Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions. Traditionally, computational linguistics was performed by computer scientists who had specialized in the application of computers to the processing of a natural language. Today, computational linguists work as members of interdisciplinary teams, which can include regular linguists, experts in the target language, computer scientists. In general, computational linguistics draws upon the involvement of linguists, computer scientists, experts in artificial intelligence, logicians, cognitive scientists, cognitive psychologists, psycholinguists and neuroscientists, among others. Computational linguistics has applied components. Theoretical computational linguistics focuses on issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science, applied computational linguistics focuses on the practical outcome of modeling human language use.
The Association for Computational Linguistics defines computational linguistics as:...the scientific study of language from a computational perspective. Computational linguists are interested in providing computational models of various kinds of linguistic phenomena. Computational linguistics is grouped within the field of artificial intelligence, but was present before the development of artificial intelligence. Computational linguistics originated with efforts in the United States in the 1950s to use computers to automatically translate texts from foreign languages Russian scientific journals, into English. Since computers can make arithmetic calculations much faster and more than humans, it was thought to be only a short matter of time before they could begin to process language. Computational and quantitative methods are used in attempted reconstruction of earlier forms of modern languages and subgrouping modern languages into language families. Earlier methods such as lexicostatistics and glottochronology have been proven to be premature and inaccurate.
However, recent interdisciplinary studies which borrow concepts from biological studies gene mapping, have proved to produce more sophisticated analytical tools and more trustworthy results. When machine translation failed to yield accurate translations right away, automated processing of human languages was recognized as far more complex than had been assumed. Computational linguistics was born as the name of the new field of study devoted to developing algorithms and software for intelligently processing language data; the term "computational linguistics" itself was first coined by David Hays, founding member of both the Association for Computational Linguistics and the International Committee on Computational Linguistics. When artificial intelligence came into existence in the 1960s, the field of computational linguistics became that sub-division of artificial intelligence dealing with human-level comprehension and production of natural languages. In order to translate one language into another, it was observed that one had to understand the grammar of both languages, including both morphology and syntax.
In order to understand syntax, one had to understand the semantics and the lexicon, something of the pragmatics of language use. Thus, what started as an effort to translate between languages evolved into an entire discipline devoted to understanding how to represent and process natural languages using computers. Nowadays research within the scope of computational linguistics is done at computational linguistics departments, computational linguistics laboratories, computer science departments, linguistics departments; some research in the field of computational linguistics aims to create working speech or text processing systems while others aim to create a system allowing human-machine interaction. Programs meant for human-machine communication are called conversational agents. Just as computational linguistics can be performed by experts in a variety of fields and through a wide assortment of departments, so too can the research fields broach a diverse range of topics; the following sections discuss some of the literature available across the entire field broken into four main area of discourse: developmental linguistics, structural linguistics, linguistic production, linguistic comprehension.
Language is a cognitive skill. This developmental process has been examined using a number of techniques, a computational approach is one of them. Human language development does provide some constraints which make it harder to apply a computational method to understanding it. For instance, during language acquisition, human children are only exposed to positive evidence; this means that during the linguistic development of an individual, only evidence for what is a correct form is provided, not evidence for what is not correct. This is insufficient information for a simple hypothesis testing procedure for information as complex as language, so provides certain boundaries for a computational approach to modeling language development and acquisition in an individual. Attempts have been made to model the developmental process of language acquisition in children from a computational angle, leading to both statistical grammars and connectionist models. Work in this realm has been proposed as a method to explain the evolution of language through history.
Using models, it has been shown that languages
Historical documents are original documents that contain important historical information about a person, place, or event and can thus serve as primary sources as important ingredients of the historical methodology. Significant historical documents can be deeds, accounts of battles, or the exploits of the powerful. Though these documents are of historical interest, they do not detail the daily lives of ordinary people, or the way society functioned. Anthropologists and archeologists are more interested in documents that describe the day-to-day lives of ordinary people, indicating what they ate, their interaction with other members of their households and social groups, their states of mind, it is this information that allows them to try to understand and describe the way society was functioning at any particular time in history. Greek ostraka provide good examples of historical documents from "among the common people". Many documents that are produced today, such as personal letters, contracts and medical records, would be considered valuable historical documents in the future.
