U.S. Route 80
U. S. Route 80 is an east-west United States Numbered Highway, much of, once part of the early auto trail known as the Dixie Overland Highway; as the "0" in the route number indicates, it was a cross-country route, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Its original western terminus was in California. However, the entire segment west of Dallas, has been decommissioned in favor of various Interstate Highways and state highways; the highway's western terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 30 on the Dallas–Mesquite, Texas city line. The highway's eastern terminus is in Tybee Island, Georgia, at the intersection of Butler Avenue, Inlet Avenue, Tybrisa Street, near the Atlantic Ocean. Modern US 80 begins as a significant component of the urban freeway system of Texas. With Spur 557, it serves as the shortest freeway route from the central and northern portions of Dallas to I-20, heading east towards Shreveport, Louisiana. From its origin at I-30 in eastern Dallas, through its interchange with the I-635 "LBJ" Loop, to its junction with I-20 southwest of Terrell, US 80/Spur 557 is a full Interstate-grade, limited-access freeway.
In western Terrell, US 80 leaves the freeway, which continues southeast as Spur 557 to I-20, while US 80 runs north of I-20 through a number of small towns and cities, including Terrell, Mineola and Marshall. It rejoins I-20 for about five miles, before splitting to pass through downtown Waskom before crossing into Louisiana. US 80 is parallel to the newer I-20, which has supplanted it as a long-distance route, for the entirety of its length in Louisiana; the highway crosses the state line from Texas into Caddo Parish as a two-lane road and crosses over to the south of I-20 without connecting with the freeway. It passes through the town of Greenwood where it meets US 79 coming north from Texas, these two routes run concurrently eastward from there to Minden. US 79/US 80 crosses over I-20 again, this time at an interchange, enters the city of Shreveport as Greenwood Road; the highway passes over I-220 without an interchange and continues east to an intersection with Jefferson Paige Road where it expands to four undivided lanes and enters the main part of the urbanized area.
US 171 ends at US 79/US 80 at the intersection with Hearne Avenue. At this intersection, the road narrows to two through lanes. US 80 intersects I-20 again just east of here. At Mansfield Road, the highway name changes to Texas Avenue and angles northeast through an industrial area; the road skirts the I-20/I-49 interchange and expands to four lanes for its final approach to downtown. At the west edge of downtown, eastbound jogs one block east on Crockett Street and two blocks north on Common Street north to Texas Street. US 79/US 80 passes through downtown Shreveport on Texas Street before crossing the Red River on the 1930s vintage Long–Allen Bridge and entering Bossier City and Bossier Parish. Through Bossier Parish, US 79/US 80 comprises a major urban and suburban arterial carrying a minimum of four lanes. In the eastern reaches of the parish, continuing into Webster Parish, it is a divided highway; the road intersects the east end of I-220 at an interchange. US 79/US 80 stays to the north of I-20, except for a stretch east of Haughton where it strays to the south for a period, skirting the north edge of the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant.
At Dixie Inn, the highway intersects US 371. In Minden, US 79 continues its northeasterly trajectory toward Arkansas. East of Minden, US 80 crosses to the south of I-20 and serves the Bienville Parish towns of Gibsland and Arcadia. Entering Lincoln Parish, the highway serves Simsboro and Grambling before entering Ruston and overlapping US 167 on a north–south couplet of streets through the business district. US 80 resumes its eastward path on the north side of Ruston and exits the city on East Georgia Avenue. Between Ruston and Monroe the highway serves the small communities of Calhoun. Now on the north side of the interstate, it enters Ouachita Parish and approaches the Monroe area as a two-lane road. US 80 crosses Louisiana Highway 143 and enters West Monroe on Cypress Street, where it continues south into the business district and widens to a four-lane urban arterial. At junction LA 34, US 80 makes a left turn, angling northeast, crosses the Ouachita River, entering the city of Monroe; as Louisville Avenue it passes north of downtown, but the downtown area can be accessed via Business US 165 which intersects US 80 at North 5th/North 6th Street and becomes concurrent from there to the east.
