Cameroon national football team
The Cameroon national football team, nicknamed in French Les Lions Indomptables, is the national team of Cameroon. It is controlled by the Fédération Camerounaise de Football and has qualified seven times for the FIFA World Cup, more than any other African team. However, the team has only made it once out of the group stage, they were the first African team to reach the quarter-final of the World Cup, in 1990, losing to England in extra time. They have won five Africa Cup of Nations titles.and Olympic gold in 2000 Cameroon played its first match against Belgian Congo in 1956, losing 3–2. They first were knocked out in the first round. Two years as host nation, the Indomitable Lions finished third after being knocked out by their neighbours and future champions Congo in the 1972 Africa Cup of Nations, they would not qualify for the competition for another ten years. Cameroon qualified for its first FIFA World Cup in 1982. With the increase of 16 to 24 teams Cameroon qualified along with Algeria to represent Africa in Spain.
Cameroon was drawn into Group 1 with eventual winners Italy and Peru. In their first game, Cameroon faced Peru and drew 0–0, they had a second goalless draw with Poland before a surprise 1–1 draw with Italy. Despite being unbeaten they failed to qualify for the second round. Two years Cameroon qualified for the 1984 Africa Cup of Nations, held in Ivory Coast, they finished second in their first-round group before beating Algeria on penalties in the semi-final. In the final, Cameroon beat Nigeria 3–1 with goals from René N'Djeya, Théophile Abega and Ernest Ebongué to become champions of Africa for the first time. Cameroon qualified for the 1990 World Cup by surpassing Nigeria and beating Tunisia in the final round playoff. In the final tournament, Cameroon were drawn into Group B with Argentina and the Soviet Union. Cameroon defeated defending champions Argentina in the opening game 1–0 with a goal scored by François Omam-Biyik. Cameroon defeated Romania 2–1 and lost to the Soviet Union 0–4, becoming the first side to top a World Cup Finals group with a negative goal difference.
In the second round, Cameroon defeated Colombia 2–1 with the 38-year-old Roger Milla scoring two goals in the extra time. In the quarter-finals, Cameroon faced England. After 25 minutes, England's David Platt scored for England, while in the second-half, Cameroon came back with a 61st-minute penalty from Emmanuel Kundé and took the lead with Eugène Ekéké on 65 minutes. England, equalized in the 83rd minute with a penalty from Gary Lineker, while Lineker again found the net via a 105th-minute penalty to make the eventual scoreline 3–2 for England; the team was coached by former player Valeri Nepomniachi. The 1994 World Cup in the United States saw the adjustment of representation for three African teams qualify. Cameroon qualified with Morocco. In the final tournament, Cameroon were drawn into Group B with Sweden and Russia. After a 2–2 draw against Sweden, Cameroon were determined to make an impact. However, a 3–0 loss to Brazil and a heavy 6–1 loss to Russia knocked them out. In their last game against Russia, the 42-year-old Roger Milla became the oldest player to play and score in a World Cup finals match.
The team was coached by French-born Henri Michel. The 1998 World Cup in France saw the increase of 24 to 32 teams. Cameroon qualified alongside four other African countries. After qualifying as expected, Cameroon were drawn into Group B with Italy and Austria. Despite drawing with Chile and Austria, a 3–0 defeat to Italy saw Cameroon finish bottom of the group, they were eliminated as a result, it was an unfortunate elimination, since Cameroon had led Austria 1–0 until the 90th minute, had two goals dubiously ruled out in a 1–1 draw with Chile. Cameroon had three players sent off in the course of the tournament, more than any other team, despite only playing three games out of a possible seven, they had the highest card count per game of any team, collecting an average of four bookings in each match they played. It was during this tournament that a certain Samuel Eto'o was exposed to Cameroonians, he was the youngest player of the tournament alongside Michael Owen of England. The team was coached by French-born Claude Le Roy.
Cameroon qualified for the 2002 World Cup in Korea-Japan, clinching first place in their group which included Angola and Togo. Cameroon were drawn into Group E alongside the Republic of Ireland and Saudi Arabia. Cameroon started with a 1–1 draw with Ireland after giving up the lead and defeated Saudi Arabia 1–0. In their last game, Cameroon were defeated 2–0 by Germany and were narrowly eliminated by the Irish, who had not lost a game. In the 72nd minute of the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup semi-final between Cameroon and Colombia, midfielder Marc-Vivien Foé collapsed. In the final against France, Cameroon wore shirts embroidered with Foé's name and dates of birth and death. In the 2006 World Cup qualifying round, Cameroon were drawn into Group 3 with the Ivory Coast, Libya and Benin. Cameroon led the group for most of the time until their final game, when Pierre Womé failed to convert a late penalty. On 8 October 2005, Cameroon drew with Egypt 1–1 while the Ivory Coast defeated Sudan 3–1, results which prevented Cameroon from qualifying to the World Cup.
