In road transportation in the United States, a special route is a road in a numbered highway system that diverts a specific segment of related traffic away from another road. They are featured in many highway systems. S. highway system, several state highway systems. Each type of special route possesses defined characteristics and has a defined relationship with its parent route. Special routes share a route number with a dominant route referred as the "parent" or "mainline", are given either a descriptor which may be used either before or after the route name, such as Alternate or Business, or a letter suffix, attached to the route number. For example, an alternate route of U. S. Route 1 may be called "Alternate U. S. Route 1", "U. S. Route 1 Alternate", or "U. S. Route 1A". A special route will have both a descriptor and a suffix, such as U. S. Route 1A Business. In the field, the special route is distinguished from the parent route with the use of auxiliary words or suffix letters placed on the route shield or on an adjacent sign, known as a "banner" or "plate" or according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, a "route sign auxiliary sign".
A common roadfan synonym for special route is "bannered highway" or "bannered route", terms coined from the presence of these companion signs. The term is not all-encompassing however; the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials sets the nationwide precedent for special routes for U. S. Numbered Highways; as of 2009, the standards organization only advocates four types of special routes: business, bypass and temporary. AASHTO suggests that transportation authorities of the United States remove other types of special routes and/or replace such obsolete designations with another type of route; some old alignments of routes may be informally known as special routes. These older alignments may be given street names like "Old U. S. Highway 52", or in some rare cases, be signed with route shields attached to "Old" or "Historic" sign plates. In the case of U. S. state route systems, special routes are restricted to primary state routes, not secondary state routes, though Missouri has three supplemental routes with short spur routes, the 500-series county routes in New Jersey have alternate, bypass and truck routes.
A few highways have two special route designations. Some of these doubly designated special routes are: Alternate Business US 66 in Springfield, Missouri Business US 1A in downtown Bangor, Maine Truck Business US 17 in Elizabeth City, North Carolina Business US 77 Alternate in Yoakum, Texas U. S. Route 202 Alternate Truck in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Business Alternate US 58 i Norton and Big Stone Gap, Virginia. There is an example of a route with three special route designations. U. S. Route 30 Business Alternate Truck provides an alternate truck bypass of U. S. Route 30 Business in Downingtown, Pennsylvania. Routes with special designations in the U. S. have typical behavior. There are, many exceptions to the common behavior, depending on the situation. Business routes can be loops or spurs and traverse through or near population centers, they are signed with "business" or "bus" auxiliaries or a "B" suffix. Most business routes are the former alignments of their parent. Bypass routes go around population centers and are newer and faster than their mainline and/or business route counterparts.
In some cases, due to urban sprawl over time, land around bypasses can become developed, expanding the population center outward and creating a misnomer with the term "bypass". Approaching a population center, it is common for the parent route to split between a business route and a bypass route and rejoin to form the parent on the other side; the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials defines a business route for U. S. highways as...a route principally within the corporate limits of a city which provides the traveling public an opportunity to travel through that city, passing through the business part of the city. This "Business Route" connects with the regular numbered route at the opposite side of the city limits. AASHTO defines bypass or relief routes for U. S. highways as:...a route, established for the purpose of designating a route which by-passes a city or congested area and joins in with the regular numbered route beyond the city or congested area. AASHTO defines a category of special routes separate from primary and auxiliary Interstate designations known as Business Interstate routes.
These routes do not have to comply to Interstate construction standards, but are routes that may be identified and approved by the association. The same route marking policy applies to both U. S. Numbered Highways and Interstate highways. Known as Business Loops and Business Spurs, these routes that principally travel through the corporate limits of a city, passing through the central business district of the city. Business routes are used, they sport green Interstate shields, as opposed to the normal r
Texas state highway system
Texas state highways are a network of highways owned and maintained by the U. S. state of Texas. The Texas Department of Transportation is the state agency responsible for the day-to-day operations and maintenance of the system. Texas has the largest state highway system, followed by North Carolina's state highway system. In addition to the nationally numbered Interstate Highways and U. S. Highways, the highway system consists of a main network of state highways, loops and beltways that provide local access to the other highways; the system includes a large network of farm to market roads that connect rural areas of the state with urban areas and the rest of the state highway system. The state owns and maintains some park and recreational roads located near and within state and national parks, as well as recreational areas. All state highways, regardless of classification, are paved roads; the Old San Antonio Road known as the El Camino Real, is the oldest highway in the United States, first being blazed in 1691.
