Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
Dell Medical School
The Dell Medical School is the graduate medical school of The University of Texas at Austin in Austin, Texas. The school opened to the inaugural class of 50 students in the summer of 2016 as the newest of 18 colleges and schools on the UT Austin campus. S. Claiborne "Clay" Johnston, M. D. Ph. D. was named as the medical school's inaugural dean in January 2014. In accordance with the Medical District Master Plan released in 2013, the University's portion of the medical district is being constructed in three phases; the new medical campus will sit on existing University property at the southeastern corner of the central campus, adjacent to the existing UT School of Nursing and to the Dell Seton Medical Center at The University of Texas—the new $295 million, 211-bed teaching hospital that Seton Healthcare is building. In late 2011, Texas Senator Kirk Watson created a list of ten health-care centered goals he hoped to achieve within ten years for his Central Texas district. Number one on that list was to build a medical school.
In May 2012, the Board of Regents allocated $25 million of annual funding to a UT Austin medical school, plus another $40 million spread over eight years for faculty recruiting. In November 2012, Travis County voters approved a proposition to raise property tax revenue in support of health care initiatives for Central Texas, including $35 million annually for a medical school; the medical school is named after the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation, which has pledged $50 million over ten years to the school. Official website University of Texas at Austin from the Handbook of Texas Online
McCombs School of Business
The McCombs School of Business referred to as the McCombs School or McCombs, is a business school at The University of Texas at Austin. In addition to the main campus in Downtown Austin, McCombs offers classes outside Central Texas in Dallas and internationally in Mexico City; the McCombs School of Business offers undergraduate, master's, doctoral programs for their average 13,000 students each year, adding to its 98,648 member alumni base from a variety of business fields. In addition to traditional classroom degree programs, McCombs is home to 14 collaborative research centers, the international business plan competition: Venture Labs Investment Competition, executive education programs. McCombs is the oldest public business school in Texas; the University of Texas at Austin was founded in 1883, the university's School of Business Administration was established a few decades in 1922. The school grew, establishing a Master in Professional Accounting program in 1948 and offering its first executive education programs in 1955.
Effects of the 1990s technology boom and dot-com bubble were palpable in Austin, leaving the nickname "Silicon Hills" on the city. One McCombs School program that has capitalized on this is the Venture Labs Investment Competition, is the oldest operating inter-business school new-venture competition in the world. Begun in 1984, it has been dubbed the "Super Bowl of world business plan competitions." Opportunistic was the creation of the school's first Management Information Systems degree in 1990. The MBA Investment Fund, LLC was founded in 1994, becoming the first constituted investment fund run by Master of Business Administration students and proving quite successful, with a 17.5 percent annual return to date. Additionally, in 1995 the college became the first to require students have an e-mail address. On May 11, 2000, an auto dealership owner Red McCombs announced a $50 million donation to UT Austin. In his honor, the College of Business Administration and the Graduate School of Business were merged under the newly created Red McCombs School of Business.
In June 2007, AT&T pledged $25 million to the McCombs School towards the construction of the Executive Education and Conference Center. As part of the financial contribution, the center, which opened August 2008, will be named the AT&T Executive Education and Conference Center for the next 25 years; the McCombs School of Business is located in the heart of the University of Texas at Austin campus. The majority of the McCombs School is housed in a three-building complex called the George Kozmetsky Center for Business Education, named after philanthropist and former College of Business Administration dean, Dr. George Kozmetsky, at the intersection of 21st and Speedway Streets; the McCombs School is bordered by Waggener Hall to the North, Gregory Gymnasium, E. P. Schoch Building to the East and is adjacent to Perry–Castañeda Library to the south; the Business-Economics Building, opened in January 1962. It was the largest classroom structure on campus when it was built and housed the first escalator on campus.