Louisville Avenue becomes a commercialized urban arterial and remains so as it passes through the city curving southwestward and meeting the intersection with Desiard Street. As Desiard Street, US 80 meets mainline US 165, on its expressway bypass alignment, at a diamond interchange. Eastward from there, US 80 passes through suburban areas until it meets LA 139, where it is forced to turn off its four-lane alignment at an intersection which favors LA 139 traffic. Now a two-lane road, US 80 continues east through northeast Louisiana, passing through Richland and Madison parishes and serving the communities and towns of Start, Delhi, Tallulah and Delta. Just west of Delta, US 80 turns off its original route and runs a short distance south to an interchange with I-20; the orig
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
Freeport is a town in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 7,879 at the 2010 census. Known for its numerous outlet stores, Freeport is home to L. L. Bean, Wolfe's Neck Woods State Park, the Desert of Maine. Freeport is Maine metropolitan statistical area; the town was. First settled about 1700, it was incorporated on February 14, 1789 as Freeport, it is named "from the openness of its harbor". Freeport developed as four villages—Mast Landing, Porter's Landing, South Freeport and Freeport Corner—all of which are now part of the Harraseeket Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. At the head of tide on the Harraseeket River is Mast Landing, from which timber was shipped for use as masts; the estuary was dammed to provide water power for a gristmill and fulling mill, with modest manufacturing and woodworking. Porter's Landing was involved in shipbuilding, important in Freeport following the Revolutionary War; the industry declined with the Civil War. South Freeport, the largest of the waterfront villages, once had four shipyards.
Other businesses included fishing and farming. In 1903, the Casco Castle and Amusement Park was built here by Amos Gerald to encourage travel by trolley cars; the hotel burned in 1914. Freeport Corner was an inland village for farming and trade, but the 1849 entrance of the railroad helped it develop into the town's commercial center, which it remains. In the 19th century, fabric was sent from New York and Boston to be made into clothing by local piece workers. Businessman E. B. Mallet established here a sawmill, granite quarry and large shoe factory. In 1912, Leon Leonwood Bean opened a store in the basement of his brother's apparel shop at Freeport Corner, selling the "Bean Boot"; this store, L. L. Bean, became so popular, its retail and mail order catalog facilities expanded into Freeport's principal business, a worldwide company with annual sales of over a billion dollars. The L. L. Bean flagship store is the anchor to outlet shopping in the town of Freeport; the town sees about 3.5 million visitors annually.
L. L. Bean, for its part, has invested in activities for both visitors and residents, including their Outdoor Discovery Schools, their Summer Concert Series, which has attracted artists such as Edwin McCain, Great Big Sea, Buckwheat Zydeco, Rockapella. In 1982, McDonald's made plans to tear down an 1850s Greek Revival house to build one of its standard stores. Outcry from residents caused the town to adopt new ordinances concerning what businesses could and couldn't do with their buildings, McDonald's built the restaurant inside the house and opened it in 1984, maintaining the exterior appearance; this was one of the first times that McDonald's had been forced to change its restaurant design to fit local requirements. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 46.47 square miles, of which, 34.70 square miles of it is land and 11.77 square miles is water. Situated at the northeastern extremity of Casco Bay, Freeport is drained by the Harraseeket River. Freeport borders Brunswick and Durham to the north, Pownal to the west, Yarmouth to the southwest.
