Apple Photos is a photo management and editing application developed by Apple. It was released as a bundled app in iOS 8 on September 17, 2014—replacing the Camera Roll—and released as a bundled app to OS X Yosemite users in the 10.10.3 update on April 8, 2015. It was released for tvOS 10 on September 13, 2016. In June 2014, Apple announced its plan to discontinue the applications iPhoto and Aperture, to be replaced by a new application, Photos, at some point in 2015. Photos is included with OS X Yosemite 10.10.3, released as a free update to users on April 8, 2015. On September 13, 2016, the app was included in tvOS 10. Photos is intended to be less complex than Aperture. Photos are organized by the "moment", a combination of time and location metadata attached to the photo. Photos tucks complex editing tools into several simple controls by default. Photos is designed to "reward curiosity and additional clicks with more granular manipulation capabilities". A one-click auto-enhance button is available.
ICloud Photo Library is integrated into the program, keeping photos and videos in sync with various Apple devices designated by the user, including edits and album structures. Storage starts at a complimentary 5 GB and can be bought in a number of tiers up to 2 TB. While iCloud integration is still optional, it is much more central to Photos as compared to iPhoto. Like its predecessors, Photos included a number of options for professional printing of photos, which could optionally be turned into books or calendars and mailed to an address. With Photos, Apple added new types of prints, including square sizes and the ability to print panoramas. In July 2018, Apple announced, via a pop-up message in Photos, that they would be discontinuing these services, adding that users should submit any final orders by September 30, 2018. ICloud Photo Sharing allows sharing photos with others. Others can view, like or comment existing shared photos or contribute new photos to the shared album. Other ways of sharing includes e-mail, social platform that integrates through iOS Extensions, or Apple's peer-to-peer AirDrop technology.
Critics have noted the loss of functionality in Photos as compared to its predecessors. In particular, photos can no longer be ordered as events but are either automatically ordered chronologically into moments or must be put into albums; as of OS X El Capitan, only the latest version of iPhoto still operates. Darktable gThumb Official website
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text. Such programs are sometimes known following the naming of Microsoft Notepad. Text editors are provided with operating systems and software development packages, can be used to change files such as configuration files, documentation files and programming language source code. There are important differences between rich text. Plain text consists of character representation; each character is represented by a fixed-length sequence of one, two, or four bytes, or as a variable-length sequence of one to four bytes, in accordance to specific character encoding conventions, such as ASCII, ISO/IEC 2022, UTF-8, or Unicode. These conventions define many printable characters, but non-printing characters that control the flow of the text, such space, line break, page break. Plain text contains no other information about the text itself, not the character encoding convention employed. Plain text is stored in text files, although text files do not store plain text.
In the early days of computers, plain text was displayed using a monospace font, such that horizontal alignment and columnar formatting were sometimes done using whitespace characters. For compatibility reasons, this tradition has not changed. Rich text, on the other hand, may contain metadata, character formatting data, paragraph formatting data, page specification data. Rich text can be complex. Rich text can be saved in binary format, text files adhering to a markup language, or in a hybrid form of both. Text editors are intended to open and save text files containing either plain text or anything that can be interpreted as plain text, including the markup for rich text or the markup for something else. Before text editors existed, computer text was punched into cards with keypunch machines. Physical boxes of these thin cardboard cards were inserted into a card-reader. Magnetic tape and disk "card-image" files created from such card decks had no line-separation characters at all, assumed fixed-length 80-character records.
An alternative to cards was punched paper tape. It could be created by some teleprinters; the first text editors were "line editors" oriented to teleprinter- or typewriter-style terminals without displays. Commands effected edits to a file at an imaginary insertion point called the "cursor". Edits were verified by typing a command to print a small section of the file, periodically by printing the entire file. In some line editors, the cursor could be moved by commands that specified the line number in the file, text strings for which to search, regular expressions. Line editors were major improvements over keypunching; some line editors could be used by keypunch. Some common line editors supported a "verify" mode in which change commands displayed the altered lines; when computer terminals with video screens became available, screen-based text editors became common. One of the earliest full-screen editors was O26, written for the operator console of the CDC 6000 series computers in 1967. Another early full-screen editor was vi.