The length of the highways varies from US 83's 893.4 miles inside the state borders to Spur 200 at just 0.05 miles long. The Texas State Highway System can trace its roots to the establishment of the Texas Highway Department on April 4, 1917. Administrative control of the department was given to a three-member commission appointed by the governor for two-year terms. On June 21, 1917, the commission conducted its first public hearing to solicit input on potential highway routes; the committee divided the state into six divisions to be headquartered in Amarillo, Fort Worth, San Angelo, San Antonio. That year, the commission designated 26 state highways covering 8,865 miles which were to be accessible to 89% of the state's population. In 1921, Congress amended the Federal Aid to Roads Act of 1916 to require the states to take control of road design and maintenance of state highways by 1925; as a result, on January 1, 1924, the Texas Highway Department took full control of maintaining the state highways from the counties within which they resided.
In 1925, the state legislature granted the highway department the responsibility of surveying and building highways, the authorization to acquire new highway rights-of-way by purchasing, or condemning through eminent domain, land required for highway construction. By 1927, the highway system covered 17,960 miles, of which 96 miles were concrete, 1,060 miles were asphalt, 5,000 miles were gravel, shell or stone, 10,000 miles were clay or soil. In 1951, a 50-mile section of the Gulf Freeway opened. In 1957, the state began receiving federal funding for the construction of the Interstate Highway System; the first section of Interstate Highway from county line to county line to open in the state was a 43-mile section of I-35 in Bexar County. By 1967, the highway system controlled 66,000 miles of highway. In 1984, US 66 was replaced by I-40 and the US 66 designation was removed from the state highway system the following year. In 1992, the 3,200 miles of Interstate Highway System in Texas was completed with the opening of a six-mile section of I-27.
In 1997, the Texas Turnpike Authority was merged with TxDOT and independently, the North Texas Turnpike Authority became responsible for toll projects in Collin, Dallas and Tarrant counties. The Interstate Highway System in Texas covers 3,233.4 miles and consists of ten primary highways, seven auxiliary highways, the splitting of both Interstate 35 and Interstate 69 into multiple letter-suffixed branches. The Interstate Highway with the longest segment in Texas is I-10 at 880.6 miles. The shortest in the state is I-110 at 0.9 miles. The construction of the Interstate Highway System in Texas began well before these routes were designated as Interstate Highways. A 50-mile stretch of the Gulf Freeway between Galveston and Houston was opened in 1951, eight years before it was designated I-45, it was the first urban expressway in Texas. In 1962, 43 miles of I-35 opened in Bexar County, the first section of Interstate Highway to open from county line to county line in a large metropolitan area. Portions of I-10 west of San Antonio took much longer to complete due to the vast open spaces and lack of nearby labor.
The majority of the construction of this section of I-10 occurred in the 1970s and 1980s and was complete by the early 1990s. The section east of San Antonio was completed 20 years earlier in 1972; the opening of a 6-mile section of I-27 in 1992 completed the Interstate Highway System in Texas. Construction is ongoing for an extension of I-69 southward from its original terminus in Indiana through Texas to the Mexican border; when built, I-69 will extend about 650 miles across Texas, from the Louisiana state line in the Texarkana–Shreveport area to South Texas. Similar to I-35, I-69 splits into three letter-suffixed branches, I-69E, I-69C, I-69W; the United States Numbered Highways are a nationwide grid of highways, but unlike the Interstate Highway System, there is no minimum design standard for these highways. This is evident as some stretches of the U. S. Highways in Texas are nothing more than a two-lane rural road. Although the U. S. Highways have been replaced for the most part by Interstate Highways for through traffic, the U.
