Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Martin van Marum
Martin van Marum was a Dutch physician, inventor and teacher, who studied medicine and philosophy in Groningen. Van Marum introduced modern chemistry in the Netherlands after the theories of Lavoisier and he became famous for his demonstrations with instruments, most notable the Large electricity machine, to show statical electricity and chemical experiments while curator for the Teylers Museum. He moved to Haarlem in 1776 because the Haarlemmers had more taste in the sciences than anywhere else in the Netherlands, after his arrival in Haarlem he began to practise medicine, but devoted himself mainly to lecturing on physical subjects and creating instruments to demonstrate physical theory. He managed to scare off Linder by obtaining permission from the society to allow his servants to keep tips they received from cabinet visitors, a source of income that Linder had come to rely on. Then van Marum increased this salary to 300 from 100 by adding responsibilities to his list of duties, such as a garden in the Rozenprieel.
In 1779 he was entrusted with the care of the Second society left to Haarlem by Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, which led under his direction to the foundation of the Teylers Museum. The Teyler legacy was split into three societies, one for religion, one for science, and one for the arts, known as the first and third societies. The caretakers had to meet in Teylers home weekly, and each society had 5 caretakers, in 1794 van Marum became secretary as well as director of the Dutch Society of Science. Under his management, both societies were advanced to the position of the most noted in Europe. In 1808 he was asked by Louis Bonaparte to be a member of the committee for the formation of the Koninklijk Instituut along with Jeronimo de Bosch, Jean Henri van Swinden and he became member of the institute the same year. Under his guidance the two societies slowly merged, the demonstration model is still on display, as is a smaller version in the Museum Boerhaave of Leiden. Van Marums researches were remarkable for their number and variety, the Teylers Museum kept its role as a museum of scientific research and is a repository of important scientific demonstration models from the period.
Not only items regarding electricity, but weather stations, industrial models, steam engines, the collection of the Teylers was mostly based on scientific theory, while the collection of the Dutch Society of Science was mostly based on scientific practise. Since Linder had not known any Latin, it was easier for Van Marum to entertain visitors with stories of Linnaean trivia and of course. He left the year because of continuous disagreements with van Marum over art. Van der Vinne was an artist born into an important Haarlem artist family - he was the great-grandson of Vincent van der Vinne, the Teylers museum replaced him with another local artist, Wybrand Hendricks, who painted the famous oval room and many other Haarlem scenes. Hendricks is largely responsible for the Teylers collection of Old Master prints, apparently he got along under van Marum, but when he left in 1819 at the age of 75, the Teylers decided to discontinue the purchase of art for the decline in art enthusiasts in this city.
During the tenure of Hendriks, van Marum himself was giving public demonstrations of electricity in the Oval room
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Natural history museum
Some museums have public exhibits to share the beauty and wonder of the natural world with the public, these are referred to as public museums. Some museums feature non-natural history collections in addition to their collections, such as ones related to history, art. Renaissance cabinets of curiosities were private collections that typically included exotic specimens of natural history, sometimes faked, the first natural history museum was possibly that of Swiss scholar Conrad Gessner, established in Zürich in the mid-16th century. The Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle, established in Paris in 1635, was the first natural history museum to take the form that would be recognized as a history museum today. Early natural history museums offered limited accessibility, as they were private collections or holdings of scientific societies. The Ashmolean Museum, opened in 1683, was the first natural history museum to grant admission to the general public, see List of natural history museums for examples grouped by country
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
The Spaarne is a river, in North Holland, Netherlands. This partially canalized river connects the Ringvaart to a branch of the North Sea Canal. It runs through Haarlem and Spaarndam, the historic canals of Haarlems moats are connected to the Spaarne. A lock at Spaarndam separates it from the North Sea Canal, according to Sterck-Proot, a historian, the name Spaarne probably comes from Spier, which means reed in old Dutch. The river formerly flowed from the Haarlemmermeer to the IJ, which used to extend from the Zuiderzee all the way to Velsen, in the 13th century, a dam with locks was constructed at the mouth of the Spaarne where the village of Spaarndam formed. After a century of planning, Haarlems Lake was pumped dry in 3 years from 1850–1853, the Spaarne became a branch of the Ringvaart, lost much of its flow, and became shallower. The construction of the North Sea Canal reduced most of the IJ Bay into polders, the river was deepened for the benefit of industries along its shores. At the juncture of the river and the ringvaart is the Cruquius Museum, steam engines were used to pump the water out from the Haarlemmermeer polder.