Written in the 1970s, it is still a standard editor on Linux operating systems. Written in the 1970s was the UCSD Pascal Screen Oriented Editor, optimized both for indented source code as well as general text. Emacs, one of the first free and open source software projects, is another early full-screen or real-time editor, one, ported to many systems. A full-screen editor's ease-of-use and speed motivated many early purchases of video terminals; the core data structure in a text editor is the one that manages the string or list of records that represents the current state of the file being edited. While the former could be stored in a single long consecutive array of characters, the desire for text editors that could more insert text, delete text, undo/redo previous edits led to the development of more complicated sequence data structures. A typical text editor uses a gap buffer, a linked list of lines, a piece table, or a rope, as its sequence data structure; some text editors are simple, while others offer broad and complex functions.
For example and Unix-like operating systems have the pico editor, but many include the vi and Emacs editors. Microsoft Windows systems come with the simple Notepad, though many people—especially programmers—prefer other editors with more features. Under Apple Macintosh's classic Mac OS there was the native SimpleText, replaced in Mac OS X by TextEdit, which combines features of a text editor with those typical of a word processor such as rulers and multiple font selection; these features are not available but must be switched by user command, or through the program automatically determining the file type. Most word processors can read and write files in plain text format, allowing them to open files saved from text editors. Saving these files from a word processor, requires ensuring the file is written in plain text format, that any text encoding or BOM settings won'
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
NeXT, Inc. was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs. Its name was pronounced as "Next". Based in Redwood City, the company developed and manufactured a series of computer workstations intended for the higher education and business markets. NeXT was founded by Jobs. NeXT introduced the first NeXT Computer in 1988, the smaller NeXTstation in 1990; the NeXT computers experienced limited sales, with estimates of about 50,000 units shipped in total. Their innovative object-oriented NeXTSTEP operating system and development environment were influential; the first major outside investment was from Ross Perot, who invested after seeing a segment about NeXT on The Entrepreneurs. In 1987, he invested $20 million in exchange for 16 percent of NeXT's stock and subsequently joined the board of directors in 1988. NeXT released much of the NeXTSTEP system as a programming environment standard called OpenStep. NeXT withdrew from the hardware business in 1993 to concentrate on marketing OPENSTEP for Mach, its own OpenStep implementation, for several original equipment manufacturers.
NeXT developed WebObjects, one of the first enterprise web application frameworks. WebObjects never became popular because of its initial high price of $50,000, but it remains a prominent early example of a Web server based on dynamic page generation rather than on static content. Apple purchased NeXT in 1997 for $429 million, 1.5 million shares of Apple stock. As part of the agreement, Steve Jobs, Chairman and CEO of NeXT Software, returned to Apple, the company he co-founded in 1976; the founder promised to merge software from NeXT with Apple's hardware platforms resulting in macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS. These operating systems are based upon the NeXTSTEP and OPENSTEP foundation. In 1985, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs led Apple's SuperMicro division, responsible for the development of the Macintosh and Lisa personal computers; the Macintosh had been successful on university campuses because of the Apple University Consortium, which allowed students and institutions to buy the computers at a discount.
The consortium had earned more than $50 million on computers by February 1984. While chairman, Jobs visited university departments and faculty members to sell Macintosh. Jobs met Paul Berg, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry, at a luncheon held in Silicon Valley to honor François Mitterrand President of France. Berg was frustrated by the expense of teaching students about recombinant DNA from textbooks instead of in wet laboratories, used for the testing and analysis of chemicals and other materials or biological matter. Wet labs were prohibitively expensive for lower-level courses and were too complex to be simulated on personal computers of the time. Berg suggested to Jobs to use his influence at Apple to create a "3M computer" workstation for higher education, featuring at least one megabyte of random-access memory, a megapixel display and megaFLOPs performance, hence the name "3M". Jobs was intrigued by Berg's concept of a workstation and contemplated starting a higher education computer company in the fall of 1985, amidst increasing turmoil at Apple.
Jobs' division did not release upgraded versions of the Macintosh and much of the Macintosh Office system. As a result, sales plummeted, Apple was forced to write off millions of dollars in unsold inventory. Apple's chief executive officer John Sculley ousted Jobs from his day-to-day role at Apple, replacing him with Jean-Louis Gassée in 1985; that year, Jobs began a power struggle to regain control of the company. The board of directors sided with Sculley while Jobs took a business visit to Western Europe and the Soviet Union on behalf of Apple. After several months of being sidelined, Jobs resigned from Apple on September 13, 1985, he told the board he was leaving to set up a new computer company, that he would be taking several Apple employees from the SuperMicro division with him. He told the board that his new company would not compete with Apple and might consider licensing its designs back to them to market under the Macintosh brand. Jobs named his new company Next, Inc. A number of former Apple employees followed him to Next, including Joanna Hoffman, Bud Tribble, George Crow, Rich Page, Susan Barnes, Susan Kare, Dan'l Lewin.