However most of these will be lost in the future since they are either printed on ordinary paper which has a limited lifespan, or stored in digital formats lost track over time. Some companies and government entities are attempting to increase the number of documents that will survive the passage of time, by taking into account the preservation issues, either printing documents in a manner that would increase the likelihood of them surviving indefinitely, or placing selected documents in time capsules or other special storage environments. Historical source Archive Diplomatics Internet History Sourcebooks Project See Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly for educational use. American Historical Documents from the Harvard Classics Collection Some of America's historical documents from the NARA French Renaissance Paleography Scholarly maintained website containing over 100 French manuscripts from 1300 to 1700 with tools to decipher and transcribe them
A concordance is an alphabetical list of the principal words used in a book or body of work, listing every instance of each word with its immediate context. Only works of special importance have had concordances prepared for them, such as the Vedas, Qur'an or the works of Shakespeare, James Joyce or classical Latin and Greek authors, because of the time and expense involved in creating a concordance in the pre-computer era. A concordance is more than an index. In the precomputing era, search technology was unavailable, a concordance offered readers of long works such as the Bible something comparable to search results for every word that they would have been to search for. Today, the ability to combine the result of queries concerning multiple terms has reduced interest in concordance publishing. In addition, mathematical techniques such as latent semantic indexing have been proposed as a means of automatically identifying linguistic information based on word context. A bilingual concordance is a concordance based on aligned parallel text.
A topical concordance is a list of subjects that a book covers, with the immediate context of the coverage of those subjects. Unlike a traditional concordance, the indexed word does not have to appear in the verse; the best-known topical concordance is Nave's Topical Bible. The first Bible concordance was compiled for the Vulgate Bible by Hugh of St Cher, who employed 500 monks to assist him. In 1448, Rabbi Mordecai Nathan completed a concordance to the Hebrew Bible, it took him ten years. A concordance to the Greek New Testament was published in 1599 by Henry Stephens, the Septuagint was done a couple of years by Conrad Kircher in 1602; the first concordance to the English Bible was published in 1550 by Mr Marbeck. According to Cruden, it did not employ the verse numbers devised by Robert Stephens in 1545, but "the pretty large concordance" of Mr Cotton did. Followed Cruden's Concordance and Strong's Concordance. Concordances are used in linguistics, when studying a text. For example: comparing different usages of the same word analysing keywords analysing word frequencies finding and analysing phrases and idioms finding translations of subsentential elements, e.g. terminology, in bitexts and translation memories creating indexes and word lists Concordancing techniques are used in national text corpora such as American National Corpus, British National Corpus, Corpus of Contemporary American English available on-line.
Stand-alone applications that employ concordancing techniques are known as concordancers or more advanced corpus managers. Some of them have integrated part-of-speech taggers and enable the user to create his/her own POS-annotated corpora to conduct various type of searches adopted in corpus linguistics; the reconstruction of the text of some of the Dead Sea Scrolls involved a concordance. Access to some of the scrolls was governed by a "secrecy rule" that allowed only the original International Team or their designates to view the original materials. After the death of Roland de Vaux in 1971, his successors refused to allow the publication of photographs to other scholars; this restriction was circumvented by Martin Abegg in 1991, who used a computer to "invert" a concordance of the missing documents made in the 1950s which had come into the hands of scholars outside of the International Team, to obtain an approximate reconstruction of the original text of 17 of the documents. This was soon followed by the release of the original text of the scrolls.
Index A Vedic Word Concordance Bible concordance Cross-reference Key Word in Context Text mining Shakespeare concordance - A concordance of Shakespeare's complete works Online Concordance to the Complete Works of Hryhorii Skovoroda - A concordance to Hryhorii Skovoroda's complete works Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts - The Alex Catalogue is a collection of public domain electronic texts from American and English literature as well as Western philosophy. Each of the 14,000 items in the Catalogue are available as full-text but they are complete with a concordance. You are able to count the number of times a particular word is used in a text or list the most common words. Hyper-Concordance, Mitsu Matsuoka, Nagoya University - The Hyper-Concordance is written in C++, a program that scans and displays lines based on a command entered by the user. Includes Victorian, British & Irish, American literatures. Concord - Page includes link to Concord, an on-the-fly KWIC concordance generator. Works with at least some non-Latin scripts.
Multiple choices for sorting results. ConcorDance - A concordance interface to the WorldWideWeb, it uses Google's or Yahoo's search engine to find concordances and can be used directly from the browser. Chinese Text Project Concordance Tool - Concordance lookup and discussion of the continued importance of printed concordances in Sinology - Chinese Text Project KH Coder - A free software for KWIC concordance and collocation stats generation. Various statistical analysis functions are available such as co-occurrence network, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical cluster analysis, correspondence analysis of words
Biblical criticism is an umbrella term for those methods of studying the Bible that embrace two distinctive perspectives: the concern to avoid dogma and bias by applying a non-sectarian, reason-based judgment, the reconstruction of history according to contemporary understanding. Biblical criticism uses the grammar, structure and relationship of language to identify such characteristics as the Bible's literary structure, its genre, its context, meaning and origins. Biblical criticism includes a wide range of approaches and questions within four major contemporary methodologies: textual, source and literary criticism. Textual criticism examines the text and its manuscripts to identify what the original text would have said. Source criticism searches the texts for evidence of original sources. Form criticism seeks to identify their original setting; each of these is historical and pre-compositional in its concerns. Literary criticism, on the other hand, focuses on the literary structure, authorial purpose, reader's response to the text through methods such as rhetorical criticism, canonical criticism, narrative criticism.
Biblical criticism began as an aspect of the rise of modern culture in the West. Some scholars claim that its roots reach back to the Reformation, but most agree it grew out of the German Enlightenment. German pietism played a role in its development, as did British deism, with its greatest influences being rationalism and Protestant scholarship; the Enlightenment age and its skepticism of biblical and ecclesiastical authority ignited questions concerning the historical basis for the man Jesus separately from traditional theological views concerning him. This "quest" for the Jesus of history began in biblical criticism's earliest stages, reappeared in the nineteenth century, again in the twentieth, remaining a major occupation of biblical criticism, on and off, for over 200 years. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, biblical criticism was influenced by a wide range of additional academic disciplines and theoretical perspectives, changing it from a historical approach to a multidisciplinary field.
In a field long dominated by white male Protestants, non-white scholars and those from the Jewish and Catholic traditions became prominent voices. Globalization brought a broader spectrum of worldviews into the field, other academic disciplines as diverse as Near Eastern studies, psychology and sociology formed new methods of biblical criticism such as socio-scientific criticism and psychological biblical criticism. Meanwhile, post-modernism and post-critical interpretation began questioning biblical criticism's role and function. According to tradition, Moses was the author of the first five books of the Bible, including the book of Genesis. Philosophers and theologians such as Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, Richard Simon questioned Mosaic authorship. Spinoza said Moses could not have written the preface to Deuteronomy, since he never crossed the Jordan. Jean Astruc, a French physician, believed. According to Old Testament scholar Edward Young, Astruc believed Moses used hereditary accounts of the Hebrew people to assemble the book of Genesis.
So, Astruc borrowed methods of textual criticism, used to investigate Greek and Roman texts, applied them to the Bible in search of those original accounts. Astruc believed he identified them as separate sources that were edited together into the book of Genesis, thus explaining Genesis' problems while still allowing for Mosaic authorship. Astruc's method was developed at the twenty or so Protestant universities in Germany. There was a willingness among the doctoral candidates to re-express Christian doctrine in terms of the scientific method and the historical understanding common during the German Enlightenment. German pietism played a role in the rise of biblical criticism by supporting the desire to break the hold of religious authority. Rationalism was a significant influence in biblical criticism's development, providing its concern to avoid dogma and bias through reason. For example, the Swiss theologian Jean Alphonse Turretin attacked conventional exegesis and argued for critical analysis led by reason.
Turretin believed the Bible could be considered authoritative if it was not considered inerrant. This has become a common modern Judeo-Christian view. Johann Salomo Semler argued for an end to all doctrinal assumptions, giving historical criticism its non-sectarian nature; as a result, Semler is called the father of historical-critical research. Semler distinguished between "inward" and "outward" religion, the idea that, for some people, their religion is their highest inner purpose, while for others, religion is a more exterior practice: a tool to accomplish other purposes more important to the individual such as political or economic goals; this is a concept recognized by modern psychology. Communications scholar James A. Herrick says though most scholars agree that biblical criticism evolved out of the German Enlightenment, there are histories of biblical scholarship that have found "strong direct links" with British deism. Herrick references the theologian Henning Graf Reventlow as saying deism included the humanist world view, significant in biblical criticism.
Some scholars, such as Gerhard Ebeling, Rudolf B
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology and anthropology. Unlike semantics, which examines meaning, conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge of the speaker and listener, but on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, other factors. In this respect, pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity, since meaning relies on the manner, time, etc. of an utterance. The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; the word pragmatics derives via Latin pragmaticus from the Greek πραγματικός, meaning amongst others "fit for action", which comes from πρᾶγμα, "deed, act", that from πράσσω, "to do, to act, to pass over, to practise, to achieve".
Pragmatics was a reaction to structuralist linguistics. In many cases, it expanded upon his idea that language has an analyzable structure, composed of parts that can be defined in relation to others. Pragmatics first engaged only in synchronic study, as opposed to examining the historical development of language. However, it rejected the notion that all meaning comes from signs existing purely in the abstract space of langue. Meanwhile, historical pragmatics has come into being; this field only gained linguists' attention in the 70s. This is; the study of the speaker's meaning, not focusing on the phonetic or grammatical form of an utterance, but instead on what the speaker's intentions and beliefs are. The study of the meaning in context, the influence that a given context can have on the message, it requires knowledge of the speaker's identities, the place and time of the utterance. The study of implicatures, i.e. the things that are communicated though they are not explicitly expressed. The study of relative distance, both social and physical, between speakers in order to understand what determines the choice of what is said and what is not said.
The study of what is not meant, as opposed to the intended meaning, i.e. that, unsaid and unintended, or unintentional. Information structure, the study of how utterances are marked in order to efficiently manage the common ground of referred entities between speaker and hearer Formal Pragmatics, the study of those aspects of meaning and use for which context of use is an important factor, by using the methods and goals of formal semantics; the sentence "You have a green light" is ambiguous. Without knowing the context, the identity of the speaker or the speaker's intent, it is difficult to infer the meaning with certainty. For example, it could mean: the space that belongs to you has green ambient lighting; the sentence "Sherlock saw the man with binoculars" could mean that Sherlock observed the man by using binoculars, or it could mean that Sherlock observed a man, holding binoculars. The meaning of the sentence depends on an understanding of the speaker's intent; as defined in linguistics, a sentence is an abstract entity—a string of words divorced from non-linguistic context—as opposed to an utterance, a concrete example of a speech act in a specific context.
The more conscious subjects stick to common words, idioms and topics, the more others can surmise their meaning. This suggests that sentences do not have intrinsic meaning, that there is no meaning associated with a sentence or word, that either can only represent an idea symbolically; the cat sat on the mat is a sentence in English. If someone were to say to someone else, "The cat sat on the mat," the act is itself an utterance; this implies that a sentence, expression or word cannot symbolically represent a single true meaning. By contrast, the meaning of an utterance can be inferred through knowledge of both its linguistic and non-linguistic contexts. In mathematics, with Berry's paradox, there arises a similar systematic ambiguity with the word "definable"; the referential uses of language are. A sign is the link or relationship between a signified and the signifier as defined by Saussure and Huguenin; the signified is some concept in the world. The signifier represents the signified. An example would be: Signified: the concept cat Signifier: the word "cat"The relationship between the two gives the sign meaning.
This relationship can be further explained by considering what we mean by "meaning." In pragmatics, there are two different types of meaning to consider: semantico-referential meaning and indexical meaning. Semantico-referential meaning refers to the aspect of meaning, which describes events in the world that are independent of the circumstance they are uttered in. An example would be propositions s
C. 1356 BC – Amenhotep IV begins the worship of Aten in Ancient Egypt, changing his name to Akhenaten and moving the capital to Akhetaten, starting the Amarna Period. C. 1352 BC – Amenhotep III dies and is succeeded as Pharaoh by Amenhotep IV. 1350 BC – Yin becomes the new capital of Shang dynasty China
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the