S. Highways still serve as important regional connectors. Several notable examples of U. S. Highways that are built to freeway standards include US 75 and US 80 in Dallas, US 59 and US 290 in Houston, US 90 and US 281 in
Abilene Regional Airport
Abilene Regional Airport is a public airport three miles southeast of Abilene, in Taylor County, Texas. It is within the Abilene city limits and operated by the City. Most operations at the airport are military training. Abilene Regional is served by one airline, Envoy Air operating as American Eagle, with daily Embraer regional jet flights to Dallas-Ft. Worth. American Eagle introduced an additional regional jet flight to DFW on August 19, 2014 thus increasing the number of flights to this major American Airlines hub. Continental Connection operated by Colgan Air on behalf of Continental Airlines ended Saab 340 turboprop flights to Houston Intercontinental Airport in October 2008. Allegiant Airlines operated twice-weekly flights to Las Vegas with McDonnell Douglas MD-80 jetliners in 2006–07 before ceasing all service to Abilene. Charter air carriers such as Sun Country Airlines continue to operate flights on an occasional basis from ABI to Las Vegas with mainline jet aircraft such as the Boeing 737.
New airline service to the northwest and west to major airline hubs such as Phoenix or Denver, is a top priority for airport management. Many area residents drive to the Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport rather than fly out of ABI, airlines have always faced a challenge with regard to operating profitable jet service into ABI; the advent of 50-seat regional jets has the potential to provide air service with such aircraft from Abilene to more cities. Air freight service to Abilene is provided by subcontractors; the airport was served by major carriers. Native Air housed an emergency medical helicopter and crew at the airport for about 10 years, but closed the base in 2014; the city's remaining emergency medical helicopter service is provided by Air Evac Lifeteam, with its aircraft and crew stationed at Hendrick Medical Center. Abilene Regional is home to Eagle Aviation Services, Inc., a heavy-maintenance base for all American Eagle aircraft. Every plane in the airline's fleet is maintained at ABI.
The airport grounds act as an aircraft boneyard for American Eagle, which stores around 20 retired Saab 340 turboprop aircraft which remain in the airline's livery. American Eagle replaced these propjets with Embraer regional jets. Texas State Technical College provides aviation maintenance training at its on-field hangar base. American Airlines was serving Abilene during the mid 1930s as the airport was a stop on American's daily overnight service between Dallas and Los Angeles. American served the airport with 12-passenger Curtiss Condor aircraft which featured sleeper berths with these flights operating a routing of Dallas Love Field - Ft. Worth - Abilene - Big Spring, TX - El Paso - Douglas, AZ - Tucson - Phoenix - Los Angeles. By the late 1940s, American was operating Douglas DC-3 aircraft into the airport with a daily round trip routing of Dallas Love Field - Abilene - Big Spring - El Paso - Tucson - Phoenix - San Diego - Los Angeles. American would subsequently cease all flights to Abilene and would not return until the advent of American Eagle service many years later.
Abilene was served by Pioneer Airlines from the mid 1940s to the mid 1950s with direct flights to Dallas Love Field, Houston Hobby Airport, Fort Worth, Amarillo and other destinations in Texas and New Mexico with services being operated with Douglas DC-3 and Martin 2-0-2 twin prop aircraft. Pioneer was acquired and merged into Continental Airlines in 1955. Continental continued to serve Abilene with Douglas DC-3 aircraft flying to the destinations served by Pioneer and began new direct service from the airport to San Antonio. By the late 1950s, Continental was serving Abilene with larger aircraft such as the Convair 340 and Convair 440 twin prop aircraft as well as with the four engine, British-manufactured Vickers Viscount turboprop. In 1959, the airline was operating Viscount propjet flights on a daily basis direct to Dallas Love Field and Albuquerque. Continental subsequently ceased all flights into the airport and by 1964 was no longer serving Abilene. Continental would not return to the airport.