In Cameroon's 2010 World Cup qualifying campaign, the team was grouped with Gabon and Morocco. After a slow start in their campaign with a loss to Togo, the coach of Cameroon, Otto Pfister, resigned. Frenchman Paul Le Guen was appointed as the new coach after a draw
Thomas'Tommy' Nkono is a Cameroonian retired footballer. Arguably the greatest goalkeeper Africa produced, he was associated with Espanyol, whom he represented for a decade appearing in more than 300 official matches. Nkono appeared for the Cameroon national team in three World Cups, four Africa Cup of Nations tournaments. Nkono was born in Dizangue. After playing in his country with Canon Yaoundé and Tonnerre Yaoundé he moved to Spain with RCD Español in 1982, after solid performances in the FIFA World Cup played in that country. Nkono hardly missed a game while with the Catalans, going on to amass more than 300 competitive appearances. In the 1988–89 season, however, he was not able to help prevent the club's La Liga relegation, was replaced by Vicente Biurrun. Nkono would play three more years in Spain, incidentally in Catalonia, with CE Sabadell FC and CE L'Hospitalet, he retired in his 40's with Club Bolívar from Bolivia, subsequently returned to his main club as a goalkeeping coach, helping develop young talent and countryman Carlos Kameni.
Nkono placed second in IFFHS' "African Goalkeeper of the Century" Elections, behind Joseph-Antoine Bell. A Cameroonian international for two decades, Nkono played in three World Cups: 1982, 1990 and 1994. In the first two he was the undisputed starter, as the nation went out in the group stage without losing a match and valliantly exited in the quarter-final against England, respectively. Nkono, the national side's goalkeepers coach worked as interim manager after German Otto Pfister resigned in protest; the following month, as Paul Le Guen took the reins of the team, he was reset in his old post. In 2002, Nkono was arrested by riot police for using "black magic", prior to the African Cup of Nations semi-final against Mali, he was dragged onto the running track after stepping onto the pitch at the 26 March Stadium alongside coach Winfried Schäfer, received a one-year ban, lifted, although he was not allowed to sit on the bench for the final. There was speculation that an object found in his pocket was a black-magic charm aimed at helping Cameroon's cause.
Nkono was a tall, strong and athletic goalkeeper, known in particular for his speed, agility and ability to produce spectacular and acrobatic saves. One of his most notable characteristics was his ability to come out and punch the ball away with power when crosses were delivered into the area. A commanding presence in goal, Nkono stood out for his composure and leadership throughout his career. In addition to his goalkeeping abilities, he was known for wearing long trackpants instead of shorts. Buffon declared he decided to play in the goalkeeping position after seeing Nkono's performances at the 1990 World Cup. In addition, he named his first son Louis Thomas in the Cameroonian's honour. Canon Yaoundé Elite One: 1974, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1982 CAF Champions League: 1978, 1980Espanyol UEFA Cup: Runner-up 1987–88Bolívar Liga de Fútbol Profesional Boliviano: 1996, 1997 CameroonAfrica Cup of Nations: 1984.
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Africa Cup of Nations
The CAF Africa Cup of Nations CAN referred to as AFCON, or Total Africa Cup of Nations for sponsorship reasons, is the main international association football competition in Africa. It is sanctioned by the Confederation of African Football and was first held in 1957. Since 1968, it has been held every two years; the title holders at the time of a FIFA Confederations Cup qualify for that competition. In 1957 there were only three participating nations: Egypt and Ethiopia. South Africa was scheduled to compete, but were disqualified due to the apartheid policies of the government in power. Since the tournament has grown making it necessary to hold a qualifying tournament; the number of participants in the final tournament reached 16 in 1998, until 2017, the format had been unchanged, with the sixteen teams being drawn into four groups of four teams each, with the top two teams of each group advancing to a "knock-out" stage. On 20 July 2017, the Africa Cup of Nations was moved from January to June and expanded from 16 to 24 teams.
Egypt is the most successful nation in the cup's history, winning the tournament a record of seven times. Three different trophies have been awarded during the tournament's history, with Ghana and Cameroon winning the first two versions to keep after each of them won a tournament three times; the current trophy was first awarded in 2002 and with Egypt winning it indefinitely after winning their unprecedented third consecutive title in 2010. As of 2013, the tournament was switched to being held in odd-numbered years so as not to clash with the FIFA World Cup; the origin of the African Nations Cup dates from June 1956, when the creation of the Confederation of African Football was proposed during the third FIFA congress in Lisbon. There were immediate plans for a continental tournament to be held and, in February 1957, the first African Cup of Nations was held in Khartoum, Sudan. There was no qualification for this tournament, the field being made up of the four founding nations of CAF. South Africa's insistence on selecting only white players for their squad due to its apartheid policy led to its disqualification, as a consequence Ethiopia were handed a bye straight to the final.