After consulting with major educational buyers from around the country, including a follow-up meeting with Paul Berg, a tentative specification for the workstation was drawn up. It was designed to be powerful enough to run wet lab simulations and cheap enough for college students to use in their dormitory rooms. Before the specifications were finished, Apple sued Next for "nefarious schemes" to take advantage of the cofounders' insider information. Jobs remarked, "It is hard to think that a $2 billion company with 4,300-plus people couldn't compete with six people in blue jeans." The suit was dismissed before trial. In 1986, Jobs recruited the famous graphic designer Paul Rand to create a brand identity costing $100,000. Jobs recalled, "I asked him if he would come up with a few options, he said,'No, I will solve your problem for you and you will pay me. You don’t have to use the solution. If you want options go talk to other people.'" Rand created a 20-page brochure detailing the brand, including the precise angle used for the logo and a new company name spelling, NeXT.
NeXT changed its business plan in mid-1986. The company decided to develop both computer hardware and software, instead of just a low-end workstation
OS X Mountain Lion
OS X Mountain Lion is the ninth major release of OS X, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012 for purchase and download through Apple's Mac App Store, as part of a switch to releasing OS X versions online and every year, rather than every two years or so. Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous Mac OS X version, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more manage and synchronise content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar; the operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6. As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages. Mountain Lion added a version of iOS's Notification Center, which groups updates from different applications in one place.
Integrated links allowing the user to transfer content to Twitter were present in the operating system from launch. Facebook integration was planned but unfinished at launch date, it was released as a downloadable update later. OS X Mountain Lion received positive reviews, with critics praising Notification Center and speed improvements over Mac OS X Lion, while criticizing iCloud for unreliability and Game Center for lack of games. Mountain Lion sold three million units in the first four days, has sold 28 million units as of June 10, 2013, making it Apple's most popular OS X release. Mountain Lion was the last paid upgrade for an OS X major release, with OS X Mavericks and being free. OS X Mountain Lion was announced by Apple on their website on February 16, 2012, as a successor to Mac OS X 10.7 Lion. It achieved golden master status on July 9, 2012. Following a soft transition started with Mac OS X Lion, Apple refers to OS X Mountain Lion as "OS X" rather than "Mac OS X". During the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference keynote on June 11, 2012, Apple announced a "near final" release version of Mountain Lion for developers, with the public version arriving in July 2012 at a price tag of US$19.99.
The third generation MacBook Pro, revised MacBook Air, iPad Smart Case, third-generation AirPort Express were announced at the keynote as well. The specific release date of July 25 was not confirmed until the day before, July 24, by Apple CEO, Tim Cook, as part of Apple's 2012 third-quarter earnings announcement, it was released to the Mac App Store on July 25, 2012, where it sold 3 million units in the first four days of release. An update for Mountain Lion, version 10.8.1, was released on August 23, 2012. It resolved issues with iMessages, Migration Assistant, Microsoft Exchange Server and many other applications. Tests of the update revealed that 10.8.1 improved battery life on laptops, albeit gaining back only half of the battery life, lost in updating to Mountain Lion. Although 10.8.1 improved battery life for some customers, others continue to complain about reduced battery life and a constant drop in battery health resulting in a "Service Battery" message. The official system requirements of OS X 10.8 are 2 GB RAM, 8 GB available storage, OS X 10.6.8 or on any of the following Macs: iMac MacBook, MacBook Pro MacBook Air Mac Mini Mac Pro Xserve As in 10.7, the earliest models supporting AirDrop are the late-2008 MacBook Pro, late-2010 MacBook Air, late-2008 MacBook, mid-2010 Mac Mini, early-2009 Mac Pro with an AirPort Extreme card.
Any Mac released in or after 2011, except the MacBook, supports AirPlay Mirroring. Power Nap is supported on the MacBook Pro with Retina display; the technical basis for these requirements is incompatibility with 32-bit EFI and 32-bit kernel extensions. In order to prevent incompatible systems from installing 10.8, the installer contains a whitelist of supported motherboard IDs. Users have bypassed these limitations so that 10.8 may run with varying functionality on some unsupported computers. Notification Center was added in the operating system, it provides an overview of alerts from applications and displays notifications until the user completes an associated action, rather than requiring instant resolution. Users may choose what applications appear in Notification Center, how they are handled. There are three types of notifications: banners and badges. Banners are displayed for a short period of time in the upper right corner of the Mac's screen, slide off to the right; the icon of the application is displayed on the left side of the banner, while the message from the application will be displayed on the right side.
