, supposed to mark that boundary mistakenly set the border between 2.29 and 3.77 miles too far west of that line, making the current towns of Farwell and the east part of Glenrio appear to be within the State of Texas.
New Mexico's short border with Oklahoma, in contrast, was surveyed on the correct meridian. New Mexico's draft constitution in 1910 stated; the disputed strip, hundreds of miles long, includes parts of valuable oilfields of the Permian Basin. A bill was passed in the New Mexico Senate to fund and file a lawsuit in the U. S. Supreme Court to recover the strip from Texas. Today, land in the strip is included in Texas land surveys and the land and towns for all purposes are taxed and governed by the State of Texas. Interstate 40 Business Loop Interstate 40 / U. S. Highway 66 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 214 Hartley County Moore County Potter County Deaf Smith County Quay County, New Mexico Randall County As of the census of 2000, there were 2,185 people, 735 households, 565 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 815 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.66% White, 1.88% Black or African American, 1.28% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 4.62% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races.
11.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In terms of ancestry, 25.2% were of German, 14.1% were of Irish, 10.4% were of English, 4,7% were of American, 3,3% were of French, 2,9% were of Dutch. There were 735 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.70% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.00% were non-families. 21.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 35.00% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 23.30% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 108.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,713, the median income for a family was $39,091.
Males had a median income of $26,845 versus $20,185 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,806. About 10.50% of families and 19.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.00% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. Adrian Vega Boys Ranch Wildorado Boise Landergin Tascosa W. D. Twichell and civil engineer Cal Farley, professional wrestler and Boys Ranch founder In presidential elections, Oldham County is solidly Republican. List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Oldham County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Oldham County Oldham County government's website Oldham County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Oldham County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Swisher County, Texas
Swisher County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 7,854, its county seat is Tulia. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1890, it is named for James G. Swisher, a soldier of the Texas Revolution and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. At one time, the large JA Ranch, founded by Charles Goodnight and John George Adair, owned by Goodnight and Cornelia Adair, reached into six counties, including Swisher. Apachean cultures roamed the county until Comanche dominated around 1700; the Comanches were defeated by the United States Army in the Red River War of 1874. No significant combat occurred in the county. After the 1874 battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Ranald S. Mackenzie ordered; the Buffalo Hunters' War of 1876 was an attempt by the Comanches to drive out the white man and stop depletion of their hunting grounds. In 1876 the Texas state legislature carved Swisher County from Bexar districts; the county was organized in 1880, Tulia, became the county seat.
The area was by and large unsettled until the JA Ranch of Charles Goodnight came in 1883, which added the Tule Ranch. Although settlers arrived, the county was dominated by ranching the remainder of the 19th Century. Good underground water at shallow depths gave to windmills. In 1906, the Santa Fe Railroad branch line from Amarillo came through the county and connected the county with Hale County, with Lubbock by 1910, giving Swisher a major north-south rail line and boosting the economy; the Great Depression had a devastating effect on the county’s economy, somewhat relieved by road work. The stimulus of World War II demand and the development of large-scale irrigation in the area, led to the revival of the county's economy; the first successful extensive local use of underground water from the Ogallala Aquifer came in 1936. After World War II this activity increased dramatically. In 2002 the county had 578 farms and ranches covering 566,429 acres, 69 percent of which were devoted to crops and 30 percent to pasture.
Rural Texas in the early 20th Century was connected by unpaved routes of caliche or other rock and dirt paths. Swisher’s road structure fell into this category. In 1920 the Ozark Trail served as a predecessor to today’s intra-continental highway structure; the Ozark Trail was a highway network maintained by local entities or private citizens from Arkansas and Missouri through Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, to New Mexico. In Texas the trail was made of upgraded roads. Collingsworth, Hall, Swisher and Parmer counties along with Curry and Roosevelt counties in New Mexico raised $10,000 in 1920 to erect markers along existing roads to mark the Ozark Trail from Oklahoma across Texas to New Mexico. By the mid-1920s Tulia was linked to Nazareth and Bovina by State Highway 86, to Canyon and Amarillo by U. S. Highway 385, to Silverton by State Highway 80, to Plainview and Lubbock by U. S. 385. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 901 square miles, of which 890 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water.
Interstate 27 U. S. Highway 87 State Highway 86 Randall County Armstrong County Briscoe County Floyd County Hale County Castro County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,378 people, 2,925 households, 2,152 families residing in the county; the population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 3,315 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.75% White, 5.85% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 19.41% from other races, 2.28% from two or more races. 35.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,925 households out of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.20% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.40% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15.
In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 109.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,846, the median income for a family was $34,444. Males had a median income of $25,164 versus $20,448 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,326. About 14.20% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.20% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. Kress Tulia Happy Love Vigo Park Whereas the counties to its north in the Panhandle proper became overwhelmingly Republican at a Presidential level with Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1950s, Swisher County continued to favour the Democratic Party for another four decades being narrowly won by Walter Mondale in 1984 when he came within 3,819 votes of losing all fifty states.
During the twentieth century the only Republicans to carry Swisher County were Herbert Hoover in 1928 due to intense anti-Catholic sentiment against Al Smith, Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952, Richard Nixon in 1972. Like
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
The Caprock Escarpment is a term used in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico to describe the geographical transition point between the level high plains of the Llano Estacado and the surrounding rolling terrain. In Texas, the escarpment stretches around 200 mi south-southwest from the northeast corner of the Texas Panhandle near the Oklahoma border; the escarpment is notable, from north to south, in Briscoe, Motley, Dickens and Borden Counties. In New Mexico, a prominent escarpment exists along the northernmost extension of the Llano Estacado to the south of San Jon and Tucumcari, both in Quay County, New Mexico. Along the western edge of the Llano Estacado, the portion of the escarpment that stretches from Caprock to Maljamar, New Mexico is called the Mescalero Ridge; the escarpment is made of caliche — a layer of calcium carbonate that resists erosion. In some places, the escarpment rises around 1,000 ft above the plains to the east; the escarpment's features formed by erosion from rivers and streams, creating arroyos and diverse terrain, including the large Palo Duro Canyon southeast of Amarillo, Texas.
One will notice the change in elevation of several hundred feet while crossing the Caprock Escarpment on Interstate 40 between Adrian and San Jon, New Mexico. The overall slight upslope, in some areas, terrain of the Caprock is implicated in altering local weather and climate, such as enhancing precipitation and promoting thunderstorm initiation and organization. Caprock Canyons State Park and Trailway, located near Quitaque, opened in 1982. A 65 mi trail was developed within the park in 1992. Along the trail is Clarity Tunnel, home to a large colony of Mexican free-tailed bats. Caprock from the Handbook of Texas Online Photos of the Llano Estacado, West Texas, Eastern New Mexico