Hence, only two matches were played, with Egypt being crowned as the first continental champion after defeating hosts Sudan in the semi-final and Ethiopia in the final. Two years Egypt hosted the second ANC in Cairo with the participation of the same three teams. Host and defending champions Egypt again won, after defeating Sudan; the field grew to include nine teams for the third ANC in 1962 in Addis Ababa, for the first time there was a qualification round to determine which four teams would play for the title. Host Ethiopia and reigning champion Egypt received automatic berths, were joined in the final four by Nigeria and Tunisia. Egypt made its third consecutive final appearance, but it was Ethiopia that emerged as victors, after first beating Tunisia and downing Egypt in extra time. In 1963, Ghana made its first appearance as it hosted the event, won the title after beating Sudan in the final, they repeated that as they became champions two years in Tunisia—equalling Egypt as two-time winners—with a squad that included only two returning members from the 1963 team.
In 1965, the CAF introduced a rule. The rule persisted to 1982; the 1968 competition's final tournament format expanded to include eight of the 22 teams entered in the preliminary rounds. The qualifying teams were distributed in two groups of four to play single round-robin tournaments, with the top two teams of each group advancing to semi-finals, a system that remained in use for the finals until 1992; the Democratic Republic of Congo won its first title. Starting with the 1968 tournament, the competition has been held every two years in numbered years. Ivory Coast forward Laurent Pokou led the 1968 and 1970 tournaments in scoring, with six and eight goals and his total of 14 goals remained the all-time record until 2008. Play was covered for television for the first time during the 1970 tournament in Sudan, as the hosts lifted the trophy after defeating Ghana—who were playing their fourth consecutive final. Six different nations won titles from 1970 to 1980: Sudan, Congo-Brazzaville, Morocco and Nigeria.
Zaire's second title in the 1974 edition came after facing Zambia in the final. For the only time to date in the history of the competition, the match had to be replayed as the first contest between the two sides ended in a 2–2 draw after extra time; the final was re-staged two days with Zaire winning 2–0. Forward Mulamba Ndaye scored all four of Zaire's goals in these two matches: he was the top scorer of the tournament with nine goals, setting a single-tournament record that remains unmatched. Three months earlier, Zaire had become the first Sub-Saharan African nation to qualify to the FIFA World Cup. Morocco won their first title in the 1976 ANC held in Ethiopia and Ghana took its third championship in 1978, becoming the first nation to win three titles. Between 1980 and 1990, Cameroon managed to reach the final of the African Cup three times in a row, winning the competition twice in 1984 and 1988 and losing once on penalties against Egypt in the 1986 edition, the other dominant team during this period was Algeria, along with th
1982 FIFA World Cup
The 1982 FIFA World Cup was the 12th FIFA World Cup, played in Spain between 13 June and 11 July 1982. The tournament was won by Italy, who defeated West Germany 3–1 in the final match, held in the Spanish capital of Madrid, it was Italy's third World Cup win, but their first since 1938. The defending champions, were eliminated in the second group round. Algeria, Honduras and New Zealand made their first appearances in the finals; the tournament featured the first penalty shoot-out in World Cup competition. This was the last World Cup to feature two round of group stages, it was the third time that all four semifinalists were European. In the first round of Group 3, Hungary defeated El Salvador 10–1, equalling the largest margin of victory recorded in the finals. Spain was chosen as the host nation by FIFA in London, England on 6 July 1966. Hosting rights for the 1974 and 1978 tournaments were awarded at the same time. West Germany agreed a deal with Spain by which Spain would support West Germany for the 1974 tournament, in return West Germany would allow Spain to bid for the 1982 World Cup unopposed.
For the first time, the World Cup finals expanded from 16 to 24 teams. This allowed more teams to participate from Africa and Asia. Teams absent from the finals were 1974 and 1978 runners-up Netherlands and the three times 1970s participants Sweden. Northern Ireland qualified for the first time since 1958. Belgium, Czechoslovakia, El Salvador and the Soviet Union were back in the Finals after a 12-year absence. England had its first successful World Cup qualifying campaign in 20 years – the English team had qualified automatically as hosts in 1966 and as defending champions in 1970 had missed the 1974 and 1978 tournaments. Yugoslavia and Chile were back after having missed the 1978 tournament. Algeria, Honduras and New Zealand all participated in the World Cup for the first time; as of 2018, this was the last time that El Salvador and Kuwait qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time that Mexico and South Korea failed to qualify. There was some consideration given as to whether England, Northern Ireland, Scotland should withdraw from the tournament because of the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
A directive issued by the British sports minister Neil Macfarlane in April, at the start of the conflict, suggested that there should be no contact between British representative teams and Argentina. This directive was not rescinded following the end of hostilities. Macfarlane reported to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher that some players and officials were uneasy about participating because of the casualties suffered by British forces. FIFA advised the British Government that there was no prospect that Argentina would be asked to withdraw, it became apparent that no other countries would withdraw from the tournament. It was decided to allow the British national teams to participate so that Argentina could not use their absence for propaganda purposes, reversing the intended effect of applying political pressure onto Argentina; the following 24 teams qualified for the final tournament. The first round was a round-robin group stage containing six groups of four teams each. Two points were awarded for a win and one for a draw, with goal difference used to separate teams equal on points.
The top two teams in each group advanced. In the second round, the twelve remaining teams were split into four groups of three teams each, with the winner of each group progressing to the knockout semi-final stage; the composition of the groups in the second round was predetermined before the start of the tournament. In the aggregate, Groups A and B were to include one team from each of Groups 1 through 6, Groups C and D included the remaining six teams; the winners of Groups 1 and 3 were in Group A whilst the runners-up were in Group C. The winners of Groups 2 and 4 were in Group B whilst the runners-up were in Group D; the winner of Group 5 was in Group D whilst the runner-up was in Group B. The winner of Group 6 was in Group C whilst the runner-up was in Group A. Thus, Group A mirrored Group C, Group B mirrored Group D with the winners and runners-up from the first round being placed into opposite groups in the second round; the second-round groups that mirrored each other faced off against each other in the semifinals.
Thus, the Group A winner played the Group C winner, the Group B winner player the Group D winner. This meant that if two teams which played in the same first-round group both emerged from the second round, they would meet for the second time of the tournament in a semifinal match, it guaranteed that the final match would feature two teams that had not played each other in the tournament. As it turned out and Poland who were both in Group 1 in the first round, each won their second-round groups and played each other in a semifinal match. In Group 1, newcomers Cameroon held both Poland and Italy to draws, were denied a place in the next round on the basis of having scored fewer goals than Italy. Poland and Italy qualified over Peru. Italian journalists and tifosi criticised their team for their uninspired performances that managed three draws. Group 2 saw one of the great World Cup upsets on the first day with the 2–1 victory of Algeria over reig
Football at the 1984 Summer Olympics
The association football tournament at the 1984 Summer Olympics started on July 29 and ended on August 11. It was the first Olympic football competition; until the amateur-only rule had favored socialist countries from Eastern Europe whose players were professionals in all but name. However, as agreed with FIFA to preserve the primacy of the World Cup, the Olympic competition was restricted to players with no more than five "A" caps at tournament start, regardless of age; the football tournament was held in four venues: Harvard Stadium Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium Stanford Stadium Rose Bowl, The Gold Medal game between France and Brazil at the Rose Bowl attracted an Olympic Games football attendance record of 101,799. Until 2014 this remained the record attendance for a football game in the United States; this broke the previous Olympics record attendance of 100,000 set at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Australia for the game of the 1956 Olympic Games played between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.
The Rose Bowl attendance would remain the Olympic record until 104,098 attended the game of the 2000 Summer Olympics between Cameroon and Spain at the Stadium Australia in Sydney. The attendance stood as the highest for a football game in the United States until 109,318 saw Manchester United defeat Real Madrid during the 2014 International Champions Cup at the Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor. Sixteen teams qualified for the Olympic tournament after continental qualifying rounds. Three Warsaw Pact countries withdrew as part of the Soviet-led boycott, they were replaced as follows: East Germany were replaced by Norway. USSR were replaced by West Germany. Czechoslovakia were replaced by Italy. Note: As per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws. With five goals, Daniel Xuereb of France, Borislav Cvetković and Stjepan Deverić of Yugoslavia are the top scorers in the tournament.
In total, 84 goals were scored with none of them credited as own goal. 5 goals Daniel Xuereb Borislav Cvetković Stjepan Deverić4 goals Gilmar Popoca3 goals 2 goals 1 goal In the final tournament, a player was suspended for the subsequent match in the competition for getting a red card. The following twelve players were sent off and suspended during the final tournament: Olympic Football Tournament Los Angeles 1984, FIFA.com RSSSF Summary FIFA Technical Report
Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T