Today, it is home to the undergraduate programs at the McCombs School and the Bureau of Business Research. The building faces Speedway Street and unlike the majority of surrounding Mediterranean Revival Style architecture structures, most of the building is faced with brick. In March 1976, Graduate School of Business Building opened next to the existing building facing 21st Street. Since its inception, the addition to the College of Business Administration Building houses the separate graduate MBA program; the addition was constructed in a rhombus shape to protect a grove of trees on the north side of the building. Located on the southwest corner of the UT campus, the AT&T Executive Education and Conference Center is a multi-function complex and hotel; the facility has multiple sized classrooms and breakout rooms, a 300-seat amphitheater, three restaurants, 297 hotel rooms. The center hosts all of the executive education programs for the McCombs School, including the Texas Executive Education and evening MBA programs.
It is the first building to be built to the U. S. Green Building Council's LEED Silver certification standards on campus. A statue titled "The Family Group" by sculptor, former UT College of Fine Arts professor, Charles Umlauf sits in the middle of McCombs Plaza at the southern entrance of the GSB Building. In August 2012, the University of Texas System Board of Regents approved a proposal for a new $155 million, 458,000-square-foot Graduate Business Education Center to serve the McCombs MBA students. Located across from the AT&T Executive Education and Conference Center, the new state-of-the-art building opened March 2018; this facility is called Robert B. Rowling Hall. McCombs is made up of a total of 6,548 students: 4,752 undergraduates, 1,702 postgraduate, 94 doctoral students. An additional 6,450 undergraduates take coursework through the Texas Business Foundations Program, described below, for a total enrollment of 12,998. All undergraduates classes are at the main campus in Austin while a fifth of postgraduate student classes are held outside of Central Texas in Dallas and Mexico City.
In addition to traditional graduation routes, McCombs offers a five-year program where students earn their BBA and Master in Professional Accounting degrees concurrently. The Texas BFP offers non-business majors the opportunity to grasp the fundamentals of business operations and minor in business while pursuing any undergraduate program at the
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
The Texas Ranger (magazine)
The Texas Ranger was the undergraduate humor publication of the University of Texas at Austin, published from 1923–1972. A number of people who went on to become key members of the underground comix scene — including Frank Stack, Gilbert Shelton, Jaxon — were Texas Ranger editors and contributors during the period 1959–1965. Other notable contributors to The Texas Ranger over the years included Robert C. Eckhardt, John Canaday, Rowland B. Wilson, Harvey Schmidt, Bill Yates, Liz Smith, Robert Benton, Bill Helmer, Robert A. Burns and Wick Allison; the Texas Ranger was founded in 1923. Seeing itself as a complement to the campus newspaper The Daily Texan, the Ranger focused on humor and images of young women on its covers. Gag cartoons and comic strips were a staple of the magazine from its inception. From early on until late in its run, the magazine featured a female UT student on the cover as the so-called "Girl of the Month" or "GOM." For a number of years The Texas Ranger ran a Playboy parody in its March issue.
Over the years The Texas Ranger drew the ire of UT's administration for its targeted satire and risqué content. Staff members called themselves the "Rangeroos" and were known for their bacchanalian parties in the 1960s during Gilbert Shelton's reign as editor; the Ranger's offices were in the School of Journalism building. The magazine's affairs were administered first by the Student Association and by Texas Student Publications, Inc; the magazine published 10 issues annually, skipping August. A new editor was elected by the staff every September; the magazine's mascot, created c. 1950 by Rowland B. Wilson, was a fat, mustachioed outlaw-type called "Hairy Ranger." Antecedents to The Texas Ranger were UT humor publications the Coyote and The Scalper, which published from Oct. 1919 to Nov. 1922. Contributors to The Scalper included Ralph Jester; the Texas Ranger was first published in November 1923. One of its earliest contributors was cartoonist John Canaday, who became a leading art critic and art historian.
