Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
McAllen is the largest city in Hidalgo County, United States, the 22nd-most populous city in Texas. It is located at the southern tip of the state in the Rio Grande Valley; the city limits extend south to the Rio Grande, across from the Mexican city of Reynosa, McAllen is about 70 mi west of the Gulf of Mexico. As of 2017, McAllen’s population was estimated to be 142,696, it is the fifth-most populous metropolitan area in the state of Texas, the binational Reynosa–McAllen metropolitan area counts a population of nearly 1.52 million. From its settlement in 1904, the area around McAllen was rural and agricultural in character, but the latter half of the 20th century had steady growth, which the metropolitan area still experiences today; the introduction of the maquiladora economy and the North American Free Trade Association led to an increase in cross-border trading with Mexico. In 1904, the Hidalgo and San Miguel Extension of the St. Louis and Mexico Railway reached the Santa Anita Ranch. John McAllen and his son James donated land to the railroad to guarantee.
On December 5, 1904, the McAllen Townsite Company was formed by Uriah Lott, Leonidas C. Hill Sr. John McAllen, James Ballí McAllen, John J. Young; the new community, named for John McAllen, had the depot nearest the county seat, Hidalgo, 8 mi to the south. By 1911, 5,000 acres were under cultivation in East McAllen, with produce consisting of cotton, broom corn, citrus fruits and figs. East McAllen had an estimated population of 1,000 that year, West McAllen had ceased to exist. In 1911, the town was issued a charter of incorporation under the name McAllen. In 1916, 20,000 New York state troops were stationed at McAllen to help quell border disturbances; the resulting economic boom increased the population from 1,200 in 1916 to 6,000 in 1920. McAllen adopted a home rule charter in 1927. Canning factories, a winery, tortilla plants, wood-working plants, some oil exploration increased the population to 9,074 by 1930. In 1936, Hiram Garner opened the Valley Distillery, which produced wines from citrus juices.
The town was a petroleum and farm chemurgic center with a population of 11,877 in 1940, by which time it had adopted the nickname "The City of Palms". In 1941, a suspension bridge replaced the old bridge from Hidalgo to Reynosa in Tamaulipas, its construction resulted in increased tourist trade, making McAllen a winter resort and port of entry to Mexico. The discovery of oil in the Reynosa area in 1947 resulted in a large migration of people from the Mexican interior, constituting a new tourist market and cheap labor supply for McAllen; the sister cities were linked as a result of the increased traffic between them. The population of McAllen was 20,005 in 1950 and 32,728 in 1960; the McAllen–Hidalgo–Reynosa International Bridge was the number-two port of entry into Mexico in 1954. McAllen was an agricultural and tourist center in 1970, when the population reached 37,636. By the start of the 1970s, McAllen had a 200-bed hospital and a new air-conditioned high school, the first school in the nation featuring on-site power generated by natural gas-powered turbines.
The tourism industry continued to expand as people traveled to the area from both Mexico and the northern United States. The population continued to grow through the 1970s, reached 66,281 by 1980. During the late 1980s, the McAllen Foreign Trade Zone was an important general-purpose foreign trade zone. At the time, McAllen's main industries were retail and farming, each was in trouble; the devaluation of the Mexican peso in the 1980s put a damper on cross-border shopping. In 1983, a freeze took out much of the valley's citrus crop. In the mid-1980s, fueled by trade and the growth of the maquiladora, the economy began to improve in Hidalgo County. McAllen sits across the border from a large manufacturing center. After the peso devalued, coaxing companies to put their plants in Mexico with support operations in Texas became easier. President Trump held a briefing with the border agents at the patrol station here in January 2019 during the United States federal government shutdown of 2018–2019 over the Mexico–United States barrier.
The city has become a focal point for concerns about the border as border crossing is a daily event for many and is a key component in the local economy. Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen visited the Border Patrol station here in March 2019, she mentioned. The Marine Corps Commandant General Robert Neller had expressed concerns about the impact of border support on combat readiness for the troops. In order to deal with over crowded facilities in 2019 for asylum seekers, immigration authorities were releasing a few hundred people daily to private groups that assist them with basic needs and travel arrangements. After the U. S military troops placed razor wire coils at the border, the mayor emphasized how safe and secure the city is. Portions were removed by the city. U. S. military troops are prohibited from carrying out law enforcement duties. During border support activities, they are not allowed to seize drugs, they have assisted the Border Patrol by using military helicopters to carrying border patrol agents to and from locations along the Mexico–United States border and maintaining vehicles.
