Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Pan-Celticism known as Celticism or Celtic nationalism is a political and cultural movement advocating solidarity and cooperation between Celtic nations and the modern Celts in North-Western Europe. Some pan-Celtic organisations advocate the Celtic nations seceding from the United Kingdom and France and forming their own separate federal state together, while others advocate close cooperation between independent sovereign Celtic nations, in the form of Irish nationalism, Scottish nationalism, Welsh nationalism, Breton nationalism, Cornish nationalism and Manx nationalism; as with other pan-nationalist movements such as pan-Slavism, pan-Germanism, pan-Turanianism, pan-Latinism and others, the pan-Celtic movement grew out of Romantic nationalism and specific to itself, the Celtic Revival. The pan-Celtic movement was most prominent during the 20th centuries; some early pan-Celtic contacts took place through the Gorsedd and the Eisteddfod, while the annual Celtic Congress was initiated in 1900.
Since that time the Celtic League has become the prominent face of political pan-Celticism. Initiatives focused on cultural Celtic cooperation, rather than explicitly politics, such as music and literature festivals, are referred to instead as inter-Celtic. There is some controversy surrounding the term Celts. One such example was the Celtic League's Galician crisis; this was a debate over. The application was rejected on the basis of a lack of a presence of a celtic language; some Austrians claim that they have a Celtic heritage that became Romanized under Roman rule and Germanized after Germanic invasions. Austria is the location of the first characteristically Celtic culture to exist. After the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in 1938, in October 1940 a writer from the Irish Press interviewed Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger who spoke of Celtic heritage of Austrians, saying "I believe there is a deeper connection between us Austrians and the Celts. Names of places in the Austrian Alps are said to be of Celtic origin."
Contemporary Austrians express pride in having Celtic heritage and Austria possesses one of the largest collections of Celtic artefacts in EuropeOrganisations such as the Celtic Congress and the Celtic League use the definition that a'Celtic nation' is a nation with recent history of a traditional Celtic language. Before the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity, people lived in Iron Age Britain and Ireland, speaking languages from which the modern Gaelic languages and Brythonic languages descend; these people, along with others in Continental Europe who once spoke now extinct languages from the same Indo-European branch, have been retroactively referred to in a collective sense as the Celts in a wide spread manner since the turn of the 18th century. Variations of the term "Celt", such as Keltoi had been used in antiquity by the Greeks and the Romans to refer to some groups of these people, such as Herodotus' use of it in regards to the Gauls; the modern usage of "Celt" in reference to these cultures grew up gradually.
A pioneer in the field was George Buchanan, a 16th-century Scottish scholar, Renaissance humanist and tutor to king James IV of Scotland. From a Scottish Gaelic-speaking family, Buchanan in his Rerum Scoticarum Historia, went over the writings of Tacitus who had discussed the similarity between the language of the Gauls and the ancient Britons. Buchanan concluded, if the Gauls were Celtae, as they were described as in Roman sources the Britons were Celtae too, he began to see a pattern in place names and concluded that the Britons and Irish Gaels once spoke one Celtic language which diverged. It wouldn't be until over a century when these ideas were popularised. By the time the modern concept of the Celts as a people had emerged, their fortunes had declined taken over by Germanic people. Firstly, the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain were swamped by a tide of Anglo-Saxon settlement from the 5th century on and lost most of their territory to them, they were subsequently referred to the Cornish people.
A group of these fled Britain altogether and settled in Continental Europe in Armorica, becoming the Breton people. The Gaels for a while expanded, pushing out of Ireland to conquer Pictland in Britain, establishing Alba by the 9th century. From the 11th century onward, the arrival of another Germanic group, the Normans, caused problems not only for the English but for the Celts; the Normans invaded the Welsh kingdoms, the Irish kingdoms and took control of the Scottish monarchy through intermarrying. This Germanic advance was done in conjunction with the Catholic Church's Gregorian Reform, centralising the religion in Europe; the dawning of early modern Europe effected the Celtic peoples in ways which saw what small amount of independence they had left subordinated to the emerging British Empire and in the case of the Duchy of Brittany, the Kingdom of France. Although both the Kings of England and the Kings of Scotland of the day claimed Celtic ancestry and used this in Arthurian cultural mot
A chanson is in general any lyric-driven French song polyphonic and secular. A singer specializing in chansons is known as a "chanteur" or "chanteuse"; the earliest chansons were the epic poems performed to simple monophonic melodies by a professional class of jongleurs or ménestrels. These recounted the famous deeds of past heroes and semi-historical; the Song of Roland is the most famous of these, but in general the chansons de geste are studied as literature since little of their music survives. The chanson courtoise or grand chant was an early form of monophonic chanson, the chief lyric poetic genre of the trouvères, it was an adaptation to Old French of the Occitan canso. It was practised in the 13th centuries. Thematically, as its name implies, it was a song of courtly love, written by a man to his noble lover; some chansons were polyphonic and some had refrains and were called chansons avec des refrains. In its typical specialized usage, the word chanson refers to a polyphonic French song of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Early chansons tended to be in one of the formes fixes—ballade, rondeau or virelai —though some composers set popular poetry in a variety of forms. The earliest chansons were for two, three or four voices, with first three becoming the norm, expanding to four voices by the 16th century. Sometimes, the singers were accompanied by instruments; the first important composer of chansons was Guillaume de Machaut, who composed three-voice works in the formes fixes during the 14th century. Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois, who wrote so-called Burgundian chansons, were the most important chanson composers of the next generation, their chansons, while somewhat simple in style, are generally in three voices with a structural tenor. Musicologist David Fallows includes the Burgundian repertoire in A Catalogue of Polyphonic Songs 1415–1480; these works are still 3 voices, with an active upper voice pitched above two lower voices sharing the same range. 15th- and early 16th-century figures in the genre included Johannes Ockeghem and Josquin des Prez, whose works cease to be constrained by formes fixes and begin to feature a pervading imitation, similar to that found in contemporary motets and liturgical music.
The first book of music printed from movable type was Harmonice Musices Odhecaton, a collection of ninety-six chansons by many composers, published in Venice in 1501 by Ottaviano Petrucci. Beginning in the late 1520s through mid-century, Claudin de Sermisy, Pierre Certon, Clément Janequin, Philippe Verdelot were composers of so-called Parisian chansons, which abandoned the formes fixes featured four voices, were in a simpler, more homophonic style; this genre sometimes featured music, meant to be evocative of certain imagery such as birds or the marketplace. Many of these Parisian works were published by Pierre Attaingnant. Composers of their generation, as well as composers, such as Orlando de Lassus, were influenced by the Italian madrigal. In the 20th century, French composers revived the genre. Claude Debussy composed Trois Chansons for choir a capella, completed in 1908. Maurice Ravel wrote Trois Chansons for choir a cappella after the outbreak of World War I as a return to French tradition, published in 1916.
French solo song developed in the late 16th century from the aforementioned Parisian works. During the 17th century, the air de cour, chanson pour boire and other like genres accompanied by lute or keyboard, with contributions by such composers as Antoine Boesset, Denis Gaultier, Michel Lambert and Michel-Richard de Lalande. During the 18th century, vocal music in France was dominated by opera, but solo song underwent a renaissance in the 19th century, first with salon melodies and by mid-century with sophisticated works influenced by the German Lieder, introduced into the country. Louis Niedermeyer, under the particular spell of Schubert, was a pivotal figure in this movement, followed by Édouard Lalo, Felicien David and many others. Another offshoot of chanson, called chanson réaliste, was a popular musical genre in France from the 1880s until the end of World War II. Born of the cafés-concerts and cabarets of the Montmartre district of Paris and influenced by literary realism and the naturalist movements in literature and theatre, chanson réaliste was a musical style, performed by women and dealt with the lives of Paris's poor and working class.
Among the better-known performers of the genre are Damia, Fréhel, Édith Piaf. 19th-century composers of French art songs, known as mélodie and not chanson, included Ernest Chausson, Emmanuel Chabrier, Gabriel Fauré, Claude Debussy, while many 20th-century and current French composers have continued this strong tradition. In France today "chanson" or "chanson française" refers to the music of singers such as Charles Trenet, Guy Béart, Jacques Brel, Jean Ferrat, Georges Brassens, Édith Piaf, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, Dalida, Serge Reggiani, William Sheller, Renaud, Léo Ferré, Mireille Mathieu and Serge Gainsbourg and more Juliette, Mano Solo, Dominique A, Matthieu Chedid, Benjamin Biolay, Jean-Louis Murat, Mathieu Boogaerts, Daniel Darc, Vincent Delerm, Zaz, Bénabar, Renan Luce, Olivia Ruiz. Chanson can be distinguished from the
Félix Mayol was a French singer and entertainer. Mayol was born in France, his parents were both amateur singers and actors, who arranged for Felix to make his debut stage at six years of age. In 1895 he went to Paris and the Montparnasse Quarter where he began a career in entertainment that spanned more than forty years, he adopted a effeminate manner on stage as part of his theatrical persona. He sang the famous song "Viens poupoule, viens poupoule, viens...", performed many songs by Théodore Botrel. In the early years of the 20th century some of Mayol's performances were captured by an early form of talking picture, he would record his voice the motion picture camera would film him as he lip-synced to the record. Several of his Phonoscènes exist; the teenage Maurice Chevalier took a risk by impersonating Mayol in small-time cafe entertainments, Mayol recognised the young man's talent and gave him his blessing. It led Chevalier to the Folies Bergère. Shortly after World War I, he purchased a plot of land in Toulon and donated it to the local sports club, RC Toulonnais, for the building of a stadium.
The facility, named Stade Mayol in his honor, remains in use today as the home ground for the Toulon rugby team. Mayol never married, many stories circulated of his homosexual liaisons, including an attempt to seduce Maurice Chevalier, his brother Charles Mayol founded a music publishing company to print his works. To the Polls, Citizens La dame de chez Maxim's Félix Mayol on IMDb
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Soldat Louis are a French rock group from Lorient, who mix the traditional music of Brittany with typical rock music instruments - electric and acoustic guitar, drum kit, etc. - as well as the traditional bagpipes and bombard. The two founding members, who are still playing in the group today, are Renaud Detressan and Serge Danet. Soldat Louis's first album, Première bordée appeared in 1988; the band played as support to the solo singer-songwriter Renaud, in his series of concerts at the Zénith in Paris the following year. The first single from that album, “Du rhum des femmes”, projected them to national exposure, with the single selling 750,000 copies, the album went double gold. During the "golden age" of the French Top 50, chansons de comptoir were à la mode and Soldat Louis found themselves associated with this musical style, their second album was released two years after their first: "Pavillon Noir", did not achieve the same success, nor did any of the albums that followed. Despite disappearing from the mainstream media, Soldat Louis continued, having changed their line-up, to tour concert halls around France releasing several more original albums, best-ofs and live albums.
Although the chanson "Du Rhum des femmes" saw the group labelled by the French public as composers of chansons à boire, the rest of their repertoire, which achieved less success, consists of more delicate songs, humorous, or weary. Other lyrics reveal the group to be politically engaged, such as the pamphlet-like “C'est un pays”, celebrating the Breton identity, as well as "Bobby Sands", about the Provisional Irish Republican Army member Bobby Sands, who died in prison on Hunger Strike. Anthony Masselin Christophe Sonnic Gary Wicknam Hervé Le Guillou Jean-Paul Barrière Michel Banuls Soldat Louis 1988: Première Bordée (Déclic - Sony Music} 1990: Pavillon Noir 1993: Auprès de ma Bande 1995: Le Meilleur de Soldat Louis: C'est un pays 1997: En Vrai 1999: Bienvenue à Bord 2002: En vrai 2 vrai 2003: Escale sur la Planète 2006: Sales Gosses 2007: Itinéraire 2009: Happy... Bordée 20 ans 2011: V. I. P.: Very Intimes Poteaux 2013: Kingdom Tavern Official site