By the mid 1960s, Trans-Texas Airways was operating Douglas DC-3 and Convair 240 propliners as well as Convair 600 turboprops into Abilene with service to Dallas Love Field as well as other destinations in Texas and New Mexico. TTa introduced the first jet service with Douglas DC-9-10 twin jets in the late 1960s. At this same time, TTa was operating nonstop flights to Austin and Lubbock with direct, no change of plane service to Albuquerque, Houston Hobby Airport, San Antonio and Santa Fe. Most of these flights were operated with Convair 600 turboprops but some DC-9 flights offered continuing service via Dallas direct to Austin and Houston. Trans-Texas Airways subsequently changed its name Texas International which in turn continued to serve Abilene with Douglas DC-9 and Convair 600 aircraft. TI served Amarillo and Lubbock from Abilene as well as flying DC-9 jets to Dallas Love Field and Dallas/Fort Worth Airport when this airfield opened. In 1970, Texas International was operating four flights a day to Dallas, two of which were operated with DC-9 jets.
Both of these DC-
Interstate 20 in Texas
Interstate 20 in Texas is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States, running east from a junction with Interstate 10 east of Kent, through the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex to the border with Louisiana near Waskom, Texas. The original distance of Interstate 20 was 647 miles from I-10 to the Louisiana border, reduced to the current distance of 636 miles with the rerouting of I-20 in the 1980s and 1990s. I-20 is known as the Ronald Reagan Memorial Highway within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Interstate 20 in Texas was designated in 1959, was to replace or run parallel to U. S. Route 80. Initial construction began from east to as bypass loops around larger cities. On October 1, 1964, I-20 was rerouted. By 1967, the highway was complete from the Louisiana border to the western side of Fort Worth on a route to the south of US 80, with slower construction in the lesser populated areas of West Texas concurrent with US 80. On December 2, 1971, I-20 was rerouted across the southern side of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, with the old section through downtown Dallas and Fort Worth being redesignated as Interstate 30.
In 1991, the entire concurrent designation of US 80 was removed from the I-10 interchange to Dallas. I-20 begins at a junction with I-10 in a desolate region of West Texas about 6 miles east of the town of Kent. I-20 leaves the interchange with I-10 with a speed limit of 80 until Milemarker 89. Interstate 20 generally heads to the east-northeast passing by the cities of Odessa and Midland while transitioning from the West Texas desert to the prairie. I-20 runs concurrently with the La Entrada al Pacífico corridor from its junction with US 385 in Odessa to its junction with FM 1788 near Midland International Airport. Near Sweetwater, I-20 begins to head east. In Abilene, I-20 curves towards the north and transverses the northern part of the city while forming the northern arc of the loop around the city. I-20 continues heading east from Abilene until the town of Eastland when I-20 takes a more northeasterly route towards Weatherford while transitioning from the West Texas prairie to the central plains of North Texas as the terrain grows hilly.
In Weatherford, I-20 again heads back towards the east as it heads towards the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. I-20 interchanges with I-30 west of Fort Worth with I-30 heading I-20 to the southeast. I-20 heads back towards the east when it interchanges with Interstate 820. I-20 forms the southern arc of the complete loop around the city of Fort Worth, serves as the southernmost west–east freeway in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Interchanging with I-35W south of downtown Fort Worth, I-20 heads east towards Dallas passing through Arlington, where it is known as the Ronald Reagan Memorial Highway. From Arlington, I-20 passes into Dallas County at Grand Prairie and heads east in to Dallas, interchanging with I-35E south of downtown and I-45 shortly after. I-20 intersects with I-635 on Dallas' southeast side before heading east towards East Texas; the interstate varies from 4 to 10 lanes from its I-30 junction near Weatherford to its US-80 junction near Terrell. I-20 leaves the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex and heads to the east-southeast through East Texas.