Freeport shares small borders with Cumberland and Harpswell in Casco Bay. Cumberland and Harpswell are not connected to Freeport by roads, but since Freeport's town border ranges out into Casco Bay, the other towns' borders meet Freeport's; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Freeport has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Both U. S. 1 and Interstate-295 run directly through the latter with three and a half exits. Amtrak's Downeaster train service stops at Freeport station with service to the Portland Transportation Center and Boston's North Station; the Greater Portland Transit District provides bus service between Brunswick and Portland, Maine with three stops in Freeport. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,879 people, 3,209 households, 2,173 families residing in the town; the population density was 227.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 3,690 housing units at an average density of 106.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.2% White, 0.6% African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 3,209 households of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.3% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the town was 45 years. 22.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,800 people, 3,065 households, 2,151 families residing in the town; the population density was 224
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is a city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is fifth-largest city in Texas, it is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles into four other counties: Denton, Johnson and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States; the city of Fort Worth was established in 1849 as an army outpost on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River. Fort Worth has been a center of the longhorn cattle trade, it still embraces traditional architecture and design. USS Fort Worth is the first ship of the United States Navy named after the city. Fort Worth is home to the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition and several world-class museums designed by internationally known contemporary architects; the Kimbell Art Museum, considered to have one of the best art collections in Texas, is housed in what is regarded as one of the outstanding architectural achievements of the modern era.
The museum was designed by the American architect Louis Kahn, with an addition designed by world-renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano opening November 2013. Of note is the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, designed by Tadao Ando; the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, designed by Philip Johnson, houses one of the world's most extensive collections of American art. The Sid Richardson Museum, redesigned by David M. Schwarz, has one of the most focused collections of Western art in the U. S. emphasizing Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. The Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, designed by famed architect Ricardo Legorreta of Mexico, engages the diverse Fort Worth community through creative, vibrant programs and exhibits; the city is stimulated by several university communities: Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Texas A&M University School of Law, many multinational corporations, including Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin, American Airlines, BNSF Railway, Pier 1 Imports, XTO Energy and RadioShack.
The Treaty of Bird's Fort between the Republic of Texas and several Native American tribes was signed in 1843 at Bird's Fort in present-day Arlington, Texas. Article XI of the treaty provided that no one may "pass the line of trading houses" without permission of the President of Texas, may not reside or remain in the Indians' territory; these "trading houses" were established at the junction of the Clear Fork and West Fork of the Trinity River in present-day Fort Worth. At this river junction, the U. S. War Department established Fort Worth in 1849 as the northernmost of a system of 10 forts for protecting the American Frontier following the end of the Mexican–American War; the city of Fort Worth continues to be known as "where the West begins." A line of seven army posts were established in 1848–49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of Texas along the western American Frontier and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln, Fort Duncan.
10 forts had been proposed by Major General William Jenkins Worth, who commanded the Department of Texas in 1849. In January 1849, Worth proposed a line of 10 forts to mark the western Texas frontier from Eagle Pass to the confluence of the West Fork and Clear Fork of the Trinity River. One month Worth died from cholera in South Texas. General William S. Harney assumed command of the Department of Texas and ordered Major Ripley A. Arnold to find a new fort site near the West Clear Fork. On June 6, 1849, advised by Middleton Tate Johnson, established a camp on the bank of the Trinity River and named the post Camp Worth in honor of the late General Worth. In August 1849, Arnold moved the camp to the north-facing bluff, which overlooked the mouth of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River; the United States War Department named the post Fort Worth on November 14, 1849. Native American attacks were still a threat in the area, as this was their traditional territory and they resented encroachment by European-American settlers, but people from the United States set up homesteads near the fort.
E. S. Terrell from Tennessee claimed to be the first resident of Fort Worth; the fort was moved to the top of the bluff. The fort was abandoned September 17, 1853. No trace of it remains; as a stop on the legendary Chisholm Trail, Fort Worth was stimulated by the business of the cattle drives and became a brawling, bustling town. Millions of head of cattle were driven north to market along this trail. Fort Worth became the center of the cattle drives, the ranching industry, it was given the nickname of Cowtown. During the Civil War, Fort Worth suffered from shortages of money and supplies; the population began to recover during Reconstruction. By 1872, Jacob Samuels, William Jesse Boaz, William Henry Davis had opened general stores; the next year, Khleber M. Van Zandt established Tidball, Van Zandt, Company, which became Fort Worth National Bank in 1884. In 1875, the Dallas Herald published an article by a former Fort Worth lawyer, Robert E. Cowart, who wrote that the decimation of Fort Worth's population, caused by the economic disaster and hard winter of 1873, had dealt a severe blow to the cattle industry.