The Texas Ranger ran afoul of Texas Student Publications in May 1929, when it was banned for a short time, re-emerging in the fall of 1929 — merged with the UT literary magazine, The Longhorn — as University of Texas Longhorn with, Combined with Texas Ranger. It kept this lengthy title until c. 1931, when it reverted to The Texas Ranger. Future Texas Representative Robert C. Eckhardt was editor in 1936–1937; the Texas Ranger was again censured by Texas Student Publications in early 1947, subsequently profiled in the February 17, 1947, issue of Life magazine related to an article published in the Ranger telling students "how to cheat." This controversy led to more biting work by the Ranger in the half-decade to follow. As a post-war journalism student at UT in 1949–1950, cartoonist Bill Yates edited the magazine. Gag cartoonist Rowland B. Wilson drew cartoons for The Texas Ranger during this same period, a number of which were reprinted by Dell's 1000 Jokes in an ongoing feature, "Varsity Varieties".
Liz Smith, Robert Benton, Harvey Schmidt were staffers for The Texas Ranger during the period 1949-1953. The Texas Ranger and its sensibility were an important expression of American humor and comedy from the late 1950s through the 1960s. A line of demarcation came when cartoonist Frank Stack was The Texas Ranger editor from 1958 to 1959, during which time he published comic strips by fellow UT student Gilbert Shelton; as editor, Stack aspired for the Ranger to emulate the humor exemplified by The New Yorker and Punch. Although Stack graduated in 1959, starting in 1962, he published his strip The Adventures of Jesus in The Texas Ranger. During this same period, cartoonist Jack "Jaxon" Jackson was on staff at the Ranger, until he and the others were fired in 1962 over what Jaxon called "a petty censorship violation"; the magazine recovered in 1962–1964, under the editorship of Gilbert Shelton, his girlfriend Pat Brown, Shelton collaborator Lieuen Adkins. Shelton's superhero parody Wonder Wart-Hog began appearing in the magazine in 1962.
Singer Janis Joplin, at that point a freshman art student at UT, hooked up with the Rangeroos and was listed on the masthead of a few issues of the Ranger, although she never contributed to any articles. Other staff members during this period were cartoonist Tony Bell and Joe E. Brown, Jr. both of whom collaborated with Shelton on Wonder Wart-Hog stories. Subsequent to their involvement with the Ranger, both Stack and Jaxon published collections which were important first works in the history of underground comix, with Stack's 1962 Adventures of Jesus and Jaxon's 1964 God Nose, and by 1968–1969, with Feds'N' Heads, The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, the formation of Rip Off Press, Shelton had become an important figure in underground comix. The mid-to-late 1960s brought more student engagement with, protests about, the Vietnam War; the magazine responded by becoming more topical. Robert A. Burns, editor twice during the late 1960s, went on to become art director of the cult horror film The Texas Chain Saw Massacre.
Due to poor sales, The Ranger was closed down by TSP in Jan. 1972. The Texas Ranger was revived in 1977 but only last
Texas Longhorns women's basketball
The Texas Longhorns women's basketball team represents The University of Texas at Austin in NCAA Division I intercollegiate women's basketball competition. The Longhorns compete in the Big 12 Conference; the team has long been a national power in women's basketball. Under head coach Jody Conradt, the second NCAA Division I basketball coach to win 900 career games, the Longhorns won the 1986 national championship. Conradt retired after the 2006–07 season, was replaced by Duke head coach Gail Goestenkors. Goestenkors resigned after five seasons as head coach and was replaced by current head coach Karen Aston following the end of the 2011–12 season. Since 1977, Texas women's basketball has played its home games in the Frank Erwin Special Events Center, where the team has compiled a 399–76 record as of March 5, 2008; the University of Texas held its first basketball competition in 1900, six years before Magnus Mainland started the men's team at Texas. The games in the first few years were intramural.