I-20 begins heading to the east. The intersection of I-20 at US 69 in Lindale just north of Tyler is the highest traffic count intersection on I-20 east of Terrell to the Louisiana state line. From Lindale, I-20 continues east, going through the piney woods region of East Texas intersecting US 259 with Kilgore to the south and Longview to the north and US 59 future I-369 with Marshall just to the north and Texarkana further north along US 59 future I-369. I-20 leaves the state of Texas near Waskom and just west of the Shreveport, Bossier City, Louisiana area. Interstate 20 has one auxiliary route in Texas. Interstate 820 is a 35.2-mile loop around the city of Fort Worth. I-20 absorbed the southern section as part of its relocation to the south and I-30 being extended westward over the old alignment of I-20 through the center of town. All of the business loops within Texas are maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation. Interstate 20 has fifteen business loops in all located in western Texas.
Along I-20, TxDOT identifies each business route as Business Interstate 20 followed by an alphabetic suffix. Along Texas Interstates, the alphabetic suffixes on business route names ascend eastward and northward. There are gaps in the alphabetic values to allow for future system expansion; the alphabetic naming suffixes are included as small letters on the bottom of route shields. Texas State Loop 254 takes the place of a business route in Ranger and follows the original route of U. S. Route 80. I-20 business routes in Texas follow the path of the former US 80 through the central portions of towns now bypassed by the Interstate route. U. S. Roads portal Texas portal I-20 info page -- from dfwfreeways.info
A two-lane expressway or two-lane freeway is an expressway or freeway with only one lane in each direction, no median barrier. It may be built that way because of constraints, or may be intended for expansion once traffic volumes rise; the term super two is used by roadgeeks for this type of road, but traffic engineers use that term for a high-quality surface road. Most of these roads are not tolled. A somewhat related concept is a "four-lane undivided expressway"; this is much rarer. S. Route 101 in northern California. In Europe, the concept of express road, is related to road which are classed between a motorway and an ordinary road; this concept is recognized both by UNECE treaty. This type of road is not standardized, its geometry may vary from country to country or within a same country; those road are but not always, reserved for motorized vehicle, accessible with Limited-access road. Some European union regulation considers the high-quality roads are roads «which play an important role in long-distance freight and passenger traffic, integrate the main urban and economic centres, interconnect with other transport modes and link mountainous, remote and peripheral NUTS 2 regions to central regions of the Union».
According to this same regulation «High-quality roads shall be specially designed and built for motor traffic, shall be either motorways, express roads or conventional strategic roads.» Two-lane freeways are built as a temporary solution due to lack of funds, as an environmental compromise or as a way to overcome problems constrained from highway reconstruction when there are four lanes or more. If the road is widened, the existing road is allocated to traffic going in one direction, the lanes for the other direction are built as a whole new roadbed adjacent to the existing one; when upgraded in this manner, the road becomes a typical freeway. Many two-lane freeways are built so that when the road is upgraded to a proper divided freeway, the existing overpasses and ramps do not need reconstruction. A super-2 expressway is a high-speed surface road with at-grade intersections, depending on the common usage of the term expressway in the area. By this definition, Super-2s can be considered the first stage of project, expected to become a full freeway, with the transportation authority owning the land necessary for the future adjacent carriageway.
At-grade intersections exist. In some US states, a super-2 expressway is referred to as a super-2, regardless of whether it is controlled-access or not. Highway 410 in Ontario was a super-2 before being upgraded to a full freeway. Most of Highway 102 in Nova Scotia was a super-2 for three decades before being upgraded. Many super-2 expressways are just short transitional segments between surface street and four-lane divided freeways. A super-4 expressway is a multi-lane divided highway with at-grade intersections, although the highway will become a full controlled-access freeway if the intersections are replaced with interchanges. A super-4 may have been a super-2, twinned, although such instances of super-4 intermediaries are rare as super-2s are upgraded right away to full freeways. Highway 40 in Ontario is a super-4 expressway between Highway 402 and Wellington St. and from Indian Rd to Rokeby Line. The remaining sections of Highway 40 are super-2 expressways. Other super-4 expressways include the Hanlon Parkway in Guelph and Black Creek Drive in Toronto, both which have sufficient right of way to allow for interchanges and overpasses to replace the at-grade crossings.