Added to the slowdown due to the railroad's stopping the laying of track 30 miles outside of Fort Worth, Cowart said that Fort Worth was so slow th
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical roadway bearing two or more different route numbers. When two roadways share the same right-of-way, it is sometimes called commons. Other terminology for a concurrency includes overlap, duplex, multiplex, dual routing or triple routing. Concurrent numbering can become common in jurisdictions that allow it. Where multiple routes must pass between a single mountain crossing or over a bridge, or through a major city, it is economically and advantageous for them all to be accommodated on a single physical roadway. In some jurisdictions, concurrent numbering is avoided by posting only one route number on highway signs. Most concurrencies are a combination of two route numbers on the same physical roadway; this is practically advantageous as well as economically advantageous. Some countries allow for concurrencies to occur, others do not allow it to happen. In those nations which do permit concurrencies, it can become common. In these countries, there are a variety of concurrences.
An example of this is the concurrency of Interstate 70 and I-76 on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in western Pennsylvania. I-70 merges with the Pennsylvania Turnpike so the route number can continue east into Maryland. A triple Interstate concurrency is found in Wisconsin along the five-mile section of I-41, I-43, I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the concurrency of I-41 and I-43 on this roadway is an example of a wrong-way concurrency. The longest Interstate highway concurrency is I-90 for 265 miles across Indiana and Ohio. There are examples of eight-way concurrencies: I-465 around Indianapolis and Georgia State Route 10 Loop around downtown Athens, Georgia. Portions of the 53-mile I-465 overlap with I-74, US Highway 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, State Road 37 and SR 67—a total of eight other routes. Seven of the eight other designations overlap between exits 46 and 47 to create an eight-way concurrency. In the United States, concurrencies are marked by placing signs for both routes on the same or adjacent posts.
The federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices prescribes that when mounting these adjacent signs together that the numbers will be arranged vertically or horizontally in order of precedence. The order to be used is Interstate Highways, U. S. Highways, state highways, county roads, within each class by increasing numerical value. Several states do not have any concurrencies, instead ending routes on each side of one. There are several circumstances. One example occurs along the Oklahoma–Arkansas state line. At the northern end of this border Oklahoma State Highway 20 runs concurrently with Arkansas Highway 43 and the two highways run north–south along the boundary. Concurrencies are found in Canada. British Columbia Highway 5 continues east for 12 kilometres concurrently with Highway 1 and Highway 97, through Kamloops; this stretch of road, which carries Highway 97 south and Highway 5 north on the same lanes, is the only wrong-way concurrency in British Columbia. In Ontario, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 run concurrently between Burlington and Oakville, forming the province's only concurrency between two 400-series highways.
The concurrency was not in the original plan which intended for both the QEW and Highway 403 to run parallel to each other, as the Hamilton–Brantford and Mississauga sections of Highway 403 were planned to be linked up along the corridor now occupied by Highway 407. It was planned for the Mississauga section of Highway 403 would be renumbered as Highway 410 but this never came to pass. Highway 403 was signed concurrently along the Queen Elizabeth Way in 2002, remedying the discontinuity to avoid confusing drivers that wanted to travel between the two segments without using the toll Highway 407. Nonetheless, many surface street signs referring to that section of freeway with the QEW/Highway 403 concurrency still only use the highway's original designation of QEW, although the MTO has updated route markers on the QEW to reflect the concurrency. In the United Kingdom, routes do not run concurrently with others. Where this would occur, the roadway takes the number of only one of the routes, while the other routes are considered to have a gap and are signed in brackets.