McAllen is located in southern Hidalgo County at 26°12′59″N 98
U.S. Route 83 in Texas
U. S. Highway 83, dedicated as the Texas Vietnam Veterans Memorial Highway, is a U. S. Highway in the U. S. state of Texas that begins at US 77 in Brownsville and follows the Rio Grande to Laredo heads north through Abilene to the Oklahoma border north of Perryton, the seat of Ochiltree County. It is the longest highway in Texas at a length of about 895 miles, besting the east–west I-10, which has a length of 879 miles. In the Lower Rio Grande Valley, US 83 is a freeway, at or close to interstate standards from Brownsville to Penitas. In May 2013, the Texas Department of Transportation applied to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to designate this 48-mile section as I-2. After the Special Committee on Route Numbering disapproved the application, the AASHTO Board of Directors approved the I-2 designation, conditional on the concurrence of the Federal Highway Administration. On May 29, 2013, the segment of US 83 was approved as an I-69 connector using the I-2 designation extending 46 miles from Harlingen to west of Mission.
US 83's southern terminus is at a concurrency with I-69E/US 77 on the south side of Brownsville at the Brownsville – Veterans Port of Entry at the US/Mexico border. It remains co-signed with I-69E/US 77 until Harlingen, where I-69E/US 77 makes a sharp turn northward and US 83 maintains a westerly route to McAllen, concurrent with I-2 until Palmview. From there, the highway parallels the Rio Grande until Laredo where it makes a northwesterly turn toward Carrizo Springs, the seat of Dimmit County; the speed limit on US 83 is 75 mph through Dimmit County. Merging with I-35 just south of downtown, US 83 remains co-signed with the interstate until an exit at Botines, Texas. From there, it continues northward. US 83 is co-signed with I-10 for 8 miles, turning northward and leaving I-10 at the Kimble County Airport. After continuing northward through several rural western Texas towns, US 83 merges with US 84 east of Tuscola, where it makes a sharp turn back to the north. US 83/84 remains a co-signed route until Abilene, where US 84 turns to the northwest and US 83 remains northbound, merging with US 277 on the west side of the city.
US 83/277 remains a co-signed route until 2 miles north of Anson, where US 277 turns northeast, US 83, northwest. After merging with US 380 in Aspermont and sharing a route, US 83 continues northward, merging with US 62 in Paducah. US 83/62 continues as a co-signed route until 15 miles south of Wellington, where US 62 makes a sharp turn eastward, leaving US 83 to continue northward, where it crosses into Oklahoma 6 miles north of Perryton. Texas portal U. S. Roads portal Business routes of U. S. Route 83 in Texas Media related to U. S. Route 83 in Texas at Wikimedia Commons
Texas state highway system
Texas state highways are a network of highways owned and maintained by the U. S. state of Texas. The Texas Department of Transportation is the state agency responsible for the day-to-day operations and maintenance of the system. Texas has the largest state highway system, followed by North Carolina's state highway system. In addition to the nationally numbered Interstate Highways and U. S. Highways, the highway system consists of a main network of state highways, loops and beltways that provide local access to the other highways; the system includes a large network of farm to market roads that connect rural areas of the state with urban areas and the rest of the state highway system. The state owns and maintains some park and recreational roads located near and within state and national parks, as well as recreational areas. All state highways, regardless of classification, are paved roads; the Old San Antonio Road known as the El Camino Real, is the oldest highway in the United States, first being blazed in 1691.
The length of the highways varies from US 83's 893.4 miles inside the state borders to Spur 200 at just 0.05 miles long. The Texas State Highway System can trace its roots to the establishment of the Texas Highway Department on April 4, 1917. Administrative control of the department was given to a three-member commission appointed by the governor for two-year terms. On June 21, 1917, the commission conducted its first public hearing to solicit input on potential highway routes; the committee divided the state into six divisions to be headquartered in Amarillo, Fort Worth, San Angelo, San Antonio. That year, the commission designated 26 state highways covering 8,865 miles which were to be accessible to 89% of the state's population. In 1921, Congress amended the Federal Aid to Roads Act of 1916 to require the states to take control of road design and maintenance of state highways by 1925; as a result, on January 1, 1924, the Texas Highway Department took full control of maintaining the state highways from the counties within which they resided.
In 1925, the state legislature granted the highway department the responsibility of surveying and building highways, the authorization to acquire new highway rights-of-way by purchasing, or condemning through eminent domain, land required for highway construction. By 1927, the highway system covered 17,960 miles, of which 96 miles were concrete, 1,060 miles were asphalt, 5,000 miles were gravel, shell or stone, 10,000 miles were clay or soil. In 1951, a 50-mile section of the Gulf Freeway opened. In 1957, the state began receiving federal funding for the construction of the Interstate Highway System; the first section of Interstate Highway from county line to county line to open in the state was a 43-mile section of I-35 in Bexar County. By 1967, the highway system controlled 66,000 miles of highway. In 1984, US 66 was replaced by I-40 and the US 66 designation was removed from the state highway system the following year. In 1992, the 3,200 miles of Interstate Highway System in Texas was completed with the opening of a six-mile section of I-27.