On the Heemstede side of the juncture is the old Castle Heemstede, traveling up the river towards Haarlem, on the Heemstede side the dome of the Hageveld high school and former Catholic seminary can be seen. Continuing under the bridge to Schalkwijk, on side is windmill De Hommel. Across from that on the Heemstede side is rowing club K. R. Z. V, het Spaarne and a few buildings by J. B. van Loghem, such as Tuinwijk, an early community living project sharing a garden. In the same block, entering Haarlem, is the old location of the architectural bureau De Voogt Naval Architects in the home of Henri de Voogt. De loop van het Spaarne, de geschiedenis van een rivier, Schuyt,1987
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since described as one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of Michelangelos works of painting and architecture rank among the most famous in existence and he sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library, at the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peters Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan so that the end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification. Michelangelo was unique as the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive, in his lifetime he was often called Il Divino. One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, the attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelos impassioned and highly personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance.
Michelangelo was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese near Arezzo, at the time of Michelangelos birth, his father was the Judicial administrator of the small town of Caprese and local administrator of Chiusi. Michelangelos mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena, the Buonarrotis claimed to descend from the Countess Mathilde of Canossa, this claim remains unproven, but Michelangelo himself believed it. Several months after Michelangelos birth, the returned to Florence. There Michelangelo gained his love for marble, as Giorgio Vasari quotes him, If there is good in me. Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling chisel and hammer, as a young boy, Michelangelo was sent to Florence to study grammar under the Humanist Francesco da Urbino. The young artist, showed no interest in his schooling, preferring to copy paintings from churches, the city of Florence was at that time the greatest centre of the arts and learning in Italy. Art was sponsored by the Signoria, by the merchant guilds and by patrons such as the Medici.
The Renaissance, a renewal of Classical scholarship and the arts, had its first flowering in Florence, the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti had laboured for fifty years to create the bronze doors of the Baptistry, which Michelangelo was to describe as The Gates of Paradise. The exterior niches of the Church of Orsanmichele contained a gallery of works by the most acclaimed sculptors of Florence – Donatello, Andrea del Verrocchio, and Nanni di Banco. The interiors of the churches were covered with frescos, begun by Giotto. During Michelangelos childhood, a team of painters had been called from Florence to the Vatican, among them was Domenico Ghirlandaio, a master in fresco painting, figure drawing, and portraiture who had the largest workshop in Florence at that period
Teylers Oval Room
The Oval Room in the Teylers Museum was the first part of the museum that was opened in 1784. It could be entered through the garden of the fundatiehuis, the home of Pieter Teyler van der Hulst. The building has an oval shape built around its centerpiece, a mineralogical cabinet, the Oval Room consists of two floors, the ground floor with its display cabinets and a gallery of books that connects to the Teylers Library. On top of the room, on the roof, the astronomical observatory used to be a landmark that could be seen for miles along the river Spaarne, the gallery and observatory are longer accessible to the public, though the gallery can be seen from the ground floor. After his death, Teyler bequeathed a fortune for the pursuit of science and his house had been renamed the fundatiehuis to house this fundatie or foundation. Viervant designed both the cabinet and the room around it in the neoclassicist style that was popular in the Netherlands at that time. The Oval Room walls have been timbered with pine wood on the floors, in the walls there are alcoves both on the ground floor and on the gallery, which contain parts of the collections.
Along the gallery, books have been stored in the alcoves, the books could be accessed via the staircase. The cast iron gallery railing included fold-out supports which were the most expensive part of the room, every bookcase alcove is topped by the name and a stucco profile of a classical Greek writer or philosopher. In the middle of the room an extensive collection is housed in a special cabinet that is set up along the same principles as the Fersman Mineralogical Museum built in 1716. This is the second such cabinet designed by Viervant, the first had a display surface that could double as a library table. That table was on rails, so that it could be moved out of the room when necessary, the Teylers Museum, and with that the Oval Room, was the first museum open to the public in the Netherlands. Though the Oval room included a library and lab to show experiments to the public, some of the directors felt it should really contain a museum-like collection. In the first years the piece was not a cabinet.
The central table would be moved out of the way when the generator was going to be used. The drawings and minerals in the collection were stored in this central piece The instruments were stored in cabinets on the first floor. The ground floor is open for visitors, though they now enter. The old door to Teylers fundatiehuis is closed off, the way the contents are displayed in the room has barely changed since 1800
The Fundatiehuis is the former family home of Pieter Teyler van der Hulst on the Damstraat 21 in Haarlem, Netherlands. After his death it became the seat of the Teylers Stichting and through its front door, the caretakers had to meet in the gentlemans room of the fundatiehuis weekly, and each society had five caretakers, so all of the gentlemen involved lived in Haarlem. From Teylers death onwards, it was the home of the artist in residence, the first inhabitant after Pieter teyler died, was the local artist Vincent Jansz van der Vinne. The building was built in 1715 for the commissioner of the Haarlem City Justice department. Van der Marck had a library and when he died in 1740 Teyler bought the house in order to have more room for his growing library and collection of curiosities. Teyler moved in with his wife, and they lived there for 14 years until she died in 1754. The Teylers did not seem to take pains to remodel the house. Upstairs in a room, Teyler kept office as a banker. Two years after his wife died Teyler drew up his will with the intention of preserving the house as a gift to the city, the room at the back of the garden was used for member meetings.
After the Oval Room was built, visitors could pass along the hallway through the room to the Oval room. The room with 3 locks could only be opened all three key owners were present, and the room with 5 locks could only be opened when 3 of 5 keyholders were present. Considering the complicated system, there was clearly reason to fear theft of the items in the medal collection. Studies en bijdragen over Teylers Stichting naar aanleiding van het tweede eeuwfeest, P. Bouman en P. Broers, Teylers ‘Boek- en Konstzael’. De bouwgeschiedenis van het oudste museum van Nederland, sliggers, De idealen van Pieter Teyler. Website on Foundation House by Teylers Museum Museum Website page on Teylers Stichting archives
Teylers Eerste Schilderijenzaal
The Eerste Schilderijenzaal, or Painting Gallery I, is one of two art gallery rooms in Teylers Museum and is the oldest art gallery for contemporary Dutch art in the Netherlands. It was built onto the back of Teylers Oval Room in 1838, Teylers Foundation started collecting contemporary Dutch paintings in 1821. The paintings were commissioned directly from the painters or acquired at exhibitions. The first room used to display paintings was the room that is used as a print cabinet and was added to the Oval room in 1824 along with the library room upstairs. The lack of light quickly made viewing the paintings there unpopular and it was used mostly for lectures, according to the archives, the expansion was done by the foundations own building crew that was on hand for day-to-day improvements. The gallery had large curved windows like the Oval room, which have since been closed, an impression of the original windows can be seen in a charcoal sketch by Johan Conrad Greive in 1862. The collection today is based on that same group of paintings.
The gallery contains a table that was used to hold the portfolios of drawings, the selection of paintings was done mostly according to the advice of the curator and concierge, who lived in the Fundatiehuis. For the early days this was Vincent Jansz van der Vinne, Van der Vinne was replaced by Wybrand Hendriks, whose own works, those of his friends, and works by his successor Gerrit Jan Michaëlis hang in the gallery. No works by Van der Vinne are represented, who left Teylers after a disagreement with Martin van Marum, one of the first large canvases to be purchased was Storm at sea, by the marine painter Johannes Christiaan Schotel. A few years later, its counterpart was ordered, Calm sea and it is striking that, in the early period, paintings were often bought in pairs. List of painters in order, accompanied by an example hanging in the first gallery. Studies en bijdragen over Teylers Stichting naar aanleiding van het tweede eeuwfeest, a. Ouwerkerk, Romantiek aan het Spaarne. Schilderijen tot 1850 uit de collectie van Teylers Museum Haarlem, H. J.
Scholten, Catalogus met beschrijving van de schilderijender kunstverzameling van Teylers Stichting te Haarlem. Museum website on the duties of the curator and resident caretaker
When Teyler deceased in 1778, he was without children or direct family, and specified in his testament how his money was to be spent. He left money for individuals, the church and the general benefit as described above. Claims have been made by alleged family members that the testament was supposed to be limited in time to 100 years, no claims of such have been recognized in court. The Stichting was founded by five friends of Teylers, who were his executors, the first replacing director of the Teylers Stichting was Adriaan van Zeebergh, the pensionaris of the city of Haarlem, a powerful civil servant position at the time. He replaced Barnaart, who died in 1780, the foundation is governed by five directors, which are appointed via Co-option. The first directors were five of Teylers friends, Jacobus Barnaart Isaac Brand Gerard Hugaart Antoni Kuits Willem van der Vlugt Sr, the directors traditionally meet in the Grote Herenkamer at the Teylers Fundatiehuis, a room adjacent to the Oval Room of Teylers Museum. J. E.
Trip, treasurer R. A. M. van Voorst van Beest-Gunst, the Stichting is responsible for the Teylers Chair at Leiden University. The actual management of the museum was left to a kastelein, the Teylers Stichting still does own the actual buildings. As determined in the testament as well, the Stichting is established in the Fundatiehuis, the complete archive of the Teylers Stichting is still intact and available. The early years in the archive have been digitized and are online on the website of the Teylers Museum. This includes the minutes of the meetings and the receipts of materials. From these receipts it can be reconstructed what the activities of the Teylers Stichting have been in the past, the archive has been stored in a special room in the Fundatiehuis, as specified in the testament, which was provided with a special lock with five keyholes. List of directors of Teylers Stichting Teylers Eerste Genootschap Teylers Tweede Genootschap
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running a large workshop and, despite his death at 37. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings and he was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region and his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the very court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture, growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however, it is unclear how easily he read Latin. His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1,1494 by his father, Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master and he had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been a great help to his father.
A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity and his fathers workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter, and Luca Signorelli, according to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice despite the tears of his mother. The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, an alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters, the Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches. Raphael is described as a master, that is to say fully trained and his first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino.
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was named in the commission