An example is the meeting of the M60 and the M62 northwest of Manchester: the motorways coincide for the seven miles between junctions 12 and 18 but the motorway between those points is only designated as the M60. European route numbers as designated by UNECE may have concurrencies, but since the E-route numbers are unsigned and unused in the UK, the existence of these concurrencies is purely theoretical. In Sweden and Denmark, the most important highways use only the European route numbers that have cardinal directions. In Sweden the E6 and E20 run concurrently for 280 kilometres. In Denmark the E47 and E55 run concurrently for 157 kilometres. There are more shorter concurrencies. There are two stretches in Sweden
A spur route is a short road forming a branch from a longer, more important road such as a freeway, Interstate Highway, or motorway. A bypass or beltway should not be considered a true spur route as it reconnects with another or the same major road. In the province of Ontario, most spur routes are designated as A or B, such as Highway 17A, or 7B. A stands for "Alternate Route", links a highway to a town's central core or main attraction, while B stands for "Business Route" or "Bypass", but are used when a main highway is routed around a town and away from its former alignment; the designation of "C" was used twice, is assumed to mean "Connector". Both highways are now county roads. There was one road with the D designation, this may have stood for "Diversion", as it was along the first completed divided highway in Canada at the time; the Indian National Highway system designates spur routes of the main National Highways with letter suffixes. For example, National Highway 1 has four spur routes: NH 1A, NH 1B, NH 1C, NH 1D, the shortest of, just 6 kilometres in length and the longest is 663 kilometres.
While the spur routes originate at the parent National Highway, they are not secondary in status as some of the spur routes serve important cities in India. For example, the capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, is served by the spur route NH 1A; some spur routes are used to connect important Indian ports: NH 5A links Paradip with its parent NH 5 and NH 7A links Tuticorin with NH 7). In New Zealand, spurs on state highways are designated with an added letter. Examples include SH 2B, linking SH 2 to Napier Airport, SH 6A, linking SH 6 with Queenstown town centre. Not all such alphabetic suffixes refer to spurs, however. Conversely, some State Highways could themselves be considered spurs, notably SH 78, New Zealand's shortest state highway, which links SH 1 in Timaru city centre with the Port of Timaru; such spurs, spur roads leading from smaller urban thoroughfares to individual facilities, are referred to in New Zealand as "feeder roads". In the UK, a spur route carries the same definition.
Short spurs from primary roads or motorways are not given a unique number, three arms of the junction will have the same number. For example, the A14 has a same-number spur to the A1 motorway at Huntingdon in Cambridgeshire, the M23 motorway has one to Gatwick Airport in West Sussex and the M4 has one to Heathrow Airport. To distinguish the spur on road signs, the road it leads to is given - for example "Gatwick Airport". Longer spurs, or those with intermediate junctions of their own, are given unique numbers to distinguish them from their parent road, for example, the A48 motorway, a spur of the M4. There is a loose numbering system for these spurs on the motorway network, not dissimilar to the US system – the road takes a three-digit number derived from that of the parent road. Examples include the M602 motorway, M621 motorway, M271 motorway. There are anomalous spur numbers though, for instance the M898 motorway and the unique case of the M181 motorway, a spur of a spur M180 motorway, that of the M18 motorway A-road spurs do not follow a noticeable numbering system.
In the US, many Interstate Highways have spur routes. Interstate spur routes are numbered with a three-digit number; the last two digits of the number are the number of the "parent" Interstate. Spur Interstate routes have three-digit numbers with an odd first digit. A subsidiary route either passing through a city or bypassing it and reconnecting to a major highway would receive an first digit, be considered a loop rather than a spur. For example, in the case of Interstate 5, Interstate 105 is a spur route ending at Los Angeles International Airport, whereas Interstate 405 begins and ends at Interstate 5, bypassing downtown Los Angeles. Spurs are found branching from US highways, state routes, county routes as extended onramps and offramps of expressways. There are many numbering violations in the spur route numbering system, thus the general rules above do not always apply. Special route Loop route
Skokie is a village in Cook County, United States, neighboring the City of Chicago’s northern border. Skokie lies 15 miles north of Chicago's downtown loop, its name comes from a Potawatomi word for "marsh." For many years Skokie promoted itself as "The World's Largest Village." Its population, according to the 2010 census, was 64,784. Skokie's streets, like that of many suburbs, are a continuation of the Chicago street grid, the village is served by the Chicago Transit Authority, further cementing its connection to the city. Skokie was a German-Luxembourger farming community, but was settled by a sizeable Jewish population after World War II. At its peak in the mid-1960s, 58% of the population was Jewish, the largest percentage of any Chicago suburb. In recent years, several synagogues and Jewish schools have closed. However, Skokie still has a large Jewish population and an active Chabad, it is home to the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center, which opened in northwest Skokie in 2009.