In 1997, the Texas Turnpike Authority was merged with TxDOT and independently, the North Texas Turnpike Authority became responsible for toll projects in Collin, Dallas and Tarrant counties. The Interstate Highway System in Texas covers 3,233.4 miles and consists of ten primary highways, seven auxiliary highways, the splitting of both Interstate 35 and Interstate 69 into multiple letter-suffixed branches. The Interstate Highway with the longest segment in Texas is I-10 at 880.6 miles. The shortest in the state is I-110 at 0.9 miles. The construction of the Interstate Highway System in Texas began well before these routes were designated as Interstate Highways. A 50-mile stretch of the Gulf Freeway between Galveston and Houston was opened in 1951, eight years before it was designated I-45, it was the first urban expressway in Texas. In 1962, 43 miles of I-35 opened in Bexar County, the first section of Interstate Highway to open from county line to county line in a large metropolitan area. Portions of I-10 west of San Antonio took much longer to complete due to the vast open spaces and lack of nearby labor.
The majority of the construction of this section of I-10 occurred in the 1970s and 1980s and was complete by the early 1990s. The section east of San Antonio was completed 20 years earlier in 1972; the opening of a 6-mile section of I-27 in 1992 completed the Interstate Highway System in Texas. Construction is ongoing for an extension of I-69 southward from its original terminus in Indiana through Texas to the Mexican border; when built, I-69 will extend about 650 miles across Texas, from the Louisiana state line in the Texarkana–Shreveport area to South Texas. Similar to I-35, I-69 splits into three letter-suffixed branches, I-69E, I-69C, I-69W; the United States Numbered Highways are a nationwide grid of highways, but unlike the Interstate Highway System, there is no minimum design standard for these highways. This is evident as some stretches of the U. S. Highways in Texas are nothing more than a two-lane rural road. Although the U. S. Highways have been replaced for the most part by Interstate Highways for through traffic, the U.
S. Highways still serve as important regional connectors. Several notable examples of U. S. Highways that are built to freeway standards include US 75 and US 80 in Dallas, US 59 and US 290 in Houston, US 90 and US 281 in
Edinburg is a city in and the county seat of Hidalgo County, United States. The population was 74,569 as of the 2010 census, in 2016 the estimated population was 87,650. Edinburg is part of the McAllen–Edinburg–Mission and Reynosa–McAllen metropolitan areas. In 1908, John Closner, William Briggs, Argyle McAllen, Plutarco de la Viña and Dennis B. Chapin developed a new community at this site; the town square was located at the current crossroads of U. S. Highway 281 and State Highway 107; the town was named "Chapin" in honor of one of the developers. A local myth relates that Edinburg became the county seat of Hidalgo County in a dramatic, nighttime covert operation in which the county records were removed from the previous county seat. However, historical records show more practical reasons; the original Hidalgo County Courthouse in the city of Hidalgo was under frequent danger of flooding because of the town's proximity to the Rio Grande, which sometimes encroached on the building. Additionally, Texas law required that the courthouse be close to the geographic center of the county.
When Dennis Chapin was involved in the shooting death of Oscar J. Rountree at the Dan Breen Saloon in San Antonio, the community changed its name to "Edinburg" to honor John Young, a prominent businessman, born in Edinburgh, Scotland; the town was named in 1911 and incorporated in 1919. Edinburg is located in south-central Hidalgo County at 26°18′15″N 98°9′50″W, it is bordered to the south by Pharr and to the southwest by McAllen, the largest city in the county. U. S. Route 281 runs through the east side of Edinburg. US 281 leads north 103 miles to Alice and 229 miles to San Antonio. Downtown McAllen is 10 miles to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, Edinburg has a total area of 37.7 square miles, of which 37.6 square miles are land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.16%, are water. Population as of the census of 2000, there were 48,465 people, 14,183 households, 11,417 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,296.9 people per square mile. There were 16,031 housing units at an average density of 429.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 73.32% White, 0.58% African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 22.67% from other races, 2.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 88.68% of the population. About 95 % of those who selected the "other race" were Latino. There were 14,183 households out of which 46.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.5% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.71. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.0% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 15.9% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,938, the median income for a family was $30,634. Males had a median income of $27,505 versus $21,010 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,854. About 25.2% of families and 29.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.2% of those under age 18 and 23.0% of those age 65 or over. In December 2012, officials announced the merger of the existing University of Texas-Pan American in Edinburg and the University of Texas at Brownsville into a regional institution. A year in December 2013, University of Texas System officials decided to name the new institution the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. UTRGV's creation garnered much media attention because of its expected economic and health care impact on the region. UTRGV is unique in that it is the first time the UT System has merged existing campuses in such a way. UTRGV will bring the first medical school to the Rio Grande Valley region; the first class of UTRGV students began courses in fall 2015.