By 1906, the school was playing other institutions, not off-campus. Full varsity intercollegiate competition in women's basketball began in 1974; the Longhorns rank fifth in total victories and seventh in all-time win percentage among all NCAA Division I women's college basketball programs, with an all-time win-loss record of 1012–372. The Longhorns have won 22 total conference championships in women's basketball and have made 29 total appearances in the NCAA Tournament, reaching the NCAA Final Four three times and the NCAA Regional Finals nine times. Texas won the 1986 NCAA Championship to finish the 1985–86 season with a win-loss record of 34–0; as of April 6, 2016, Texas ranks fourteenth in all-time NCAA Tournament victories, trailing Tennessee, Stanford, Louisiana Tech, Georgia, Notre Dame, North Carolina, Purdue, LSU, Maryland and Vanderbilt. The first women's basketball games occurred in 1892, at Smith College, under the direction of Senda Berenson Abbott. Shortly thereafter, Clara Baer brought the game to Louisiana.
The details of how the game came to Texas is not known for certain, but in 1900, Eleanore Norvell organized the first basketball game at the University of Texas. Norvell was from Oklahoma, came to Texas to direct the physical education department, she has been at Texas for less than a year. The first recorded game occurred on Saturday January 13, 1900; the teams played four ten-minute quarters—the final score of that first game was 3–2. Although the men's game and women's game both had their roots in the Naismith rules, the first set of rules left a lot to be specified, the rules for the women's game developed differently than for the men. Both Senda Berensen and Clara Baer used Naismith's rules as an inspiration, but developed their own set of rules, including marked areas on the court limiting the movement of players to their respective sections; some of these rules were motivated by the prevailing assumptions of "female frailty and dependence". Texas would play limited intercollegiate basketball between 1903 and 1921.
Eunice Aden was captain of the basketball team in 1903, took over coaching duties in 1905 and became director of physical education in 1911. Opportunities in basketball grew, but only in a limited way. Intercollegiate play existed; when Aden retired in 1921, she was replaced by Anna Hiss, who would run the physical education department until 1957. While she was called a visionary for her role in directing physical education and intramurals, she was "dead-set against intercollegiate athletics for women"; the limited intercollegiate play under Aden came to an end, with basketball now limited to intramurals and interclass play. The ascension of Hiss to the head of the department coincided with the influence of Lou Henry Hoover, First Lady of the United States. In 1923, Hoover was head of the Girl Scouts of the United States. Although Hoover was an advocate of sports, she felt that competitive sports were detrimental. Hoover helped to found the Women's Division of the National Amateur Athletic Foundation.
This foundation passed a resolution in 1925 banning extramural competition. The following year, Hiss formed an organization which voted "condemn intercollegiate competition for women, to endorse the intramural/interclass model". Hiss supported many activities, including tennis, archery and interpretive dance, but was opposed to team sports. In general, "artistry was favored over athleticism", she led an unsuccessful protest against American woman participation in the Olympics of 1928, 1932, 1936. She was the driving force behind the construction of a Women's Gymnasium. While it was a substantial resource for women's athletics, it was designed to fit her beliefs—the courts were too small for a proper basketball game, had no room for spectators and the swimming pool was deliberately shorter than Olympic length. While basketball was not supported as a school-sponsored sport in the 1920s and 30s, it was still played by many groups; the interclass games were de-emphasized, but fraternities and sororities played the game, as well as organizations such as the YWCA, industrial leagues and AAU teams.
After Hiss's departure, basketball at Texas began to grow, although it would be a decade until it became a full varsity sport. The University of Texas Sports Association a predecessor to the athletic department, organized the sports a
Underground comix are small press or self-published comic books which are socially relevant or satirical in nature. They differ from mainstream comics in depicting content forbidden to mainstream publications by the Comics Code Authority, including explicit drug use and violence, they were most popular in the United States between 1968 and 1975, in the United Kingdom between 1973 and 1974. Robert Crumb, Gilbert Shelton, Barbara "Willy" Mendes, Trina Robbins and numerous other cartoonists created underground titles that were popular with readers within the counterculture scene. Punk had its own comic artists like Gary Panter. Long after their heyday underground comix gained prominence with films and television shows influenced by the movement and with mainstream comic books, but their legacy is most obvious with alternative comics. Between the late 1920s and late 1940s, anonymous underground artists produced counterfeit pornographic comic books featuring unauthorized depictions of popular comic strip characters engaging in sexual activities.