Skokie has received national attention twice for court cases decided by the United States Supreme Court. In the mid-1970s, it was at the center of a case concerning the First Amendment right to assemble and the National Socialist Party of America, a neo-Nazi group. Skokie lost that case. In 2001, although Skokie was not a direct party to the case, a decision by the village regarding land use led the court to reduce the power of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. According to the 2010 census, Skokie has a total area of all land; the village is bordered by Evanston to the east, Chicago to the southeast and southwest, Lincolnwood to the south, Niles to the southwest, Morton Grove to the west, Glenview to the northwest, Wilmette to the north. The village's street circulation is a street-grid pattern, with major east-west thoroughfare every half-mile: Old Orchard Road, Golf Road, Church Street, Dempster Street, Main Street, Oakton Street, Howard Street, Touhy Avenue; the major north-south thoroughfares are Skokie Boulevard, Crawford Avenue, McCormick Boulevard.
Skokie's north-south streets continue the street names and grid values of Chicago's north-south streets – with the notable exceptions of Cicero Avenue, renamed Skokie Boulevard in Skokie, Chicago's Pulaski Road retains its original Chicago City name, Crawford Avenue. The east-west streets continue Evanston's street names, but with Chicago grid values, such that, Evanston's Dempster Street is 8800 north, in Skokie addresses. In 1888, the community was incorporated as Niles Centre. About 1910, the spelling was Americanized to "Niles Center". However, the name caused postal confusion with the neighboring village of Niles. A village-renaming campaign began in the 1930s. In a referendum on November 15, 1940, residents chose the Native American name "Skokie" over the name "Devonshire." During the real estate boom of the 1920s, large parcels were subdivided. Large-scale development ended as a result of the Great Crash of 1929 and consequent Great Depression, it was not until the 1940s and the 1950s, when parents of the baby boom generation moved their families out of Chicago, that Skokie's housing development began again.
The village developed commercially, an example being the Old Orchard Shopping Center named Westfield Old Orchard. During the night of November 27–28, 1934, after a gunfight in nearby Barrington that left two FBI agents dead, two accomplices of notorious 25-year-old bank-robber Baby Face Nelson dumped his bullet-riddled body in a ditch along Niles Center Road adjoining the St. Peter Catholic Cemetery, a block north of Oakton Street in the town; the first African-American family to move to Skokie arrived in 1961, open-housing activists helped to integrate the suburb subsequently. The name of the town was changed from "Niles Center" to "Skokie" by referendum in 1940. "Skokie" had been used as the name for the marshland on which much of the town was built. Maps long named the Skokie marsh as Chewab Skokie, a probable derivation from Kitchi-wap choku, a Potawatomi term meaning "great marsh". Virgil Vogel's Indian Place Names in Illinois records the name Skokie as: In Native Placenames of the United States, William Bright lists Vogel's Potawatomi derivation first, but adds reference to the Ojibwa term miishkooki recorded in the Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary, by Richard A. Rhodes.
The 1940 change of name may have been influenced by James Foster Porter, a Chicago native, who had explored the "Skoki Valley" in Banff National Park in Canada in 1911 and became captivated by the name. Porter supported the name "Skokie" in the referendum. Twice in its history, Skokie has been the focal point of cases before the United States Supreme Court. National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie, 432 U. S. 43, involved a First Amendment issue. Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, 531 U. S. 159 touched upon the Commerce Clause. In 1977 and 1978, Illinois Nazis of the National Socialist Party of America attempted to demonstrate their political existence with a march in Skokie, far from their headquarters on Chicago's south side. Ori