Edinburg is the home of the Rio Grande Bible Institute and located in the South Texas College District. All of the city is served by the Edinburg Consolidated Independent School District, comprising four high schools, one alternative secondary school, six middle schools, 20 elementary schools. A small portion is served by the McAllen Independent School District, including Memorial High School, Cathey Middle School, McAllen's Gonzalez Elementary. In addition, the South Texas Independent School District operates magnet schools that serve Edinburg. South Texas Business Education & Technology Academy is in Edinburg. Students from Edinburg have the chance to attend other South Texas ISD schools in Mercedes -South Texas High School for the Medical Professions and The Science Academy of South Texas; the Catholic Diocese of Brownsville operates St. Joseph Catholic School, an elementary and middle school; the city of Edinburg operates the Dustin Michael Sekula Memorial Library. Edinburg is home to the Museum of South Texas History the Hidalgo County Historical Museum.
As Edinburg is the county seat of Hidalgo County, most major county offices are located there including the Criminal District Attorney's Office, the District Courts and County Courts at Law of Hidalgo County, the Community Supervision and Corrections Department, the Hidalgo County Juvenile Probation Department, the Hidalgo County Sheriff's Department and the offices of the County Judge, the Tax
A state highway, state road, or state route is a road, either numbered or maintained by a sub-national state or province. A road numbered by a state or province falls below numbered national highways in the hierarchy. Roads maintained by a state or province include both nationally numbered highways and un-numbered state highways. Depending on the state, "state highway" may be used for one meaning and "state road" or "state route" for the other. In some countries such as New Zealand, the word "state" is used in its sense of a sovereign state or country. By this meaning a state highway is a road maintained and numbered by the national government rather than local authorities. Australia's State Route system covers urban and inter-regional routes that are not included in the National Route or the National Highway systems; these routes are marked with a blue shield. Sometimes a state route may be formed. Most states and territories have introduced an alphanumeric route numbering system, either or replacing the previous systems.
Brazil is another country, divided into states and has state highways. Canada is divided into provinces and territories, each of which maintains its own system of provincial or territorial highways, which form the majority of the country's highway network. There is the national transcontinental Trans-Canada Highway system, marked by distinct signs, but has no uniform numeric designation across the country. In some provinces, for instance, an unnumbered Trans-Canada route marker is posted below a numbered provincial sign, with the provincial route continuing alone outside the Trans-Canada Highway section. In others, Trans-Canada routes are co-signed with major provincial highways, displayed as a single numbered Trans-Canada route marker. Canada has a designated National Highway System, but the system is unsigned, aside from the Trans-Canada routes. In Germany, state roads are a road class, ranking below the federal road network; the responsibility for road planning and maintenance is vested in the federal states of Germany.
Most federal states use the term Landesstraße, while for historical reasons Saxony and Bavaria use the term Staatsstraße. The appearance of the shields differs from state to state; the term Lande-s-straße should not be confused with Landstraße, which describes every road outside built-up areas and is not a road class. Italy's Strade Statali extend for some 18,000 km, overseen by the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade founded in 1946, replacing the A. A. S. S. of 1928. State highways in India are numbered highways that are maintained by state governments. Mexico's State Highway System is a system of urban and state routes constructed and maintained by each Mexican state; the main purpose of the state networks is to serve as a feeder system to the federal highway system. All states except the Federal District operate a road network; each state marks these routes with a white shield containing the abbreviated name of the state plus the route number. New Zealand state highways are national highways – the word "state" in this sense means "government" or "public", not a division of a country.
New Zealand's state highway system is a nationwide network of roads covering the North Island and the South Island. As of 2006, just under 100 roads have a "State Highway" designation; the NZ Transport Agency administers them. The speed limit for most state highways is 100 km/h, with reductions when one passes through a densely populated area; the highways in New Zealand were designated on a two-tier system and provincial, with national highways having a higher standard and funding priorities. Now all of them are state highways, the network consists of SH 1 running the length of both main islands, SH 2–5 and 10–58 in the North Island, SH 6–8 and 60–99 in the South Island. National and provincial highways are numbered north to south. State Highway 1 runs the length of both islands. Local highways are the next important roads under the National highways; the number has three, or four dights. Highways with two-digit numbers routes are called State-funded local highways. State highways are a mixture of primary and secondary roads, although some are freeways.
Each state has its own system for its own marker. The default marker is a white circle containing a black sans serif number, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices; however each state is free to choose a different marker, most states have. States may choose a design theme relevant to its state to distinguish state route markers from interstate, county, or municipal route markers. Roads portal List of longest state highways in the United States List of numbered highways in the United States Interstate Highway System, U. S. Highway System Missouri supplemental route County highway Highways in Australia Numbered street