Referred to as Tijuana bibles, these books are considered the predecessors of the underground comix scene. Early underground comix appeared sporadically in the early and mid-1960s, but did not begin to appear until after 1967; the first underground comix were personal works produced for friends of the artists, in addition to reprints of comic strip pages which first appeared in underground newspapers. The United States underground comics scene emerged in the 1960s, focusing on subjects dear to the counterculture: recreational drug use, rock music and free love; these titles were termed "comix" in order to differentiate them from mainstream publications. The "X" emphasized the X-rated contents of the publications. Many of the common aspects of the underground comix scene were in response to the strong restrictions forced upon mainstream publications by the Comics Code Authority, which refused publications featuring depictions of violence, drug use and relevant content, all of which appeared in greater levels in underground comix.
The underground comix scene had its strongest success in the United States between 1968 and 1975, with titles distributed though head shops. Underground comix featured covers intended to appeal to the drug culture, imitated LSD-inspired posters to increase sales. Crumb stated that the appeal of underground comix was their lack of censorship: "People forget that, what it was all about; that was. We didn't have anybody standing over us saying'No, you can't draw this' or'You can't show that'. We could do whatever we wanted."American comix were influenced by EC Comics and magazines edited by Harvey Kurtzman, including Mad. Kurtzman's Help! magazine featured the works of artists who would become well known in the underground comix scene, including Crumb and Shelton. Other artists published work in college magazines before becoming known in the underground scene; the earliest of the underground comic strips was Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, begun in 1962 and compiled in photocopied zine form by Gilbert Shelton in 1964.
It has been credited as the first underground comic. Shelton's own Wonder Wart-Hog appeared in the college humor magazine Bacchanal #1-2 in 1962. Jack Jackson's God Nose, published in Texas in 1964, has been given that title. One guide lists two other underground comix from that year, Vaughn Bodē's Das Kampf and Charles Plymell's Robert Ronnie Branaman. Joel Beck began contributing a full-page comic each week to the underground newspaper the Berkeley Barb and his full-length comic Lenny of Laredo was published in 1965; the San Francisco Bay Area was an epicenter of the underground comix movement. Just as the major underground publishers were all based in the area: Don Donahue's Apex Novelties, Gary Arlington's San Francisco Comic Book Company, Rip Off Press were all headquartered in the city, with Ron Turner's Last Gasp and the Print Mint based in Berkeley. In 1968, Crumb, in San Francisco, self-published Zap Comix; the title was financially successful, developed a market for underground comix.
Zap began to feature other cartoonists, Crumb launched a series of solo titles, including Despair, Big Ass Comics, R. Crumb's Comics and Stories, Motor City Comics, Home Grown Funnies and Hytone Comix, in addition to founding the pornographic anthologies Jiz and Snatch. By the end of the 1960s, there was recognition of the movement by a major American museum when the Corcoran Gallery of Art staged an exhibition, The Phonus Balonus Show. Curated by Bhob Stewart for famed museum director Walter Hopps, it included work by Crumb, Vaughn Bodé, Kim Deitch, Jay Lynch and others. Crumb's best known underground features included Whiteman, Angelfood McSpade, Fritz the Cat, Mr. Natural. Crumb drew himself as a character, portraying himself as he was perceived—a self-loathing, sex-obsessed intellectual. While Crumb's work was praised for its social commentary, he was criticized for the misogyny that appeared within his comics. Trina Robbins stated "It's weird to me how willing people are to overlook the hideous darkness in Crumb's work...
What the hell is funny about rape and murder?" Because of his popularity, many undergro