Alerts will not disappear from the screen until the user takes action. Badges are red notification icons, they indicate the number of items available for the application. Notification Center can be accessed by clicking the icon in the right corner of the menu bar; when open, the user can click a button to tweet, post status updates to Facebook, or view all notifications in the sidebar pane. Swiping up will reveal the option to disable Notification Center for on
OS X El Capitan
OS X El Capitan is the twelfth major release of OS X, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. It is the successor to OS X Yosemite and focuses on performance and security. Following the Northern California landmark-based naming scheme introduced with OS X Mavericks, El Capitan was named after a rock formation in Yosemite National Park, signifying its goal to be a refined version of Yosemite. El Capitan is the final version to be released under the name OS X. El Capitan received far superior reviews; the first beta of OS X El Capitan was released to developers shortly following the 2015 WWDC keynote on June 8, 2015. The first public beta was made available on July 9, 2015. There were multiple betas released after the keynote. OS X El Capitan was released to end users on September 30, 2015, as a free upgrade through the Mac App Store. All Macintosh computers that can run Mountain Lion, Mavericks, or Yosemite can run El Capitan, although not all of its features will work on older computers.
For example, Apple notes that the newly available Metal API is available on "all Macs since 2012". These computers can run El Capitan, provided they have at least 2GB of RAM: MacBook: Late 2008 or newer MacBook Air: Late 2008 or newer MacBook Pro: Mid 2007 or newer Mac Mini: Early 2009 or newer iMac: Mid 2007 or newer Mac Pro: Early 2008 or newer Xserve: Early 2009Of these computers, the following models were equipped with 1GB RAM as the standard option on the base model when they were shipped originally, they can only run OS X El Capitan if they have at least 2GB of RAM. iMac: Mid 2007 - Early 2008 Mac Mini: Early 2009The following computers support features such as Handoff, Instant Hotspot, AirDrop between Mac computers and iOS devices, as well as the new Metal API: iMac: Late 2012 or newer MacBook: Early 2015 or newer MacBook Air: Mid 2012 or newer MacBook Pro: Mid 2012 or newer Mac Mini: Late 2012 or newer Mac Pro: Late 2013The upgrade varies in size depending upon which Apple Mac computer it is being installed on, in most scenarios it will require about 6 GB of disk space.
OS X El Capitan includes features to improve the security, performance and usability of OS X. Compared to OS X Yosemite, Apple says that opening PDFs is four times faster, app switching and viewing messages in Mail is twice as fast and launching apps is 40% faster; the maximum amount of memory that could be allocated to the graphics processor has been increased from 1024 MB to 1536 MB on Macs with an Intel HD 4000 GPU. OS X El Capitan supports Metal, Apple's graphics API introduced in iOS 8 to speed up performance in games and professional applications. Apple's typeface San Francisco replaces Helvetica Neue as the system typeface. OS X El Capitan adopts LibreSSL in replacement of OpenSSL used in previous versions. OS X El Capitan introduces new window management features such as creating a full-screen split view by pressing the green button on left upper corner of the window or Control+Cmd+F keyboard shortcut snapping any supported other window to that full screen application; this feature is similar to, although less extensive than, the snap-assist feature in Windows 7 and several Linux desktop environments, such as GNOME.
OS X El Capitan improves Mission Control to incorporate this feature across multiple spaces. It enables users to spot the pointer more by enlarging it by shaking the mouse or swiping a finger back and forth on the trackpad. OS X El Capitan adds multi-touch gestures to applications like Mail and Messages that allow a user to delete or mark emails or conversations by swiping a finger on a multi-touch device, such as a trackpad. OS X analyzes the contents of individual emails in Mail and uses the gathered information in other applications, such as Calendar. For example, an invitation in Mail can automatically be added as a Calendar event. Apple Maps in El Capitan shows public transit information similar to Maps in iOS 9; this feature was limited to a handful of cities upon launch: Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Shanghai and Washington D. C; the Notes application receives an overhaul, similar to Notes in iOS 9. Both applications have more powerful text-processing capabilities, such as to-do lists, inline webpage previews and videos, digital sketches, map locations and other documents and media types.
The app can now be moved across the screen. Photos introduced editing extensions which allows Photos to use editing to
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri