Elie Saab is a Lebanese fashion designer. His main workshop is with additional workshops in Milan and Paris, he started his business in the specialized in bridal couture. He is the first Arab to be admitted to the fashion industry’s governing body, Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture. Saab appeared as a judge on Project Runway: Middle East in 2016; as of March 2017, his couture collections are available in Paris and Beirut, while his ready-to-wear clothes were in 160 retailers and his own boutiques. Elie Saab is the eldest son of a wood merchant who raised five children in Damour, a southern coastal Beirut suburb. Born to Maronite Catholic parents in Beirut, Saab began sewing as a child. At the age of eight, his attention had turned to fashion. With his sisters serving as models, he would cut patterns out of newspaper and search his mother's closet for materials. In 1981, Saab moved to Paris to study fashion, he dropped out to return to Beirut and open his fashion label. In 1982, when he was 18 years old, he worked with a team of 15 employees.
At first his atelier specialized in bridal couture, making wedding dresses and gowns using expensive fabrics, detailed embroidery, pearls and silk threads. In Beirut his reputation grew from dressing women in his neighborhood, was soon enhanced by high society women sporting his designs. In 1997, Saab was the first non-Italian designer to become a member of the National Chamber of Italian Fashion, in 1997 he showed his first collection outside Lebanon in Rome. In 1998, he started his ready-to-wear line in Milan, as well as an accessories line; that year Elie Saab signed a contract with Beauté Prestige International for fragrance and cosmetics. During the same year, Saab held a fashion show in Monaco, with Princess Stéphanie of Monaco in attendance. In 1999, one of his dresses thickly embroidered with emeralds and diamonds was sold for $2.4 million. Saab became more well known in the United States after he became the first Lebanese designer to dress an Oscar winner, Halle Berry, in 2002. In May 2003, the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture invited him to become a member, he showed his first haute couture collection in Paris in July 2003.
In 2003, he teamed up with Pronovias to create Elie by Elie Saab. The Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture inducted him as a membre correspondent in 2006, his first ready-to-wear collection in Paris was the Spring-Summer 2006 collection. Saab, Tina Knowles, House of Deréon, Giorgio Armani and Herve Leger served as the designers for the outfits of the 2007 The Beyoncé Experience tour. In 2010, Saab dressed 102 celebrities for events overall, up from 40 in 2009; the figure for 2011, up until March, was 88. In 2011, Madame Tussauds unveiled a wax statue of Kate Winslet draped in the Elie Saab dress she wore at 63rd Primetime Emmy Awards. In 2011, Elie Saab launched his first fragrance Le Parfum. In 2012, he worked with the Lebanese American University and London College of Fashion to launch a bachelor’s degree in fashion design; as of 2013, the brand had boutiques located in Beirut, Doha, London, Hong Kong, New York City, Mexico, with 100 retail outlets total. Saab's son, Elie Saab Jr, became brand director in 2013.
Saab appeared as a judge on Project Runway: Middle East in 2016. Between 2015 and 2017, the Elie Saab company opened a second Paris boutique and a new location in London's Mayfair, in Manhattan; the Manhattan store that opened in October 2016 was his first in the country. As of March 2017, his couture collections are available in Paris and Beirut, while his ready-to-wear clothes were in 160 retailers and his own boutiques; that month, the Elie Saab company opened a new Madison Avenue store. The Lebanese fashion designer and the real estate development company Emaar reveal luxurious Elie Saab at Emaar Beachfront property in Dubai; the luxurious gated island property, Grand Bleu Tower at Emaar Beachfront, will include one,two and three-bedroom apartments as well as four-bedroom penthouses with interiors by Elie Saab. The residential tower boasts views of The Palm and Dubai Marina, he has been worn by Queen Rania of Jordan, Crown Princess of Sweden, Princess Madeleine of Sweden, Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Stéphanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.
In 1999, Queen Rania of Jordan wore Elie Saab for her enthronement. Countess Stéphanie and the Hereditary Grand Duke married in a civil ceremony married in 2012, where the bride wore a dress designed by Elie Saab. Princess Claire of Luxembourg wore an Saab-designed dress on her wedding. First Lady of France Brigitte Macron wore an Elie Saab outfit of military coat and skinny trousers during a state visit to China. Halle Berry wore a burgundy gown by Saab to the 2002 Academy Awards. In a poll by Debenhams published in The Daily Telegraph the dress was voted the 8th greatest red carpet gown of all time. Cosmopolitan magazine cited the dress as one of the Best Oscar dresses of all time. Berry wore another dress by Saab to the 2003 Oscars. Sandra Bullock wore Elie Saab at the 85th Academy Awards in 2013 and at the world premiere of the movie Ocean's 8 in New York. In 2018, Rose Leslie wore a floral embroidered Elie Saab wedding dress when she wed her Game of Thrones co-star Kit Harington. Other notable clients of Saab's work have included Nicole Kidman, Eva Green, Yulia Alipova, Nicki Minaj, Beyoncé, Aishwarya Rai, Anna Kendrick, Christina Aguilera, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Angelina Jolie, Celine Dion, Elena Anaya, Elsa Zylberstein, Heidi Klum, Karlie Kloss, Helen Mirren, Emilia Clarke, Priyanka Cho
Théâtre National Populaire
The Théâtre national populaire is a theatre now at Villeurbanne, France. It was founded in 1920 by Firmin Gémier in Paris. Today, the TNP has a company of ten resident actors and the building is being renovated; the Théâtre National Populaire was founded in 1920 in Paris at the Palais de Chaillot by Firmin Gémier. During World War II, activity was suspended and the building was occupied by the United Nations. In 1951, Jean Vilar was appointed head of the new theater by Jeanne Laurent; the theater reopened at Suresnes pending the return to the Palais de Chaillot. Vilar thought of the theater as a public service, gave it a new image. Under his leadership the theater offered performances shown at prices and times to suit the general public; the TNP attracted a group of young actors including Gérard Philipe. Productions from this time include Der Prinz von Homburg by Heinrich von Kleist. Vilar hired the young composer Maurice Jarre as music director. Jarre scored 36 plays including the famous Lorenzaccio.
In 1963, Georges Wilson created a second room devoted to contemporary writers. In 1972 the French Minister of Cultural Affairs decided to move the TNP to Villeurbanne, near Lyon. To the Théâtre de la Cité, founded by Roger Planchon in 1957. Patrice Chéreau, Robert Gilbert and Roger Planchon took over leadership of the organization. In 1986, Georges Lavaudant replaced Patrice Chéreau and shared the leadership with Roger Planchon until 1996. In 2002, the current director, Christian Schiaretti left the Comedy of Reims to lead the TNP. Morvan Lebesque Le Théâtre National Populaire in Le Point LII Mars 1957, Mulhouse Théâtre National Populaire official website
Jardins du Trocadéro
Jardins du Trocadéro is an open space in Paris, located in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, bounded to the northwest by the wings of the Palais de Chaillot and to the southeast by the Seine and the Pont d'Iéna, with the Eiffel Tower on the opposite bank of the Seine. The main feature, called the Fountain of Warsaw, is a long basin, or water mirror, with twelve fountain creating columns of water 12 metres high. At one end, facing the Seine, are twenty powerful water cannons, able to project a jet of water fifty metres. Above the long basin are two smaller basins, linked with the lower basin by cascades flanked by 32 sprays of water four meters high; these fountains are the only exposition fountains which still exist today, still function as they once did. In 2011, the fountain's waterworks were renovated and a modern pumping system was installed; the entire site was the garden of the original Palais du Trocadero, laid out by Jean-Charles Alphand for the Exposition Universelle. The present garden has an area of 93,930 m2, was created for the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne.
This was the design of Parisian architect Roger-Henri Expert. During the exposition in 1937, the pavillons of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were facing each other on opposite sides of the Jardins du Trocadéro. With sloping fairways that run along the river, the garden terraces feature a number of sculptures, some dating from the 1930s, including: at the first level below the Palais de Chaillot, the matching stone statues L'Homme by Pierre Traverse, La Femme by Daniel Bacqué, both leaning against stone pedestals two gilded bronze fountain sculptures in their own square basins and Deer by Paul Jouve and Horses and Dog by Georges Guyot 21-foot bronze Apollo with lyre group by sculptor Henri Bouchard a matching 21-foot bronze Hercules with bull, by Albert Pommier two matching stone groups on pedestals towards the southeastern end of the fountain, La Joie de vivre, by Léon-Ernest Drivier and Youth by Pierre Poisson Located near the metro station Trocadéro, at 48°51′39″N 2°17′24″E; this article sourced from French Wikipedia, sourced 9/11/2010
Antoine Vitez was a French actor and poet. He became a central character and influence on the French theater in the post-war period in the technique of teaching drama, he was translator of Chekhov, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Mikhail Sholokhov. Antoine Vitez was born in Paris and trained to be an actor, finding his first acting job at the age of 19 in Ils attendent Lefty at the Théâtre Maubel, he left the National Conservatory of Dramatic Art in Paris in 1950 without graduating and became a Communist activist, which he continued until 1979, when he left the Communist Party following the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR. He met Louis Aragon in 1958 and became his private secretary from 1960 to 1962, he worked in the theater Balachova Tania, wrote reviews published by Jean Vilar in the magazine Théâtre populaire. Vitez found work reading on the radio and voice-dubbing in films, he had his first opportunity as director with Sophocles' Electra at the Maison de la Culture de Caen in 1966. Vitez' production of Electra was successful and he continued directing with Russian and Greek repertoire, directing Mayakovsky's Les Bains in 1967, Eugene Schwartz's Le Dragon in 1968, Chekhov's La Mouette in 1970.
After this initial period, he began working more with French and German repertoire, directing works by Racine, Jakob Lenz, Goethe and René Kalisky. He expanded his work to both traditional and classical theatrical repertoire, including Sophocles, Molière, Paul Claudel, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Pierre Guyotat, Jean Metellus and Jean Audureau. Vitez became a professor at the National Conservatory of Dramatic Arts in 1968, in 1972 he founded the Théâtre des Quartiers d'Ivry. In the same year, he founded the Ateliers d'Ivry workshop, where amateurs and professionals could share a common theatrical practice, he became director at the Chaillot National Theatre in 1981, was appointed deputy head of the Comédie-French in June 1988, a post he held until his sudden death in Paris in 1990. In 1978, Vitez' workshop sessions were recorded by film-maker Maria Koleva, who made five films on different workshop sessions. Vitez presented his plays in locations with non-theatrical elements and without any descriptive function, employing an aesthetic of "free play" and "association of ideas," according to Georges Banu.
Vitez' work required thought on the part of the audience, more than the reality of a set. He saw the theater as a "force field" and demanded an "elitist theater for all." He defended the great classical texts as "sunken galleons," works that were remote and mythological. Théâtre Antoine Vitez on the campus of the University of Provence, now Aix-Marseille University is named for him. Théâtre d'Ivry Antoine Vitez in Ivry-sur-Seine, is named for him
The Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is built the tower. Constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world; the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris, its base is square. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to lift to the first and second levels; the climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is accessible only by lift; the design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".
Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, the two engineers asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments; the new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin and Sauvestre had taken out, the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars..
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887; this was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years, he established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds; these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, painters, sculptors and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Contemporary dance is a genre of dance performance that developed during the mid twentieth century and has since grown to become one of the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the world, with strong popularity in the U. S. and Europe. Although informed by and borrowing from classical and jazz styles, it has since come to incorporate elements from many styles of dance. Due to its technical similarities, it is perceived to be related to modern dance and other classical concert dance styles. In terms of the focus of its technique, contemporary dance tends to combine the strong but controlled legwork of ballet with modern that stresses on torso, it employs contract-release, floor work and recovery, improvisation characteristics of modern dance. Unpredictable changes in rhythm and direction are used, as well. Additionally, contemporary dance sometimes incorporates elements of non-western dance cultures, such as elements from African dance including bent knees, or movements from the Japanese contemporary dance, Butoh.
Contemporary dance draws on both classical ballet and modern dance, whereas postmodern dance was a direct and opposite response to modern dance. Merce Cunningham is considered to be the first choreographer to "develop an independent attitude towards modern dance" and defy the ideas that were established by it. In 1944 Cunningham accompanied his dance with music by John Cage, who observed that Cunningham's dance "no longer relies on linear elements nor does it rely on a movement towards and away from climax; as in abstract painting, it is assumed that an element is of itself expressive. Cunningham formed the Merce Cunningham Dance Company in 1953 and went on to create more than one hundred and fifty works for the company, many of which have been performed internationally by ballet and modern dance companies. Cunningham's key ideas include: Contemporary dance does refuse the classical ballet's leg technique in favor of modern dance's stress on the torso Contemporary dance is not narrative form of art Choreography that appears disordered, but relies on technique Unpredictable changes in rhythm and direction Multiple and simultaneous actions Suspension of perspective and symmetry in ballet scenic frame perspective such as front and hierarchies Creative freedom "Independence between dance and music" Dance to be danced, not analyzed Innovative lighting and costumes in collaboration with Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns Other pioneers of contemporary dance include Ruth St. Denis, Doris Humphrey, Mary Wigman, Francois Delsarte, Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, Paul Taylor, Rudolph von Laban, Loie Fuller, Jose Limon and Marie Rambert.
There is a choreographer who makes the creative decisions and decides whether the piece is an abstract or a narrative one. Dancers are selected based on their training; the choreography is determined based on its relation to the music or sounds, danced to. The role of music in contemporary dance is different from in other genres because it can serve as a backdrop to the piece; the choreographer has control over the costumes and their aesthetic value for the overall composition of the performance and in regards to how they influence dancers’ movements. Dance techniques and movement philosophies employed in contemporary dance may include Contemporary ballet, Dance improvisation, Modern dance styles from United States such as Graham technique, Humphrey-Weidman technique and Horton technique, Modern dance of Europe Bartenieff Fundamentals and the dance technique of Isadora Duncan. Contemporary dancers train using contemporary dance techniques as well as non-dance related practices such as Pilates, the acting practice of Corporeal mime - Étienne Decroux technique and somatic practices such as Alexander technique, Feldenkrais Method, Sullivan Technique and Franklin-Methode, American contemporary techniques such as José Limón technique and Hawkins technique and Postmodern dance techniques such as Contact improvisation and Cunningham technique, Release technique.
Some well-known choreographers and creators of contemporary dance created schools and techniques of their own. Paul Taylor developed a dance technique called Taylor technique, now taught at modern dance schools like The Ailey School in New York City. Modern dance Contemporary ballet London Contemporary Dance School Category: Contemporary dancers Contemporary-dance.org website