When a super-2 expressway is converted to a four-lane divided freeway, conversion artifacts such as double yellow lines, or broken yellow lines in passing zones are cleanly bestowed in favor of more consistent road marking for four-lane divided expressways. National Route 38, between Famaillá and Juan Bautista Alberdi in Tucumán Province. In Melbourne, the Mornington Peninsula Freeway, is a two-lane freeway between the interchange with Jetty Road and the interchange with Boneo Road at 90 km/h. In Brisbane, the Cunningham Highway, is a two-lane freeway between Warwick Road and Ripley Road, After Ripley Road the Cunningham Highway is grade separated until it meets the Ipswich Motorway, M2. In Hobart, Tasmania. In north-eastern Tasmania, the Bass Highway has some grade-separated interchanges, the standard rural freeway 110 km/h speed limit, but with some sections having only two lanes. On the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, the Sunshine Motorway is a two-lane freeway between Kawana Way and Nicklin Way, again between David Low Way and Emu Mountain Road.
In Townsville, the future Townsville Ring Road is planned to be the future route of Highway 1 through the city. The first stage of the project, the two-laned Douglas Arterial Road opened in April 2005. Once all four stages are built, it will have two lanes in each direction, be designated as the M1. Canberra's Gungahlin Drive Extension was constructed as a two-lane grade-separated freeway for part of its length; the GDE has since been duplicated to four lanes. The "Motorway Link Road", between the Pacific Highway and the Pacific Motorway on the Central Coast of New South Wales, is another example of a two-way freeway—it has a speed limit of 100 km/h. Mandjoogoordap Drive in Mandurah, Western Australia, was to be built as a two-lane freeway, before funding was supplied for duplication. Many of the
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is a city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is fifth-largest city in Texas, it is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles into four other counties: Denton, Johnson and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States; the city of Fort Worth was established in 1849 as an army outpost on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River. Fort Worth has been a center of the longhorn cattle trade, it still embraces traditional architecture and design. USS Fort Worth is the first ship of the United States Navy named after the city. Fort Worth is home to the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition and several world-class museums designed by internationally known contemporary architects; the Kimbell Art Museum, considered to have one of the best art collections in Texas, is housed in what is regarded as one of the outstanding architectural achievements of the modern era.
The museum was designed by the American architect Louis Kahn, with an addition designed by world-renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano opening November 2013. Of note is the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, designed by Tadao Ando; the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, designed by Philip Johnson, houses one of the world's most extensive collections of American art. The Sid Richardson Museum, redesigned by David M. Schwarz, has one of the most focused collections of Western art in the U. S. emphasizing Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. The Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, designed by famed architect Ricardo Legorreta of Mexico, engages the diverse Fort Worth community through creative, vibrant programs and exhibits; the city is stimulated by several university communities: Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Texas A&M University School of Law, many multinational corporations, including Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin, American Airlines, BNSF Railway, Pier 1 Imports, XTO Energy and RadioShack.
The Treaty of Bird's Fort between the Republic of Texas and several Native American tribes was signed in 1843 at Bird's Fort in present-day Arlington, Texas. Article XI of the treaty provided that no one may "pass the line of trading houses" without permission of the President of Texas, may not reside or remain in the Indians' territory; these "trading houses" were established at the junction of the Clear Fork and West Fork of the Trinity River in present-day Fort Worth. At this river junction, the U. S. War Department established Fort Worth in 1849 as the northernmost of a system of 10 forts for protecting the American Frontier following the end of the Mexican–American War; the city of Fort Worth continues to be known as "where the West begins." A line of seven army posts were established in 1848–49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of Texas along the western American Frontier and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln, Fort Duncan.
10 forts had been proposed by Major General William Jenkins Worth, who commanded the Department of Texas in 1849. In January 1849, Worth proposed a line of 10 forts to mark the western Texas frontier from Eagle Pass to the confluence of the West Fork and Clear Fork of the Trinity River. One month Worth died from cholera in South Texas. General William S. Harney assumed command of the Department of Texas and ordered Major Ripley A. Arnold to find a new fort site near the West Clear Fork. On June 6, 1849, advised by Middleton Tate Johnson, established a camp on the bank of the Trinity River and named the post Camp Worth in honor of the late General Worth. In August 1849, Arnold moved the camp to the north-facing bluff, which overlooked the mouth of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River; the United States War Department named the post Fort Worth on November 14, 1849. Native American attacks were still a threat in the area, as this was their traditional territory and they resented encroachment by European-American settlers, but people from the United States set up homesteads near the fort.
E. S. Terrell from Tennessee claimed to be the first resident of Fort Worth; the fort was moved to the top of the bluff. The fort was abandoned September 17, 1853. No trace of it remains; as a stop on the legendary Chisholm Trail, Fort Worth was stimulated by the business of the cattle drives and became a brawling, bustling town. Millions of head of cattle were driven north to market along this trail. Fort Worth became the center of the cattle drives, the ranching industry, it was given the nickname of Cowtown. During the Civil War, Fort Worth suffered from shortages of money and supplies; the population began to recover during Reconstruction. By 1872, Jacob Samuels, William Jesse Boaz, William Henry Davis had opened general stores; the next year, Khleber M. Van Zandt established Tidball, Van Zandt, Company, which became Fort Worth National Bank in 1884. In 1875, the Dallas Herald published an article by a former Fort Worth lawyer, Robert E. Cowart, who wrote that the decimation of Fort Worth's population, caused by the economic disaster and hard winter of 1873, had dealt a severe blow to the cattle industry.
Added to the slowdown due to the railroad's stopping the laying of track 30 miles outside of Fort Worth, Cowart said that Fort Worth was so slow th
Coleman is a city in and the county seat of Coleman County, Texas, in the United States. The population was 4,709 at the 2010 census. Coleman is located north of the center of Coleman County at 31°49′40″N 99°25′32″W. U. S. Routes 84 and 283 pass through the northeast side of the city. US 84 leads northwest 52 miles to Abilene and southeast 30 miles to Brownwood, while US 283 leads north 41 miles to Baird and south 52 miles to Brady. Recreation: Coleman has five multipurpose recreational lakes within 30 miles. According to the United States Census Bureau, Coleman has a total area of 6.2 square miles, of which 6.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.58%, is covered by water. At the census of 2000, 5,127 people, 2,179 households, 1,403 families resided in the city; the population density was 831.9 people per square mile. The 2,658 housing units averaged 431.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 85.04% White, 2.95% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 8.89% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races.
Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 16.93% of the population. Of the 2,179 households, 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were not families. About 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was distributed as 25.0% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 22.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,769, for a family was $28,356. Males had a median income of $24,226 versus $15,526 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,752. About 19.3% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.4% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over, median age 42.6 yrs.
The city is served by the Coleman Independent School District. During the 2006-2007 academic year, 475 students were in elementary schools, 203 were in junior high, 274 were in high school. Ronnie Dunn of the country group Brooks & Dunn, was born in Coleman in 1953. Tom Jones, co-writer of The Fantasticks, went to high school in Coleman. Carobeth Laird, was born in Coleman. Camp Colorado was established in 1855 and abandoned in 1861; the camp became headquarters for the Texas Mounted Rifles in 1861 and the Texas Frontier Regiment in 1863. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Coleman has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. City of Coleman official website Coleman County official website Coleman Texas Chamber of Commerce